Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6639

Search results for: gas-phase plasma treatment

6639 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

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6638 Effects of Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination

Authors: Yong Ho Jeon, Youn Mi Lee, Yong Yoon Lee

Abstract:

Effects of cold plasma treatment on various plant seed germination were studied. The seeds of hot pepper, cucumber, tomato and arabidopsis were exposed to plasma and the plasma was generated in various devices. The germination speed was evaluated compared to an unexposed control. A positive effect on germination speed was observed in all tested seeds but the effects strongly depended on the type of the used plasma device (Argon-DBD, surface-DBD or MARX generator), time of exposure (6s~10min or 1~10shots) and kind of seeds. The SEM images showed that arrays of gold particles along the cell wall were observed on the surface of cucumber seeds showed a germination-accelerating effect by plasma treatment, which was the same as untreated. However, when treated with the high dose plasma, gold particles were not arrayed at the seed surface, it seems that due to the surface etching. This may suggest that the germination is not promoted by etching or damage of surface caused by the plasma treatment. Seedling growth improvement was also observed by indirect plasma treatment. These lead to an important conclusion that the effect of charged particles on plasma play the essential role in plant germination and indirect plasma treatment offers new perspectives for large scale application.

Keywords: cold plasma, cucumber, germination, SEM

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6637 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani

Abstract:

Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

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6636 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

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6635 Enhanced Cell Adhesion on PMMA by Radio Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatment

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Babak Shokri

Abstract:

In this study, PMMA films are modified by oxygen plasma treatment for biomedical applications. The plasma generator is capacitively coupled radio frequency (13.56 MHz) power source. The oxygen pressure and gas flow rate are kept constant at 40 mTorr and 30 sccm, respectively and samples are treated for 2 minutes. Hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of PMMA films are studied before and after treatments in different applied powers (10-80 W). In order to monitor the plasma process, the optical emission spectroscopy is used. The wettability and cellular response of samples are investigated by water contact angle (WCA) analysis and MTT assay, respectively. Also, surface free energy (SFE) variations are studied based on the contact angle measurements of three liquids. It is found that RF oxygen plasma treatment enhances the biocompatibility and also hydrophilicity of PMMA films.

Keywords: cellular response, hydrophilicity, MTT assay, PMMA, RF plasma

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6634 Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment

Authors: Chan Park, Sang-Won Park, Kwi-Dug Yun, Hyun-Pil Lim

Abstract:

Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.

Keywords: NTAPP, SBS, antimicrobial effect, zirconia

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6633 Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles

Authors: Štěpán Hýsek, Milan Podlena, Miloš Pavelek, Matěj Hodoušek, Martin Böhm, Petra Gajdačová

Abstract:

Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.

Keywords: composite, lignocellulosic materials, straw, cold plasma, surface treatment

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6632 Self-Assembled Tin Particles Made by Plasma-Induced Dewetting

Authors: Han Joo Choe, Soon-Ho Kwon, Jung-Joong Lee

Abstract:

Tin particles of various size and distribution were self-assembled by plasma treating tin film deposited on silicon oxide substrates. Plasma treatment was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. A range of ICP power and topographic templated substrates were evaluated to observe changes in particle size and particle distribution. Scanning electron microscopy images of the particles were analyzed using computer software. The evolution of tin film dewetting into particles initiated from the hole nucleation in grain boundaries. Increasing ICP power during plasma treatment produced larger number of particles per area and smaller particle size and particle-size distribution. Topographic templates were also effective in positioning and controlling the size of the particles. By combining the effects of ICP power and topographic templates, particles of similar size and well-ordered distribution were obtained.

Keywords: dewetting, particles, plasma, tin

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6631 Nanostructural Analysis of the Polylactic Acid (PLA) Fibers Functionalized by RF Plasma Treatment

Authors: J. H. O. Nascimento, F. R. Oliveira, K. K. O. S. Silva, J. Neves, V. Teixeira, J. Carneiro

Abstract:

These the aliphatic polyesters such as Polylactic Acid (PLA) in the form of fibers, nanofibers or plastic films, generally possess chemically inert surfaces, free porosity, and surface free energy (ΔG) lesser than 32 mN/m. It is therefore considered a low surface energy material, consequently has a low work of adhesion. For this reason, the products manufactured using these polymers are often subjected to surface treatments in order to change its physic-chemical surface, improving their wettability and the Work of Adhesion (WA). Plasma Radio Frequency low pressure (RF) treatment was performed in order to improve the Work of Adhesion (WA) on PLA fibers. Different parameters, such as, power, ratio of working gas (Argon/Oxygen) and treatment time were used to optimize the plasma conditions to modify the PLA surface properties. With plasma treatment, a significant increase in the work of adhesion on PLA fiber surface was observed. The analysis performed by XPS showed an increase in polar functional groups and the SEM and AFM image revealed a considerable increase in roughness.

