Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: oil repellency

14 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan


New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, elastane, water repellency, oil repellency

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13 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan


In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

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12 The Effect of Four Local Plant Extract on the Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L.

Authors: Banaz Sdiq Abdulla


Four local species (Allium sativum, Capsicum annum, Anethum graveolens, and Ocimum basilicum) were evaluated in the laboratory of Biolog Department, College of Education, for their ability to protect stored rice from the infection by weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Aqueous extracts of the plant species were applied as direct admixture of three concentrations levels of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% (W/V) to assess for mortality, adult emergence, and repellency and weight losses. The results showed that Al. sativum extracts was the most effective as it gave the highest mortality (90%)at 5% concentration followed by Capsicum annum (80%) on the 4th day post treatment, the result showed that the plant extract of different concentrations exhibited different level of reduction in adult emergence and different repellency of adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Allium sativum recorded the lowest mean number of adult emergence (8) followed by Capsicum annum (10) at 5% concentration, while Capsicum annum was found to be revealed complete repellent agent (100%) repellency on the 6th hours against Sitophilus oryzae followed by Allium sativum and Anethum graveolens (81.8%). There was a significant (P>0.05) reduction in the weight lossed by the weevils with less damaged recorded on grain treated with Allium sativum and Capsicum annum (1.6%) and (2.3%) respectively.

Keywords: plant extraction, rice, protectant, pest

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11 Insecticidal and Repellent Efficacy of Clove and Lemongrass Oils Against Museum Pest, Lepisma Saccharina (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae)

Authors: Suboohi Nasrin, MHD. Shahid, Abduraheem K.


India is a tropical country, and it is estimated that biological and abiological agents are the major factors in the destruction and deterioration of archival materials like herbarium, paper, cellulose, bookbinding, etc. Silverfish, German Cockroaches, Termites, Booklice, Tobacco beetle and Carpet beetles are the common insect's pests in the museum, which causes deterioration to collections of museum specimens. Among them, silverfish is one of the most notorious pests and primarily responsible for the deterioration of Archival materials. So far, the investigation has been carried to overcome this existing problem as different management strategies such as chemical insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, nematicides, etc., have been applied. Moreover, Synthetic molecules lead to affect the ecological balance, have a detrimental effects on human health, reduce the beneficial microbial flora and fauna, etc. With a view, numbers of chemicals have been banned and advised not to be used due to their long-lasting persistency in soil ecosystem, water and carcinogenic. That’s why the authors used natural products with biocidal activity, cost-effective and eco-friendly approaches. In this study, various concentrations (30, 60 and 90 ml/L) of clove and lemongrass essential oil at different treatment duration (30, 60, 90 and 120-minutes) were investigated to test its properties as a silverfish repellent and insecticidal effect. The result of two ways ANOVA revealed that the mortality was significantly influenced by oil concentration, treatment duration and interaction between two independent factors was also found significant. The mortality rate increased with increasing the oil concentration in clove oil, and 100 % mortality was recorded in 0.9 ml at 120-minute. It was also observed that the treatment duration has the highest effect on the mortality rate of silverfish. The clove oil had the greatest effect on the silverfish in comparison to lemongrass. While in the case of percentage, repellency of adult silverfish was oil concentration and treatment duration-dependent, i.e., increase in concentration and treatment duration resulted in higher repellency percentage. The clove oil was found more effective, showing maximum repellency of 80.00% at 0.9ml/cm2 (highest) concentration, and in lemongrass highest repellency was observed at 33.4% at 0.9 ml/cm2 concentration in the treated area.

Keywords: adult silverfish, oils, oil concentration, treatment duration, mortality (%) and repellency

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10 Mosquito Repellent Finishing of Cotton Using Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Seed Oil Extract

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Tekalgn Gebremedhin Belay, Abrehaley Hagos Gebremariam


Mosquito repellent textiles are one of the most growing ways to advance the textile field by providing the needed characteristics of protecting against mosquitoes, especially in the tropical areas. These types of textiles ensure the protection of human beings from the mosquitoes and the mosquito-borne disease includes malaria, filariasis and dengue fever. In this work Schinus Molle oil (pepper tree oil) was used for mosquito repellent finish as a preformatted thing. This study focused on the penetration of mosquito repellent finish in textile applications as well as nature based alternatives to commercial chemical mosquito repellents in the market. Suitable techniques and materials to achieve mosquito repellency are discussed and pointed out according to our project. In this study textile, sample was treated with binder and schinus oil. The different property has been studied for effective mosquito repellency.

