Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1519

Search results for: vibrational temperatures

1519 Temperature Measurements of Corona Discharge in the SF6-N2 Gas Mixture

Authors: A. Lemzadmi

Abstract:

Rotational and vibrational temperatures of the SF6-N2 gas mixture are spectroscopically measured over a pressure range of 2-14 bars. The spectra obtained of the light emission of the corona discharge were recorded with different values of pressure, voltage and current together with the variation of the position of the tip electrode. The emission of N2 is very dominant for different gas concentration and the second positive system 2S+ is the most important. The convolution method is used for the determination of the temperature. The Rotational temperature measurements of the plasma reveal gas temperatures in the range of 450-650°K and vibrational temperatures in the range of 1800-2200°K.

Keywords: rotational temperatures, corona discharges, SF6-N2 gas mixture, vibrational temperatures

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1518 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

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1517 Vibrational Behavior of Cylindrical Shells in Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Sedrak Vardanyan

Abstract:

The investigation of the vibrational character of magnetic cylindrical shells placed in an axial magnetic field has important practical applications. In this work, we study the vibrational behaviour of such a cylindrical shell by making use of the so-called exact space treatment, which does not assume any hypothesis. We discuss the effects of several practically important boundary conditions on the vibrations of the described setup. We find that, for some cases of boundary conditions, e.g. clamped, simply supported or peripherally earthed, as well as for some values of the wave numbers, the vibrational frequencies of the shell are approximately zero. The theoretical and numerical exploration of this fact confirms that the vibrations are absent or attenuate very rapidly. For all the considered cases, the imaginary part of the frequencies is negative, which implies stability for the vibrational process.

Keywords: bending vibrational frequencies, exact space treatment, free vibrations, magnetic cylindrical shells

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1516 Structural, Elastic, Vibrational and Thermal Properties of Perovskites AHfO3 (a=Ba,Sr,Eu)

Authors: H. Krarcha

Abstract:

The structural, elastic, vibrational and thermal properties of AHfO3 compounds with the cubic perovskites structure have been investigated, by employing a first principles method, using the plane wave pseudo potential calculations (PP-PW), based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the local density approximation (LDA). The optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44), bulk modulus (B), compressibility (b), shear modulus (G), Young’s modulus (Y ), Poisson’s ratio (n), Lame´’s coefficients (m, l), as well as band structure, density of states and electron density distributions are obtained and analyzed in comparison with the available theoretical and experimental data. For the first time the numerical estimates of elastic parameters of the polycrystalline AHfO3 ceramics (in framework of the VoigteReusseHill approximation) are performed. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, by means of total energy versus volume calculations obtained with the FP-LAPW method, is applied to study the thermal and vibrational effects. Predicted temperature and pressure effects on the structural parameters, thermal expansions, heat capacities, and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions.

Keywords: Hafnium, elastic propreties, first principles calculation, perovskite

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1515 Laser Cooling of Internal Degrees of Freedom of Molecules: Cesium Case

Authors: R. Horchani

Abstract:

Optical pumping technique with laser fields combined with photo-association of ultra-cold atoms leads to control on demand the vibrational and/or the rotational population of molecules. Here, we review the basic concepts and main steps should be followed, including the excitation schemes and detection techniques we use to achieve the ro-vibrational cooling of Cs2 molecules. We also discuss the extension of this technique to other molecules. In addition, we present a theoretical model used to support the experiment. These simulations can be widely used for the preparation of various experiments since they allow the optimization of several important experimental parameters.

Keywords: cold molecule, photo-association, optical pumping, vibrational and rotational cooling

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1514 Ab Initio Spectroscopic Study of the Electronic Properties of the (Bana)+ Molecular Ion

Authors: Tahani H. Alluhaybi, Leila Mejrissi

Abstract:

In the present theoretical study, we investigated adiabatically the electronic structure of the (BaNa)+ by the use of the ab initio calculation. We optimized a large atomic GTO basis set for Na and Ba atoms. The (BaNa)+ molecular ion is considered a two-electron thank to a non-empirical pseudo-potentials approach applied to Ba and Na cores with the Core Polarization Potentials operator (CPP). Then, we performed the Full Configuration Interaction (FCI) method. Accordingly, we calculated the adiabatic Potential Energy Curves (PECs) and their spectroscopic constants (well depth De, transition energies Te, the equilibrium distances Re, vibrational constant ⍵e, and anharmonic constant ⍵exe) for 10 electronic states in Σ+ symmetry. Then we determined the vibrational level energies and their spacing, and the electric Permanent Dipole Moments (PDM).