Keywords: RF plasma, surface modification, PLA fabric, atomic force macroscopic, Nanotechnology

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6630 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Stulić

Abstract:

Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment, inactivation, stress response

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6629 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak

Abstract:

Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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6628 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Application in Wrinkle-Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabric

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Cotton fibre is a commonly-used natural fibre because of its good fibre strength, high moisture absorption behaviour and minimal static problems. However, one of the main drawbacks of cotton fibre is wrinkling after washing, which is recently overcome by wrinkle-resistant treatment. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) could improve the wrinkle-resistant properties of cotton fibre. Although the BTCA process is an effective method for wrinkle resistant application of cotton fabrics, reduced fabric strength was observed after treatment. Therefore, this paper would explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment under different discharge powers as a pretreatment process to enhance the application of BTCA process on cotton fabric without generating adverse effect. The aim of this study is to provide learning information to the users to know how the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be incorporated in textile finishing process with positive impact.

Keywords: learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, cotton, wrinkle-resistant, BTCA

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6627 Learning Materials for Enhancing Sustainable Colour Fading Process of Fashion Products

Authors: C. W. Kan, H. F. Cheung, Y. S. Lee

Abstract:

This study examines the results of colour fading of cotton fabric by plasma-induced ozone treatment, with an aim to provide learning materials for fashion designers when designing colour fading effects in fashion products. Cotton knitted fabrics were dyed with red reactive dye with a colour depth of 1.5% and were subjected to ozone generated by a commercially available plasma machine for colour fading. The plasma-induced ozone treatment was conducted with different parameters: (i) air concentration = 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%; (ii) water content in fabric = 35% and 45%, and (iii) treatment time = 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 30 minutes. Finally, the colour properties of the plasma–induced ozone treated fabric were measured by spectrophotometer under illuminant D65 to obtain the CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b* values.

Keywords: learning materials, colour fading, colour properties, fashion products

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6626 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
6625 The Effect of Electrical Discharge Plasma on Inactivation of Escherichia Coli MG 1655 in Pure Culture

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić

Abstract:

Electrical discharge plasma is a new non-thermal processing technique which is used for the inactivation of contaminating and hazardous microbes in liquids. Plasma is a source of different antimicrobial species including UV photons, charged particles, and reactive species such as superoxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide and ozone. Escherichia coli was studied as foodborne pathogen. The aim of this work was to examine inactivation effects of electrical discharge plasma treatment on the Escherichia coli MG 1655 in pure culture. Two types of plasma configuration and polarity were used. First configuration was with titanium wire as high voltage needle and another with medical stainless steel needle used to form bubbles in treated volume and titanium wire as high voltage needle. Model solution samples were inoculated with Escerichia coli MG 1655 and treated by electrical discharge plasma at treatment time of 5 and 10 min, and frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz. With the first configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. At the frequency of 90 Hz after 10 minutes inactivation rate was 1.3 log₁₀ reduction. With the second configuration after 5 minutes of treatment at frequency of 120 Hz the inactivation rate was 1.2 log₁₀ reduction and after 10 minutes of treatment the inactivation rate was also 3.0 log₁₀ reduction. In this work it was also examined the formation of biofilm, nucleotide and protein leakage at 260/280 nm, before and after treatment and recuperation of treated samples. Further optimization of method is needed to understand mechanism of inactivation.

