Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Anet Režek Jambrak

7 Inactivation of Rhodotorula spp. 74 with Cold Atmospheric Plasma

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak

Abstract:

High voltage electrical discharge is a new technology used for inactivation of pathogen microorganisms. Pathogen yeasts can cause diseases in humans if they are ingested. Nowadays new technologies have become the focus of researching all over the world. Rhodotorula is known as yeast that can cause diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to examine whether the high voltage electrical discharge treatment generated in gas phase has an influence on yeast reduction and recovery of Rhodotorula spp 74 in pure culture. Rhodotorula spp. 74 was treated in 200 mL of model solution. Treatment time (5 and 10 min), frequency (60 and 90 Hz) and injected gas (air or argon 99,99%) were changed. Titanium high voltage needle was used as high voltage electrode (positive polarity) through which air or argon was injected at the gas flow of 0.6 L/min. Experimental design and statistical analyses were obtained by Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA). The best inactivation rate 1.7 log10 reduction was observed after the 10 min of treatment, frequency of 90 Hz and injected air. Also with a longer treatment time inactivation rate was higher. After the 24 h recovery of treated samples was observed. Therefore the further optimization of method is needed to understand the mechanism of yeasts inactivation and cells recovery after the treatment. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project ‘Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods’.

Keywords: rhodotorula spp. 74, electrical discharge plasma, inactivation, stress response

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6 The Effect of Electrical Discharge Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli MG 1655 in Pure Culture

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić

Abstract:

Electrical discharge plasma is a new non-thermal processing technique which is used for the inactivation of contaminating and hazardous microbes in liquids. Plasma is a source of different antimicrobial species including UV photons, charged particles, and reactive species such as superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide and ozone. Escherichia coli was studied as foodborne pathogen. The aim of this work was to examine inactivation effects of electrical discharge plasma treatment on the Escherichia coli MG 1655 in pure culture. Two types of plasma configuration and polarity were used. First configuration was with titanium wire as high voltage needle and another with medical stainless steel needle used to form bubbles in treated volume and titanium wire as high voltage needle. Model solution samples were inoculated with Escerichia coli MG 1655 and treated by electrical discharge plasma at treatment time of 5 and 10 min, and frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz. With the first configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. At the frequency of 90 Hz after 10 minutes inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction. With the second configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.2 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was also 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. In this work it was also examined the formation of biofilm, nucleotide and protein leakage at 260/280 nm, before and after treatment and recuperation of treated samples. Further optimization of method is needed to understand mechanism of inactivation.

Keywords: electrical discharge plasma, escherichia coli MG 1655, inactivation, point-to-plate electrode configuration

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5 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Stulić

Abstract:

Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment, inactivation, stress response

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4 Inactivation of Listeria innocua ATCC 33092 by Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

High voltage electrical discharge plasmas are new nonthermal developing techniques used for water decontamination. To the full understanding of cell inactivation mechanisms, this study brings inactivation, recovery and cellular leakage of L. innocua cells before and after the treatment. Bacterial solution (200 mL) of L. innocua was treated in a glass reactor with a point-to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire, was in the gas phase and grounded electrode was in the liquid phase). Argon was injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min, positive polarity and conductivity of media of 100 µS/cm were chosen to define listed parameters. With a longer treatment time inactivation was higher as well as the increase in cellular leakage. Despite total inactivation recovery of cells occurred probably because of a high leakage of proteins, compared to lower leakage of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). In order to define mechanisms of inactivation further research is needed.

Keywords: Listeria innocua ATCC 33092, inactivation, gas phase plasma, cellular leakage, recovery of cells

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3 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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2 Computerized Scoring System: A Stethoscope to Understand Consumer's Emotion through His or Her Feedback

Authors: Chen Yang, Jun Hu, Ping Li, Lili Xue

Abstract:

