Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: myoglobin

5 Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules: A Tool for Analysis of Protein Structures

Authors: Yuting Wu, Faraz Choudhury, Daniel Benjamin, James Whalin, Joshua Blatz, Leon Shohet, Michael Sussman, Mark Richards

Abstract:

Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules (PLIMB) has been developed as a technology, which, together with mass spectrometry, measures three-dimensional structural characteristics of proteins. This technique uses hydroxyl radicals generated by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge to react with the solvent-accessible side chains of protein in an aqueous solution. In this work, we investigate the three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin using PLIMB. Additional modifications to these proteins, such as oxidation, fragmentations, and conformational changes caused by PLIMB are also explored. These results show that PLIMB, coupled with mass spectrometry, is an effective way to determine solvent access to hemoproteins. Furthermore, we show that many factors, including pH and the electrical parameters used to generate the plasma, have a significant influence on solvent accessibility.

Keywords: plasma, hemoglobin, myoglobin, solvent access

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4 Raman Spectroscopic of Cardioprotective Mechanism During the Metabolic Inhibition of Heart Cells

Authors: A. Almohammedi, A. J. Hudson, N. M. Storey

Abstract:

Following ischaemia/reperfusion injury, as in a myocardial infraction, cardiac myocytes undergo oxidative stress which leads to several potential outcomes including; necrotic or apoptotic cell death or dysregulated calcium homeostasis or disruption of the electron transport chain. Several studies have shown that nitric oxide donors protect cardiomyocytes against ischemia and reperfusion. However until present, the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is not fully understood and has not been investigated before using Raman spectroscopy. For these reasons, the aim of this study was to develop a novel technique, pre-resonance Raman spectroscopy, to investigate the mechanism of cardioprotective effect of nitric oxide donor in isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes exposed to metabolic inhibition and re-energisation. The results demonstrated the first time that Raman microspectroscopy technique has the capability to monitor the metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes and to monitor the effectiveness of cardioprotection by nitric oxide donor prior to metabolic inhibition of cardiomyocytes. Metabolic inhibition and reenergisation were used in this study to mimic the low and high oxygen levels experienced by cells during ischaemic and reperfusion treatments. A laser wavelength of 488 nm used in this study has been found to provide the most sensitive means of observe the cellular mechanisms of myoglobin during nitric oxide donor preconditioning, metabolic inhibition and re-energisation and did not cause any damage to the cells. The data also highlight the considerably different cellular responses to metabolic inhibition to ischaemia. Moreover, the data has been shown the relationship between the release of myoglobin and chemical ischemia where that the release of myoglobin from the cell only occurred if a cell did not recover contractility.

Keywords: ex vivo biospectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, biophotonics, cardiomyocytes, ischaemia / reperfusion injury, cardioprotection, nitric oxide donor

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3 Factors Associated with Acute Kidney Injury in Multiple Trauma Patients with Rhabdomyolysis

Authors: Yong Hwang, Kang Yeol Suh, Yundeok Jang, Tae Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis and the release of intracellular muscle constituents into the circulation. Acute kidney injury is a potential complication of severe rhabdomyolysis and the prognosis is substantially worse if renal failure develops. We try to identify the factors that were predictive of AKI in severe trauma patients with rhabdomyolysis. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the emergency department of a level Ⅰ trauma center. Patients enrolled that initial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were higher than 1000 IU with acute multiple trauma, and more than 18 years older from Oct. 2012 to June 2016. We collected demographic data (age, gender, length of hospital day, and patients’ outcome), laboratory data (ABGA, lactate, hemoglobin. hematocrit, platelet, LDH, myoglobin, liver enzyme, and BUN/Cr), and clinical data (Injury Mechanism, RTS, ISS, AIS, and TRISS). The data were compared and analyzed between AKI and Non-AKI group. Statistical analyses were performed using IMB SPSS 20.0 statistics for Window. Results: Three hundred sixty-four patients were enrolled that AKI group were ninety-six and non-AKI group were two hundred sixty-eight. The base excess (HCO3), AST/ALT, LDH, and myoglobin in AKI group were significantly higher than non-AKI group from laboratory data (p ≤ 0.05). The injury severity score (ISS), revised Trauma Score (RTS), Abbreviated Injury Scale 3 and 4 (AIS 3 and 4) were showed significant results in clinical data. The patterns of CPK level were increased from first and second day, but slightly decreased from third day in both group. Seven patients had received hemodialysis treatment despite the bleeding risk and were survived in AKI group. Conclusion: We recommend that HCO3, CPK, LDH, and myoglobin should be checked and be concerned about ISS, RTS, AIS with injury mechanism at the early stage of treatment in the emergency department.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, emergencies, multiple trauma, rhabdomyolysis