Keywords: electrical discharge plasma, escherichia coli MG 1655, inactivation, point-to-plate electrode configuration

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6624 Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating onto Polypropylene Film Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment as Food Packaging

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi

Abstract:

Recently, edible films and coating have attracted much attention in food industry due to their environmentally friendly nature and safety in direct contact with food. However edible films have relatively weak mechanical properties and high water vapor permeability. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop bilayer carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films to increase mechanical properties and water vapor resistance of each pure CMC or PP films. To modify the surface properties of PE for better attachment of CMC coating layer to PP the atmospheric cold plasma treatment was used. Then the PP surface changes were evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and ATR-FTIR. Furthermore, the physical, mechanical, optical and microstructure characteristics of plasma-treated and untreated films were analyzed. ATR-FTIR results showed that plasma treatment created oxygen-containing groups on PP surface leading to an increase in hydrophilic properties of PP surface. Moreover, a decrease in water contact angle (from 88.92° to 52.15°) and an increase of roughness were observed on PP film surface indicating good adhesion between hydrophilic CMC and hydrophobic PP. Furthermore, plasma pre-treatment improved the tensile strength of CMC coated-PP films from 58.19 to 61.82. Water vapor permeability of plasma treated bilayer film was lower in comparison with untreated film. Therefore, cold plasma treatment has potential to improve attachment of CMC coating to PP layer, leading to enhanced water barrier and mechanical properties of CMC coated polypropylene as food packaging in which also CMC is in contact with food.

Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose film, cold plasma, Polypropylene, surface properties

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6623 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, elastane, water repellency, oil repellency

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6622 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin

Abstract:

For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: endothelial differentiation, EGM-2, osteogenesis, plasma treatment, surface modification

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6621 Plasma Treatment of a Lignite Using Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Anton Serov, Alan Maslani, Michal Hlina, Vladimir Kopecky, Milan Hrabovsky

Abstract:

Recycling of organic waste is an increasingly hot topic in recent years. This issue becomes even more interesting if the raw material for the fuel production can be obtained as the result of that recycling. A process of high-temperature decomposition of a lignite (a non-hydrolysable complex organic compound) was studied on the plasma gasification reactor PLASGAS, where water-stabilized plasma torch was used as a source of high enthalpy plasma. The plasma torch power was 120 kW and allowed heating of the reactor to more than 1000 °C. The material feeding rate in the gasification reactor was selected 30 and 60 kg per hour that could be compared with small industrial production. An efficiency estimation of the thermal decomposition process was done. A balance of the torch energy distribution was studied as well as an influence of the lignite particle size and an addition of methane (CH4) in a reaction volume on the syngas composition (H2+CO). It was found that the ratio H2:CO had values in the range of 1,5 to 2,5 depending on the experimental conditions. The recycling process occurred at atmospheric pressure that was one of the important benefits because of the lack of expensive vacuum pump systems. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the project GA15-19444S.

Keywords: atmospheric pressure, lignite, plasma treatment, water-stabilized plasma torch

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6620 The Effects of Therapy on Oxidative Stress, Ghrelin and Nesfatin-1 Levels in Iron Deficiency Anemia

Authors: Emrah Caylak

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of iron therapy on oxidative stress, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 levels in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Thirty patients who applied to Internal Medicine Clinic and were diagnosed with IDA and also 30 healthy individuals as a control were included in the study. The samples were collected from IDA patients before and after treatment. Differences in serum MDA, TAC, and plasma ghrelin, nesfatin-1 were analyzed among the three groups. Serum MDA and TAC levels were found higher and lower in IDA patients before the treatment group compared to the controls (p < 0.05). After the iron therapy, plasma acylated ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels in IDA patients were found higher in IDA patients before the treatment group and controls (p < 0.05). Plasma ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels increase with iron treatment in IDA patients. The iron therapy induces the synthesis of ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in human body, thus causes increased appetite and food intake.

Keywords: anemia, oxidative stress, ghrelin, nesfatin-1

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6619 Degradation of Different Organic Contaminates Using Corona Discharge Plasma

Authors: A. H. El-Shazly, A. El-Tayeb, M. F. Elkady, Mona G. E. Ibrahim, Abdelazim M. Negm

Abstract:

In this paper, corona discharge plasma reactor was used for degradation of organic pollution in aqueous solutions in batch reactor. This work examines the possibility of increasing the organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater using non-thermal plasma. Three types of organic pollution phenol, acid blue 25 and methylene blue are presented to investigate experimentally the amount of organic pollution removal efficiency from wastewater. Measurement results for phenol degradation percentage are 71% in 35 min and 96% when its residence time is 60 min. In addition, the degradation behavior of acid blue 25 utilizing dual pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system displays a removal efficiency of 82% in 11 min. The complete decolorization was accomplished in 35 min for concentration of acid blue 25 up to 100 ppm. Furthermore, the methylene blue degradation touched up to 85% during 35 min treatment in corona discharge plasma a batch reactor system. The decolorization ratio, conductivity, corona current and discharge energy are considered at various concentration molarity for AlCl3, CaCl2, KCl and NaCl under different molar concentration. It was observed that the attendance of salts at the same concentration level considerably diminished the rate and the extent of decolorization. The research presented that the corona system could be positively utilized in a diversity of organically contaminated at diverse concentrations. Energy consumption requirements for decolorization was considered. The consequences will be valuable for designing the plasma treatment systems appropriate for industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, corona discharge, non-thermal plasma, organic pollution