Keywords: Ab initio, dipole moment, non-empirical pseudo-potential, potential energy curves, spectroscopic constants, vibrational energy

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1513 Normal Coordinate Analysis, Molecular Structure, Vibrational, Electronic Spectra, and NMR Investigation of 4-Amino-3-Phenyl-1H-1,2,4-Triazole-5(4H)-Thione by Ab Initio HF and DFT Method

Authors: Khaled Bahgat

Abstract:

In the present work, the characterization of 4-Amino-3-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (APTT) molecule was carried out by quantum chemical method and vibrational spectral techniques. The FT-IR (4000–400 cm_1) and FT-Raman (4000–100 cm_1) spectra of APTT were recorded in solid phase. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of the APTT was recorded in the range of 200–400 nm. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of APTT in the ground state have been calculated by HF and DFT methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational frequency assignments were made by normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology (SQMF). The molecular stability and bond strength were investigated by applying the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelength, HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time depended DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of the molecule were calculated using the gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. Finally, the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, FT-Raman and UV spectra of the title compound which shows better agreement with observed spectra.

Keywords: 4-amino-3-phenyl-1H-1, 2, 4-triazole-5(4H)-thione, vibrational assignments, normal coordinate analysis, quantum mechanical calculations

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1512 Three-Dimensional Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Semi-Spherical Shell

Authors: Yu-Hsi Huang, Ying-Der Tsai

Abstract:

Piezoelectric circular plates can provide out-of-plane vibrational displacements on low frequency and in-plane vibrational displacements on high frequency. Piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, which is double-curvature structure, can induce three-dimensional vibrational displacements over a large frequency range. In this study, three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of piezoelectric semi-spherical shells with free boundary conditions are investigated using three experimental methods and finite element numerical modeling. For the experimental measurements, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) is used to obtain resonant frequencies and radial and azimuthal mode shapes. This optical technique utilizes a full-field and non-contact optical system that measures both the natural frequency and corresponding vibration mode shape simultaneously in real time. The second experimental technique used, laser displacement meter is a point-wise displacement measurement method that determines the resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric shell. An impedance analyzer is used to determine the in-plane resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell. The experimental results of the resonant frequencies and mode shapes for the piezoelectric shell are verified with the result from finite element analysis. Excellent agreement between the experimental measurements and numerical calculation is presented on the three-dimensional vibrational characteristics of the piezoelectric semi-spherical shell.

Keywords: piezoelectric semi-spherical shell, mode shape, resonant frequency, electronic speckle pattern interferometry, radial vibration, azimuthal vibration

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1511 Theoretical Studies on the Formation Constant, Geometry, Vibrational Frequencies and Electronic Properties Dinuclear Molybdenum Complexes

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Behzad Padidaran Moghaddam

Abstract:

In order to measuring dinuclear molybdenum complexes formation constant First,the reactants and the products were optimized separately and then, their frequencies were measured. In next level , with using Hartree-fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) methods ,Theoretical studies on the geometrical parameters, electronic properties and vibrational frequencies of dinuclear molybdenum complexes [C40H44Mo2N2O20] were investigated . These calculations were performed with the B3LYP, BPV86, B3PW91 and HF theoretical method using the LANL2DZ (for Mo’s) + 6-311G (for others) basis sets. To estimate the error rate between theoretical data and experimental data, RSquare , SError and RMS values that according with the theoretical and experimental parameters found out DFT methods has more integration with experimental data compare to HF methods. In addition, through electron specification of compounds, the percentage of atomic orbital’s attendance in making molecular orbital’s, atoms electrical charge, the sustainable energy resulting and also HOMO and LUMO orbital’s energy achieved.