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2 Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles and Its Analytical Applications

Authors: Eman Alzahrani

Abstract:

Efficient extraction of proteins by removing interfering materials is necessary in proteomics, since most instruments cannot handle such contaminated sample matrices directly. In this study, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS-MNPs) for purification of myoglobin were successfully fabricated. First, chitosan (CS) was prepared by a deacetylation reaction during its extraction from shrimp-shell waste. Second, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised, using the coprecipitation method, from aqueous Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt solutions by the addition of a base under an inert atmosphere, followed by modification of the surface of MNPs with chitosan. The morphology of the formed nanoparticles, which were about 23 nm in average diameter, was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), which showed the naked magnetic nanoparticles have a spinel structure and the surface modification did not result in phase change of the Fe3O4. The coating of MNPs was also demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The adsorption behaviour of MNPs and CS-MNPs towards myoglobin was investigated. It was found that the difference in adsorption capacity between MNPs and CS-MNPs was larger for CS-MNPs. This result makes CS-MNPs good adsorbents and attractive for using in protein extraction from biological samples.

Keywords: chitosan, magnetic nanoparticles, coprecipitation, adsorption

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1 Foslip Loaded and CEA-Affimer Functionalised Silica Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Yazan S. Khaled, Shazana Shamsuddin, Jim Tiernan, Mike McPherson, Thomas Hughes, Paul Millner, David G. Jayne

Abstract:

Introduction: There is a need for real-time imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) to allow tailored surgery to the disease stage. Fluorescence guided laparoscopic imaging of primary colorectal cancer and the draining lymphatics would potentially bring stratified surgery into clinical practice and realign future CRC management to the needs of patients. Fluorescent nanoparticles can offer many advantages in terms of intra-operative imaging and therapy (theranostic) in comparison with traditional soluble reagents. Nanoparticles can be functionalised with diverse reagents and then targeted to the correct tissue using an antibody or Affimer (artificial binding protein). We aimed to develop and test fluorescent silica nanoparticles and targeted against CRC using an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Affimer (Aff). Methods: Anti-CEA and control Myoglobin Affimer binders were subcloned into the expressing vector pET11 followed by transformation into BL21 Star™ (DE3) E.coli. The expression of Affimer binders was induced using 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Cells were harvested, lysed and purified using nickle chelating affinity chromatography. The photosensitiser Foslip (soluble analogue of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin) was incorporated into the core of silica nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsion technique. Anti-CEA or control Affs were conjugated to silica nanoparticles surface using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo SMCC) chemical linker. Binding of CEA-Aff or control nanoparticles to colorectal cancer cells (LoVo, LS174T and HC116) was quantified in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results: The molecular weights of the obtained band of Affimers were ~12.5KDa while the diameter of functionalised silica nanoparticles was ~80nm. CEA-Affimer targeted nanoparticles demonstrated 9.4, 5.8 and 2.5 fold greater fluorescence than control in, LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.002) for the single slice analysis. A similar pattern of successful CEA-targeted fluorescence was observed in the maximum image projection analysis, with CEA-targeted nanoparticles demonstrating 4.1, 2.9 and 2.4 fold greater fluorescence than control particles in LoVo, LS174T, and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.0002). There was no significant difference in fluorescence for CEA-Affimer vs. CEA-Antibody targeted nanoparticles. Conclusion: We are the first to demonstrate that Foslip-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimers via SMCC allowed tumour cell-specific fluorescent targeting in vitro, and had shown sufficient promise to justify testing in an animal model of colorectal cancer. CEA-Affimer appears to be a suitable targeting molecule to replace CEA-Antibody. Targeted silica nanoparticles loaded with Foslip photosensitiser is now being optimised to drive photodynamic killing, via reactive oxygen generation.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, silica nanoparticles, Affimers, antibodies, imaging

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