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6618 Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Changes in Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: Ounassa Adjroud

Abstract:

Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. The purpose of the current work is to compare the effect of K2Cr2O7 using variations in the dose, route of administration and duration of exposure in male and female Wistar albino rats with a special focus on biochemical parameters. K2Cr2O7 was subcutaneously administered alone (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) to female Wistar albino rats. Male rats received in their drinking water K2Cr2O7 30 mg/L/day) for 20 consecutive days. The Biochemical parameters were evaluated on days 3, 6 and 21 after subcutaneous (sc.) treatment in female rats and on days 10 and 20 after oral administration in male rats. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 25 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7 to Wistar albino rats induced a slight change in plasma glucose levels during the experiment period. On the contrary, a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed with 50 mg/kg mainly on days 3 (-26%) and 21 (-48%) after treatment compared to controls females rats. On the other hand, the higher dose provoked a significant increase in plasma glucose concentrations on days 6 (+31%) and 21 (+60%). similarly, the lower dose of chromium had no effect on the plasma urea levels. Conversely, a significant increase (122%) in this parameter was obtained during the first three days after treatment. In addition, a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels was observed with 50 mg/kg mainly on days 3 (-26%) and 21 (-48%) after treatment. On the other hand, the higher dose provoked a significant increase in plasma glucose concentrations on days 6 (+31%) and 21 (+60%). similarly, the lower dose of chromium had no effect on the plasma urea levels. Conversely, a significant increase in this parameter (122%) was obtained during the first three days after treatment. In addition, administration of 100 mg/kg of K2Cr2O7 by s.c markedly augmented the levels of plasma urea on days 3 (62%) and 6 (121%). Administration of 30 mg/L/day of K2Cr2O7 in the drinking water induced a significant augmentation in both of plasma glucose (27%) and urea (126%) during the first ten days of treatment. These results suggested that K2Cr2O7 administered subcutaneously or in the drinking water may induce harmful effects on biochemical parameters.

Keywords: glucose, potassium dichromate, Wistar albino rat, urea

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6617 Plasma Treatment of Poppy and Flax Seeds in Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Jakub Perner, Jindrich Matousek, Hana Malinska

Abstract:

Adverse environmental conditions at planting (especially water shortage) can lead into reduced germination rate of seeds. The plasma treatment is one of the possibilities that can solve this problem. Such treatment can increase the germination rate of seeds and make germs grow faster due to increased wettability of seeds surface or disrupted seed coat. This could lead to enhanced oxygen and water transport into the seed and improve germination. Poppy and flax seeds were treated in fluidized bed reactor, and discharge power ranging from 10 to 40 W was used. The working gas was air at pressure 100 Pa. Poppy seeds were then planted into Petri dishes on 7 layers of filter paper saturated with water, and the number of germinated seeds was observed from 3 to 6 days after planting. Every plasma treated sample showed improved germination rate compared to untreated seeds (75.5%) six days after planting. Samples treated in 40W discharge had the highest germination rate (81.2%). The decreased contact angle of water on treated poppy seeds was observed from 85° (untreated) to 30–35° (treated). Untreated flax seeds have a germination rate over 98%; therefore, the weight of seeds was taken to be a measure of the successful germination. Treated flax seeds had a slightly higher weight than untreated. Also, the contact angle of water decreased from 99° (untreated) to 65-73° (treated); therefore the treatment of both species is considered to be successful.

Keywords: flax, germination, plasma treatment, poppy

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6616 Magnetic Field Generation in Inhomogeneous Plasma via Ponderomotive Force

Authors: Fatemeh Shahi, Mehdi Sharifian, Laia Shahrassai, Elham Eskandari A.

Abstract:

A new mechanism is reported here for magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction by means of nonlinear ponderomotive force. The plasma considered here is unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasma with an exponentially decreasing profile. A damped periodic magnetic field with a relatively lower frequency is obtained using the ponderomotive force exerted on plasma electrons. Finally, with an electric field and by using Faraday’s law, the magnetic field profile in the plasma has been obtained. Because of the negative exponential density profile, the generated magnetic field is relatively slowly oscillating and damped through the plasma.