Keywords: geometrical parameters, hydrogen bonding, electronic properties, vibrational frequencies

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1510 Ergonomical Study of Hand-Arm Vibrational Exposure in a Gear Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Santosh Kumar, M. Muralidhar

Abstract:

The term ‘ergonomics’ is derived from two Greek words: ‘ergon’, meaning work and ‘nomoi’, meaning natural laws. Ergonomics is the study of how working conditions, machines and equipment can be arranged in order that people can work with them more efficiently. In this research communication an attempt has been made to study the effect of hand-arm vibrational exposure on the workers of a gear manufacturing plant by comparison of potential Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) symptoms and effect of different exposure levels of vibration on occurrence of CTS in actual industrial environment. Chi square test and correlation analysis have been considered for statistical analysis. From Chi square test, it has been found that the potential CTS symptoms occurrence is significantly dependent on the level of vibrational exposure. Data analysis indicates that 40.51% workers having potential CTS symptoms are exposed to vibration. Correlation analysis reveals that potential CTS symptoms are significantly correlated with exposure to level of vibration from handheld tools and to repetitive wrist movements.

Keywords: CTS symptoms, hand-arm vibration, ergonomics, physical tests

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1509 Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Pumice Based Geoplymer Microstructure

Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Pouneh Abdollahifard, Behzad Mokhtare, Majid Atashafrazeh

Abstract:

Geopolymers are believed to provide good fire resistance. The effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical and microstructural properties of pumice-based geopolymer were investigated in this study. Pumice based geopolymer was exposed to elevated temperatures of 200, 400, 600, and 800 ºC for 3 hours. The residual strength of these specimens was determined after cooling at room temperature and microstructures of these samples were investigated by FTIR and SEM analyses. Specimens which were initially grey turned reddish accompanied by the appearance of cracks as temperatures increased to 600 and 800 ºC.

Keywords: geopolymer, pumice, elevated temperature, SEM, FTIR

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1508 Investigating Optical Properties of Unsaturated Polyurethane Matrix and Its Glass Fiber Composite Under Extreme Temperatures

Authors: Saad Ahmed, Sanjeev Khannaa

Abstract:

Glass fiber reinforced polymers are widely used in structural systems as load-bearing elements at both high and low temperatures. This investigation presents the evaluation of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyurethane under harsh conditions of changing temperature and moisture content. This study Explores how these parameters affect the optical properties of the polymer matrix and the composite. Using the hand layup method, the polyurethane resin was modified by E-glass fibers (15 vol. %) to manufacture fiber-reinforced composite. This work includes the preparation of glass-like polyurethane resin sheets and estimates all light transmittance properties at high and very low temperatures and wet conditions. All-optical properties were retested to evaluate the level of improvement or failure. The results found that when comprising reinforced composite fiber to the unreinforced specimens, the reinforced composite shows a fair optical property at high temperatures and good performance at low temperatures.

Keywords: unsaturated polyurethane, extreme temperatures, light transmittance, haze number

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1507 Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis

Authors: Alejandro Carrasco-Pena, Mahmoud Omer, Nina Orlovskaya

Abstract:

The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.

Keywords: failure, mechanical properties, microstructure, Raman spectroscopy

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1506 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

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1505 Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures

Authors: Pavel Boška, Jan Bomba, Tomáš Beránek, Jiří Procházka

Abstract:

When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.

Keywords: adhesives, bond strength, low temperatures, polyvinyl acetate

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1504 Application of the Extended Kantorovich Method to Size-Dependent Vibrational Analysis of Fully Clamped Rectangular Micro-Plates

Authors: Amir R. Askari, Masoud Tahani

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of size on the vibrational behavior of fully clamped rectangular micro-plates based on the modified couple stress theory (MCST). To this end, a size-dependent Kirchhoff plate model is considered and the equation of motion which accounts for the effect of residual and couple stress components is derived using the Hamilton's principle. The eigenvalue problem associated with the free vibrations of fully clamped micro-plates is extracted and solved analytically using the extended Kantorovich method (EKM). The present findings are compared and validated by available results in the literature and an excellent agreement between them is observed. A parametric study is also conducted to show the significant effects of couple stress components on natural frequencies of fully clamped micro-plates. It is found that the ratio of MCST natural frequencies to those obtained by the classical theory (CT) only depends on the Poisson's ratio of the plate and is totally independent of plate's aspect ratio for cases with no residual stresses.