Keywords: cotton, Schinus molle seed oil, mosquito repellent, mosquito-borne diseases

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9 Antagonistic Effect of Indigenous Plant Extracts toward Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus laetus

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq Shahid, Ali Hassan, Umm-e- Rubab, Muhammad Nadeem


Insecticidal property of plant extracts was assessed toward dusky bug of cotton. Plant extracts consisted of bari pata (Ziziphus jajuba), Ak (Calotropis gigantean), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Bakine (Melia azedarach),Kanar (Nerium oleander),Kurtuma (Mitragyna speciosa) and one Control was also included with distilled water treatment. Forced feeding experiment was used to determine the antibiotic effect of bug plant extracts on dusky bug whereas Multi-choice experiment to determine the antixenosis/ repellent property of botanicals. It is evident from the results that mortality and antibiosis percentage of dusky bug due to the use of botanicals ranged from 15-95% and 20-87.3% respectively that was maximum in tobacoo extract followed by bakain and kurtama, minimum was on Ak, kanair and bakain extract. Non preference ranged from 14.28 to 85.7 where maximum non preference of dusky bug was found on bakain and kurtama followed by ak and kanair however minimum was on Bari pata extract. It was further found that local plant extract possessed insecticidal property toward dusky bug as well as also possesses repellency effect toward dusky bug, thus should be included in integrated pest management program of cotton in order to minimize the ill effects of pesticides it is compulsory to adopt eco-friendly methods of insect pest management.

Keywords: botanical extract, insecticidal and repellency activity, Gossypium hirsutum, oxycarenus laetus

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8 Water Repellent Finishing of Cotton: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan


Fabrics can be treated to equip them with certain functional properties in which water repellency is one of the important functional effects. In this study, commercial water repellent agent was used under different application conditions to cotton fabric. Finally, the water repellent effect was evaluated by standard testing method. Thus, the aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of water repellent finishing to cotton fabric and the results could provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, water repellent, textiles, cotton

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7 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 7075

Authors: Nauman A. Siddiqui


High performance requirement of aircrafts and marines industry demands to cater major industrial problems like wetting, high-speed efficiency, and corrosion resistance. These problems can be resolved by producing the hydrophobic surfaces on the metal substrate. By anodization process, the surface of AA 7075 has been modified and achieved a rough surface with a porous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) structure at nano-level. This surface modification process reduces the surface contact energy and increases the liquid contact angle which ultimately enhances the anti-icing properties. Later the Silane and Polyurethane (PU) coatings on the anodized surface have produced a contact angle of 130°. The results showed a good water repellency and self-cleaning properties. Using SEM analysis, micrographs revealed the round nano-porous oxide structure on the substrate. Therefore this technique can help in increasing the speed efficiency by reducing the friction with the outer interaction and can also be declared as a green technique since it is user-friendly.

Keywords: AA 7075, hydrophobicity, silanes, polyurethane, anodization

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6 Effect of Cabbage and Cauliflower Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds on Foraging Response of Plutella xylostella

Authors: Sumbul Farhat, Pratyay Vaibhav, Sarah Jain, Kapinder Kumar, Archna Kumar


The Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a major pest of cole crops that causes approximately 50% loss in global production. The utilization of inorganic pesticides is reflected in the development of resistance to this pest. Thus, there is a great need for an eco-friendly, sustainable strategy for the control of this pest. Although this pest, several natural enemies are reported worldwide, none of them can control it efficiently. Therefore, a proposed study is planned to understand the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mediated signaling interaction mechanism of the plant, pest, and natural enemy. For VOCs collection during different deployment stages of Cabbage POI, Green Ball, Pusa Cabbage, Cabbage Local, Snowball 16, Kanchan Plus, Pusa Meghna, Farm Sona Hybrid F1, and Samridhi F1 Hybrid, the Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed. Characterization of VOCs was conducted by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The impact of collected VOCs was assessed through Y-Tube Bioassays. The results indicate that the Cabbage variety Green Ball shows maximum repellency for P. xylostella (-100%). The cues present in this variety may be exploited for efficient management of P. xylostella in the cole crop ecosystem.