Most companies pay careful attention to consumer feedback collection, so it is popular to find the ‘feedback’ button of all kinds of mobile apps. Yet it is much more changeling to analyze these feedback texts and to catch the true feelings of a consumer regarding either a problem or a complimentary of consumers who hands out the feedback. Especially to the Chinese content, it is possible that; in one context the Chinese feedback expresses positive feedback, but in the other context, the same Chinese feedback may be a negative one. For example, in Chinese, the feedback 'operating with loudness' works well with both refrigerator and stereo system. Apparently, this feedback towards a refrigerator shows negative feedback; however, the same feedback is positive towards a stereo system. By introducing Bradley, M. and Lang, P.'s Affective Norms for English Text (ANET) theory and Bucci W.’s Referential Activity (RA) theory, we, usability researchers at Pingan, are able to decipher the feedback and to find the hidden feelings behind the content. We subtract 2 disciplines ‘valence’ and ‘dominance’ out of 3 of ANET and 2 disciplines ‘concreteness’ and ‘specificity’ out of 4 of RA to organize our own rating system with a scale of 1 to 5 points. This rating system enables us to judge the feelings/emotion behind each feedback, and it works well with both single word/phrase and a whole paragraph. The result of the rating reflects the strength of the feeling/emotion of the consumer when he/she is typing the feedback. In our daily work, we first require a consumer to answer the net promoter score (NPS) before writing the feedback, so we can determine the feedback is positive or negative. Secondly, we code the feedback content according to company problematic list, which contains 200 problematic items. In this way, we are able to collect the data that how many feedbacks left by the consumer belong to one typical problem. Thirdly, we rate each feedback based on the rating system mentioned above to illustrate the strength of the feeling/emotion when our consumer writes the feedback. In this way, we actually obtain two kinds of data 1) the portion, which means how many feedbacks are ascribed into one problematic item and 2) the severity, how strong the negative feeling/emotion is when the consumer is writing this feedback. By crossing these two, and introducing the portion into X-axis and severity into Y-axis, we are able to find which typical problem gets the high score in both portion and severity. The higher the score of a problem has, the more urgent a problem is supposed to be solved as it means more people write stronger negative feelings in feedbacks regarding this problem. Moreover, by introducing hidden Markov model to program our rating system, we are able to computerize the scoring system and are able to process thousands of feedback in a short period of time, which is efficient and accurate enough for the industrial purpose.

Keywords: computerized scoring system, feeling/emotion of consumer feedback, referential activity, text mining

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1 Benefits of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) Method for Preparation of Transparent Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO) Thin Films

Authors: Pavel Baroch, Jiri Rezek, Michal Prochazka, Tomas Kozak, Jiri Houska

Abstract:

Transparent semiconducting amorphous IGZO films have attracted great attention due to their excellent electrical properties and possible utilization in thin film transistors or in photovoltaic applications as they show 20-50 times higher mobility than that of amorphous silicon. It is also known that the properties of IGZO films are highly sensitive to process parameters, especially to oxygen partial pressure. In this study we have focused on the comparison of properties of transparent semiconducting amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films prepared by conventional sputtering methods and those prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) method. Furthermore we tried to optimize electrical and optical properties of the IGZO thin films and to investigate possibility to apply these coatings on thermally sensitive flexible substrates. We employed dc, pulsed dc, mid frequency sine wave and HiPIMS power supplies for magnetron deposition. Magnetrons were equipped with sintered ceramic InGaZnO targets. As oxygen vacancies are considered to be the main source of the carriers in IGZO films, it is expected that with the increase of oxygen partial pressure number of oxygen vacancies decreases which results in the increase of film resistivity. Therefore in all experiments we focused on the effect of oxygen partial pressure, discharge power and pulsed power mode on the electrical, optical and mechanical properties of IGZO thin films and also on the thermal load deposited to the substrate. As expected, we have observed a very fast transition between low- and high-resistivity films depending on oxygen partial pressure when deposition using conventional sputtering methods/power supplies have been utilized. Therefore we established and utilized HiPIMS sputtering system for enlargement of operation window for better control of IGZO thin film properties. It is shown that with this system we are able to effectively eliminate steep transition between low and high resistivity films exhibited by DC mode of sputtering and the electrical resistivity can be effectively controlled in the wide resistivity range of 10-² to 10⁵ Ω.cm. The highest mobility of charge carriers (up to 50 cm2/V.s) was obtained at very low oxygen partial pressures. Utilization of HiPIMS also led to significant decrease in thermal load deposited to the substrate which is beneficial for deposition on the thermally sensitive and flexible polymer substrates. Deposition rate as a function of discharge power and oxygen partial pressure was also systematically investigated and the results from optical, electrical and structure analysis will be discussed in detail. Most important result which we have obtained demonstrates almost linear control of IGZO thin films resistivity with increasing of oxygen partial pressure utilizing HiPIMS mode of sputtering and highly transparent films with low resistivity were prepared already at low pO2. It was also found that utilization of HiPIMS technique resulted in significant improvement of surface smoothness in reactive mode of sputtering (with increasing of oxygen partial pressure).

Keywords: charge carrier mobility, HiPIMS, IGZO, resistivity

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