Keywords: vibrational analysis, modified couple stress theory, fully clamped rectangular micro-plates, extended Kantorovich method.

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1503 Effect of Temperature on the Production of Fructose and Bioethanol from Date’s Syrup using S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859

Authors: M. A. Zeinelabdeen, A. E. Abasaeed, M. H. Gaily, A. K. Sulieman, M. D. Putra

Abstract:

The effect of temperature on the production of fructose and bioethanol from date syrup via selective fermentation by S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859 strain was studied. Various temperatures have been tested (27, 30 and 33 ᵒC). The fermentation experiments were conducted in a water shaker bath at the three temperatures under testing and 120 rpm. The results showed that a high fructose yield can be achieved at all temperatures under testing while the optimal is 27 ᵒC with 84% fructose yield. A high ethanol yield can be obtained for all temperatures under testing. However; the maximum biomass concentration and ethanol yield (86.22%) were obtained at 30 ᵒC.

Keywords: dates, ethanol, fructose, fermentation, S. cerevisiae

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1502 First-Principles Density Functional Study of Nitrogen-Doped P-Type ZnO

Authors: Abdusalam Gsiea, Ramadan Al-habashi, Mohamed Atumi, Khaled Atmimi

Abstract:

We present a theoretical investigation on the structural, electronic properties and vibrational mode of nitrogen impurities in ZnO. The atomic structures, formation and transition energies and vibrational modes of (NO3)i interstitial or NO4 substituting on an oxygen site ZnO were computed using ab initio total energy methods. Based on Local density functional theory, our calculations are in agreement with one interpretation of bound-excition photoluminescence for N-doped ZnO. First-principles calculations show that (NO3)i defects interstitial or NO4 substituting on an Oxygen site in ZnO are important suitable impurity for p-type doping in ZnO. However, many experimental efforts have not resulted in reproducible p-type material with N2 and N2O doping. by means of first-principle pseudo-potential calculation we find that the use of NO or NO2 with O gas might help the experimental research to resolve the challenge of achieving p-type ZnO.

Keywords: DFF, nitrogen, p-type, ZnO

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1501 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Butchi Kameswara Rao Chittem, Rooban Kumar

Abstract:

Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Concrete is believed to have a good fire resistance. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and its constituent materials when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete are reported in literature as effects of elevated temperature on concrete. In this paper results are reported on the behaviour of normal strength concrete and high strength concrete subjected to temperatures 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching. Rebound hammer test was also conducted to study the changes in surface hardness of concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures.

Keywords: normal strength concrete, high-strength concrete, temperature, NDT

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1500 Effects of Surface Roughness on a Unimorph Piezoelectric Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Vibrational Energy Harvester Using Finite Element Method Modeling

Authors: Jean Marriz M. Manzano, Marc D. Rosales, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Maria Theresa G. De Leon

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effects of surface roughness on a cantilever beam vibrational energy harvester. A silicon sample was fabricated using MEMS fabrication processes. When etching silicon using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) at large etch depths, rougher surfaces are observed as a result of increased response in process pressure, amount of coil power and increased helium backside cooling readings. To account for the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of the cantilever beam, finite element method (FEM) modeling was performed using actual roughness data from fabricated samples. It was found that when etching about 550um of silicon, root mean square roughness parameter, Sq, varies by 1 to 3 um (at 100um thick) across a 6-inch wafer. Given this Sq variation, FEM simulations predict an 8 to148 Hz shift in the resonant frequency while having no significant effect on the output power. The significant shift in the resonant frequency implies that careful consideration of surface roughness from fabrication processes must be done when designing energy harvesters.