Keywords: Plutella xylostella, cole crops, volatile organic compounds, GC-MS, Green Ball

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5 Development of Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabrics and Their Functional Properties

Authors: Muhammad Zaman Khan, Vijay Baheti, Jiri Militky


The present study is focused on the development of multifunctional cotton fabric while having good physiological comfort properties. The functional properties developed include superhydrophobicity (Lotus effect) and UV protection. For this, TiO₂ nanoparticles along with fluorocarbon and organic-inorganic binder have been used to optimize the multifunctional properties. Deposition of TiO₂ nanoparticles with water repellent finish on cotton fabric has been carried out using the pad dry cure method at fix parameters. The morphology and elemental composition of as-deposited particles have been studied by using SEM and EDS. The chemical composition of nanoparticles was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The treated samples exhibited excellent water repellency and UV protection factor. The study of the comfort properties of fabric showed that it had excellent physiological comfort properties. Optimized concentration of water repellent chemical (50g/l) was used in formulations with TiO₂ nanoparticles and organic-inorganic binder. Four formulations were prepared according to the design of the experiment. The formulations were applied to the cotton fabric by roller padding at room temperature (15–20°C). Surface morphology was investigated via SEM images. EDS analysis was also carried out to analyze the composition and atomic percentage of elements. The water contact angle (WCA) of cotton fabric increases with increase in TiO₂ nanoparticles concentration and reaches its maximum value (157°) when the concentration of TiO₂ is 20g/l. The water sliding angle (WSA) decreases and gains minimum value at the same concentration of TiO₂ at which WCA is highest. It was seen samples treated with formulations of TiO₂ nanoparticles exhibits excellent UPF, UV-A and UV-B blocking. However, there was no significant deterioration of air permeability. The water vapor permeability was also slightly decreased (4%) but is acceptable. It can be concluded that there is no significant change in both air and water vapor permeability after nanoparticles coating on the surface of the cotton fabric. The coated cotton fabric has little effect on the stiffness. The stiffness of coated samples was not increased significantly; thus comfort of cotton fabric is not decreased. This functionalized cotton fabric also exhibits good physiological comfort properties. ''The authors are also thankful to student grant competition 21312 provided at Technical University of Liberec''.

Keywords: comfort, functional, nanoparticles, UV protective

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4 Wettability of Superhydrophobic Polymer Layers Filled with Hydrophobized Silica on Glass

Authors: Diana Rymuszka, Konrad Terpiłowski, Lucyna Hołysz, Elena Goncharuk, Iryna Sulym


Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely high water repellency. The commonly accepted basic criterion for such surfaces is a water contact angle larger than 150°, low contact angle hysteresis and low sliding angle. These surfaces are of special interest, because properties such as anti-sticking, anti-contamination and self-cleaning are expected. These properties are attractive for many applications such as anti-sticking of snow for antennas and windows, anti-biofouling paints for boats, waterproof clothing, self-cleaning windshields for automobiles, dust-free coatings or metal refining. The various methods for the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces since last two decades have been reported, such as phase separation, electrochemical deposition, template method, plasma method, chemical vapor deposition, wet chemical reaction, sol-gel processing, lithography and so on. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of modified colloidal silica, used as a filler, on the hydrophobicity of the polymer film deposited on the glass support activated with plasma. On prepared surfaces water advancing (ӨA) and receding (ӨR) contact angles were measured and then their total apparent surface free energy was determined using the contact angle hysteresis approach (CAH). The structures of deposited films were observed with the help of an optical microscope. Topographies of selected films were also determined using an optical profilometer. It was found that plasma treatment influence glass surface wetting and energetic properties that is observed in higher adhesion between polymer/filler film and glass support. Using the colloidal silica particles as a filler for the polymer thin film deposited on the glass support, it is possible to produce strongly adhering layers of superhydrophobic properties. The best superhydrophobic properties were obtained for surfaces of the film glass/polimer + modified silica covered in 89 and 100%. The advancing contact angle measured on these surfaces amounts above 150° that leads to under 2 mJ/m2 value of the apparent surface free energy. Such films may have many practical applications, among others, as dust-free coatings or anticorrosion protection.