Keywords: deep reactive ion etching, finite element method, microelectromechanical systems, multiphysics analysis, surface roughness, vibrational energy harvester

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1499 Controlling Excitons Complexes in Two Dimensional MoS₂ Monolayers

Authors: Arslan Usman, Abdul Sattar, Hamid Latif, Afshan Ashfaq, Muhammad Rafique, Martin Koch

Abstract:

Two-dimensional materials have promising applications in optoelectronic and photonics; MoS₂ is the pioneer 2D material in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides. Its optical, optoelectronic, and structural properties are of practical importance along with its exciton dynamics. Exciton, along with exciton complexes, plays a vital role in realizing quantum devices. MoS₂ monolayers were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique on SiO₂ and hBN substrates. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) was used to identify the monolayer, which also reflects the substrate based peak broadening due to screening effects. In-plane and out of plane characteristic vibrational modes E¹₂g and A₁g, respectively, were detected in a different configuration on the substrate. The B-excitons and trions showed a dominant feature at low temperatures due to electron-phonon coupling effects, whereas their energies are separated by 100 meV.

Keywords: 2D materials, photoluminescence, AFM, excitons

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1498 Approaches to Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Subjected to Different Supports, Loadings and Boundary Conditions: A Literature Review

Authors: Fazl E. Ahad, Shi Dongyan, Anees Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Plates are one of the most important structural components used in many industries like aerospace, marine and various other engineering fields and thus motivate designers and engineers to study the vibrational characteristics of these structures. This paper is a review of existing literature on vibration analysis of plates. Focus has been kept on prominent studies related to isotropic plates based on Mindlin plate theory; however few citations on orthotropic plates and higher order shear deformation theories have also been included. All citations are in English language. This review is aimed to provide contemporarily relevant survey of papers on vibrational characteristics of thick plates and will be useful for scientists, designers and researchers to locate important and relevant literature/research quickly.

Keywords: mindlin plates, vibrations, arbitrary boundary conditions, mode shapes, natural frequency

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1497 Calculus of Turbojet Performances for Ideal Case

Authors: S. Bennoud, S. Hocine, H. Slme

Abstract:

Developments in turbine cooling technology play an important role in increasing the thermal efficiency and the power output of recent gas turbines, in particular the turbojets. Advanced turbojets operate at high temperatures to improve thermal efficiency and power output. These temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades in order to give theirs a maximum life period for safe operation. The focused objective of this work is to calculate the turbojet performances, as well as the calculation of turbine blades cooling. The developed application able the calculation of turbojet performances to different altitudes in order to find a point of optimal use making possible to maintain the turbine blades at an acceptable maximum temperature and to limit the local variations in temperatures in order to guarantee their integrity during all the lifespan of the engine.

Keywords: brayton cycle, turbine blades cooling, turbojet cycle, turbojet performances

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1496 Investigation of Dissolution in Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphate Solutions of Gypsum

Authors: Turan Çalban, Nursel Keskin, Sabri Çolak, Soner Kuşlu

Abstract:

Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a mineral that is found in large quantities in the Turkey and in the World. The dissolution of this mineral in the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions has not been studied so far. Investigation of the dissolution and dissolution kinetics gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions will be useful for evaluating of solid wastes containing gypsum. In this study, parameters such as diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration, temperature and stirring speed affecting on the dissolution rate of the gypsum in diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions were investigated. In experimental studies have researched effectiveness of the selected parameters. The dissolution of gypsum were examined in two parts at low and high temperatures. The experimental results were successfully correlated by linear regression using Statistica program. Dissolution curves were evaluated shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. The activation energy was found to be 34.58 kJ/mol and 44.45 kJ/mol for the low and the high temperatures. The dissolution of gypsum was controlled by chemical reaction both low temperatures and high temperatures. Reaction rate expressions of dissolution of gypsum at the low temperatures and the high temperatures controlled by chemical reaction are as follows, respectively. = k1.e-5159.5/T.t = k2.e-5346.8/T.t Where k1 and k2 are constants depending on the diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution concentration, the solid/liquid ratio, the stirring speed and the particle size.

Keywords: diammonium hydrogen phosphate, dissolution kinetics, gypsum, kinetics.