Keywords: contact angle, plasma, superhydrophobic, surface free energy

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3 A Novel Nanocomposite Membrane Designed for the Treatment of Oil/Gas Produced Water

Authors: Zhaoyang Liu, Detao Qin, Darren Delai Sun


The onshore production of oil and gas (for example, shale gas) generates large quantities of wastewater, referred to be ‘produced water’, which contains high contents of oils and salts. The direct discharge of produced water, if not appropriately treated, can be toxic to the environment and human health. Membrane filtration has been deemed as an environmental-friendly and cost-effective technology for treating oily wastewater. However, conventional polymeric membranes have their drawbacks of either low salt rejection rate or high membrane fouling tendency when treating oily wastewater. Recent years, forward osmosis (FO) membrane filtration has emerged as a promising technology with its unique advantages of low operation pressure and less membrane fouling tendency. However, until now there is still no report about FO membranes specially designed and fabricated for treating the oily and salty produced water. In this study, a novel nanocomposite FO membrane was developed specially for treating oil- and salt-polluted produced water. By leveraging the recent advance of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this nanocomposite FO membrane was designed to be made of double layers: an underwater oleophobic selective layer on top of a nanomaterial infused polymeric support layer. Wherein, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were selected to add into the polymeric support layer because adding GO nanosheets can optimize the pore structures of the support layer, thus potentially leading to high water flux for FO membranes. In addition, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel was selected as the selective layer because hydrated and chemically-crosslinked PVA hydrogel is capable of simultaneously rejecting oil and salt. After nanocomposite FO membranes were fabricated, the membrane structures were systematically characterized with the instruments of TEM, FESEM, XRD, ATR-FTIR, surface zeta-potential and Contact angles (CA). The membrane performances for treating produced waters were tested with the instruments of TOC, COD and Ion chromatography. The working mechanism of this new membrane was also analyzed. Very promising experimental results have been obtained. The incorporation of GO nanosheets can reduce internal concentration polarization (ICP) effect in the polymeric support layer. The structural parameter (S value) of the new FO membrane is reduced by 23% from 265 ± 31 μm to 205 ± 23 μm. The membrane tortuosity (τ value) is decreased by 20% from 2.55 ± 0.19 to 2.02 ± 0.13 μm, which contributes to the decrease of S value. Moreover, the highly-hydrophilic and chemically-cross-linked hydrogel selective layer present high antifouling property under saline oil/water emulsions. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane possesses three times higher water flux, higher removal efficiencies for oil (>99.9%) and salts (>99.7% for multivalent ions), and significantly lower membrane fouling tendency (<10%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a nanocomposite FO membrane with the combined merits of high salt rejection, high oil repellency and high water flux for treating onshore oil/gas produced waters. Due to its outstanding performance and ease of fabrication, this novel nanocomposite FO membrane possesses great application potential in wastewater treatment industry.

Keywords: nanocomposite, membrane, polymer, graphene oxide

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2 Superoleophobic Nanocellulose Aerogel Membrance as Bioinspired Cargo Carrier on Oil by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: Zulkifli, I. W. Eltara, Anawati