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1495 Performance Evaluation of Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller

Authors: Z. Neffah, L. Merabti, N. Hatraf

Abstract:

Absorption refrigeration technology has been used for cooling purposes over a hundred years. Today, the technology developments have made of the absorption refrigeration an economic and effective alternative to the vapour compression cooling cycle. A parametric study was conducted over the entire admissible ranges of the generator and absorber temperatures. On the other hand, simultaneously raising absorber temperatures was seen to result in deterioration of coefficient of performance. The influence of generator, absorber temperatures, as well as solution concentration on the different performance indicators was also calculated and examined.

Keywords: absorption system, Aqueous solution, chiller, water-lithium bromide

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1494 The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods

Authors: Anna Drzewicz, Marzena Tykarska

Abstract:

The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.

Keywords: helical twist sense, liquid crystals, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy

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1493 Study of the Ambiguity of Effective Hamiltonian for the Fundamental Degenerate States V3 of the Molecule 12CD4

Authors: Ouardi Okkacha, Kaarour Abedlkrim, Meskine Mohamed

Abstract:

The effective Hamiltonians are widely used in molecular spectroscopy for the interpretation of the vibration-rotation spectra. Their construction is an ambiguous procedure due to the existence of unitary transformations that change the effective Hamiltonian but do not change its eigenvalues. As a consequence of this ambiguity, it may happen that some parameters of effective Hamiltonians cannot be recovered from experimental data in a unique way. The type of admissible transformations which keeps the operator form of the effective Hamiltonian unaltered and the number of empirically determinable parameters strongly depend on the symmetry type of a molecule (asymmetric top, spherical top, and so on) and on the degeneracy of the vibrational state. In this work, we report the study of the ambiguity of effective Hamiltonian for the fundamental degenerate states v3 of the Molecule 12CD4.

Keywords: 12CD4, high-resolution infrared spectra, tetrahedral tensorial formalism, vibrational states, rovibrational line position analysis, XTDS, SPVIEW

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1492 Vibrational Spectra and Nonlinear Optical Investigations of a Chalcone Derivative (2e)-3-[4-(Methylsulfanyl) Phenyl]-1-(3-Bromophenyl) Prop-2-En-1-One

Authors: Amit Kumar, Archana Gupta, Poonam Tandon, E. D. D’Silva

Abstract:

Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials are the key materials for the fast processing of information and optical data storage applications. In the last decade, materials showing nonlinear optical properties have been the object of increasing attention by both experimental and computational points of view. Chalcones are one of the most important classes of cross conjugated NLO chromophores that are reported to exhibit good SHG efficiency, ultra fast optical nonlinearities and are easily crystallizable. The basic structure of chalcones is based on the π-conjugated system in which two aromatic rings are connected by a three-carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Due to the overlap of π orbitals, delocalization of electronic charge distribution leads to a high mobility of the electron density. On a molecular scale, the extent of charge transfer across the NLO chromophore determines the level of SHG output. Hence, the functionalization of both ends of the π-bond system with appropriate electron donor and acceptor groups can enhance the asymmetric electronic distribution in either or both ground and excited states, leading to an increased optical nonlinearity. In this research, the experimental and theoretical study on the structure and vibrations of (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(3-bromophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (3Br4MSP) is presented. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the NLO material in the solid phase have been recorded. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were carried out to study the equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared absorbance and Raman scattering activities. The interpretation of vibrational features (normal mode assignments, for instance) has an invaluable aid from DFT calculations that provide a quantum-mechanical description of the electronic energies and forces involved. Perturbation theory allows one to obtain the vibrational normal modes by estimating the derivatives of the Kohn−Sham energy with respect to atomic displacements. The molecular hyperpolarizability β plays a chief role in the NLO properties, and a systematical study on β has been carried out. Furthermore, the first order hyperpolarizability (β) and the related properties such as dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (α) of the title molecule are evaluated by Finite Field (FF) approach. The electronic α and β of the studied molecule are 41.907×10-24 and 79.035×10-24 e.s.u. respectively, indicating that 3Br4MSP can be used as a good nonlinear optical material.

Keywords: DFT, MEP, NLO, vibrational spectra

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1491 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian

Abstract:

Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization

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1490 Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, viscous flow, chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen and non-equilibrium flow

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