Understanding the complementary roles of surface energy and roughness on natural nonwetting surfaces has led to the development of a number of biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces, which exhibit apparent contact angles with water greater than 150 degrees and low contact angle hysteresis. However, superoleophobic surfaces—those that display contact angles greater than 150 degrees with organic liquids having appreciably lower surface tensions than that of water—are extremely rare. In addition to chemical composition and roughened texture, a third parameter is essential to achieve superoleophobicity, namely, re-entrant surface curvature in the form of overhang structures. The overhangs can be realized as fibers. Superoleophobic surfaces are appealing for example, antifouling, since purely superhydrophobic surfaces are easily contaminated by oily substances in practical applications, which in turn will impair the liquid repellency. On the other studied have demonstrate that such aqueous nanofibrillar gels are unexpectedly robust to allow formation of highly porous aerogels by direct water removal by freeze-drying, they are flexible, unlike most aerogels that suffer from brittleness, and they allow flexible hierarchically porous templates for functionalities, e.g. for electrical conductivity. No crosslinking, solvent exchange nor supercritical drying are required to suppress the collapse during the aerogel preparation, unlike in typical aerogel preparations. The aerogel used in current work is an ultralight weight solid material composed of native cellulose nanofibers. The native cellulose nanofibers are cleaved from the self-assembled hierarchy of macroscopic cellulose fibers. They have become highly topical, as they are proposed to show extraordinary mechanical properties due to their parallel and grossly hydrogen bonded polysaccharide chains. We demonstrate that superoleophobic nanocellulose aerogels coating by sol-gel method, the aerogel is capable of supporting a weight nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than the weight of the aerogel itself. The load support is achieved by surface tension acting at different length scales: at the macroscopic scale along the perimeter of the carrier, and at the microscopic scale along the cellulose nanofibers by preventing soaking of the aerogel thus ensuring buoyancy. Superoleophobic nanocellulose aerogels have recently been achieved using unmodified cellulose nanofibers and using carboxy methylated, negatively charged cellulose nanofibers as starting materials. In this work, the aerogels made from unmodified cellulose nanofibers were subsequently treated with fluorosilanes. To complement previous work on superoleophobic aerogels, we demonstrate their application as cargo carriers on oil, gas permeability, plastrons, and drag reduction, and we show that fluorinated nanocellulose aerogels are high-adhesive superoleophobic surfaces. We foresee applications including buoyant, gas permeable, dirt-repellent coatings for miniature sensors and other devices floating on generic liquid surfaces.

Keywords: superoleophobic, nanocellulose, aerogel, sol-gel

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1 Enzymatic Determination of Limonene in Red Clover Genotypes

Authors: Andrés Quiroz, Emilio Hormazabal, Ana Mutis, Fernando Ortega, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Leonardo Parra


Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage species in temperate regions of the world. The main limitation of this species worldwide is a lack of persistence related to the high mortality of plants due to a complex of biotic and abiotic factors, determining a life span of two or three seasons. Because of the importance of red clover in Chile, a red clover breeding program was started at INIA Carillanca Research Center in 1989, with the main objective of improving the survival of plants, forage yield, and persistence. The main selection criteria for selecting new varieties have been based on agronomical parameters and biotic factors. The main biotic factor associated with red clover mortality in Chile is Hylastinus obscurus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Both larval and adults feed on the roots, causing weakening and subsequent death of clover plants. Pesticides have not been successful for controlling infestations of this root borer. Therefore, alternative strategies for controlling this pest are a high priority for red clover producers. Currently, the role of semiochemical in the interaction between H. obscurus and red clover plants has been widely studied for our group. Specifically, from the red clover foliage has been identified limonene is eliciting repellency from the root borer. Limonene is generated in the plant from two independent biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonic acid, and deoxyxylulose pathway. Mevalonate pathway enzymes are localized in the cytosol, whereas the deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway enzymes are found in plastids. In summary, limonene can be determinated by enzymatic bioassay using GPP as substrate and by limonene synthase expression. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to study genetic variation of limonene in material provided by INIA´s Red Clover breeding program. Protein extraction was carried out homogenizing 250 mg of leave tissue and suspended in 6 mL of extraction buffer (PEG 1500, PVP-30, 20 mM MgCl2 and antioxidants) and stirred on ice for 20 min. After centrifugation, aliquots of 2.5 mL were desalted on PD-10 columns, resulting in a final volume of 3.5 mL. Protein determination was performed according to Bradford with BSA as a standard. Monoterpene synthase assays were performed with 50 µL of protein extracts transferred into gas-tight 2 mL crimp seal vials after addition of 4 µL MgCl₂ and 41 µL assay buffer. The assay was started by adding 5 µL of a GPP solution. The mixture was incubated for 30 min at 40 °C. Biosynthesized limonene was quantified in a GC equipped with a chiral column and using synthetic R and S-limonene standards. The enzymatic the production of R and S-limonene from different Superqueli-Carillanca genotypes is shown in this work. Preliminary results showed significant differences in limonene content among the genotypes analyzed. These results constitute an important base for selecting genotypes with a high content of this repellent monoterpene towards H. obscurus.

Keywords: head space, limonene enzymatic determination, red clover, Hylastinus obscurus

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