Keywords: magnetic field generation, laser-plasma interaction, ponderomotive force, inhomogeneous plasma

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6615 Condition for Plasma Instability and Stability Approaches

Authors: Ratna Sen

Abstract:

As due to very high temperature of Plasma it is very difficult to confine it for sufficient time so that nuclear fusion reactions to take place, As we know Plasma escapes faster than the binary collision rates. We studied the ball analogy and the ‘energy principle’ and calculated the total potential energy for the whole Plasma. If δ ⃗w is negative, that is decrease in potential energy then the plasma will be unstable. We also discussed different approaches of stability analysis such as Nyquist Method, MHD approximation and Vlasov approach of plasma stability. So that by using magnetic field configurations we can able to create a stable Plasma in Tokamak for generating energy for future generations.

Keywords: jello, magnetic field configuration, MHD approximation, energy principle

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6614 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado

Abstract:

The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, degradation, cold plasma, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6613 Micro Plasma an Emerging Technology to Eradicate Pesticides from Food Surface

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Islam Khan, Yun Ji Kim

Abstract:

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) have been widely used to replace more persistent organochlorine pesticides because OPPs are more soluble in water and decompose rapidly in aquatic systems. Extensive uses of OPPs in modern agriculture are the major cause of the contamination of surface water. Regardless of the advantages gained by the application of pesticides in modern agriculture, they are a threat to the public health environment. With the aim of reducing possible health threats, several physical and chemical treatment processes have been studied to eliminate biological and chemical poisons from food stuff. In the present study, a micro-plasma device was used to reduce pesticides from the surface of food stuff. Pesticide free food items chosen in this study were perilla leaf, tomato, broccoli and blueberry. To evaluate the removal efficiency of pesticides, different washing methods were followed such as soaking with water, washing with bubbling water, washing with plasma-treated water and washing with chlorine water. 2 mL of 2000 ppm pesticide samples, namely, diazinone and chlorpyrifos were individuality inoculated on food surface and was air dried for 2 hours before treated with plasma. Plasma treated water was used in two different manners one is plasma treated water with bubbling the other one is aerosolized plasma treated water. The removal efficiency of pesticides from food surface was studied using HPLC. Washing with plasma treated water, aerosolized plasma treated water and chlorine water shows minimum 72% to maximum 87 % reduction for 4 min treatment irrespective to the types of food items and the types of pesticides sample, in case of soaking and bubbling the reduction is 8% to 48%. Washing with plasma treated water, aerosolized plasma treated water and chlorine water shows somewhat similar reduction ability which is significantly higher comparing to the soaking and bubbling washing system. The temperature effect of the washing systems was also evaluated; three different temperatures were set for the experiment, such as 22°C, 10°C and 4°C. Decreasing temperature from 22°C to 10°C shows a higher reduction in the case of washing with plasma and aerosolized plasma treated water, whereas an opposite trend was observed for the washing with chlorine water. Further temperature reduction from 10°C to 4°C does not show any significant reduction of pesticides, except for the washing with chlorine water. Chlorine water treatment shows lesser pesticide reduction with the decrease in temperature. The color changes of the treated sample were measured immediately and after one week to evaluate if there is any effect of washing with plasma treated water and with chlorine water. No significant color changes were observed for either of the washing systems, except for broccoli washing with chlorine water.

Keywords: chlorpyrifos, diazinone, pesticides, micro plasma

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6612 Wettability Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fibers and Banana Pseudostem Fibers Treated by Cold Plasma

Authors: Tatiana Franco, Hugo A. Estupinan

Abstract:

Banana pseudostem fiber (BPF) and pineapple leaf fiber (PLF) for their excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability characteristics arouse interest in different areas of research. F In tropical regions, where the banana pseudostem and the pineapple leaf are transformed into hard-to-handle solid waste, they can be low-cost raw material and environmentally sustainable in research for composite materials. In terms of functionality of this type of fiber, an open structure would allow the adsorption and retention of organic, inorganic and metallic species. In general, natural fibers have closed structures on their surface with intricate internal arrangements that can be used for the solution of environmental problems and other technological uses, however it is not possible to access their internal structure and sublayers, exposing the fibers in the natural state. An alternative method to chemical and enzymatic treatment are the processes with the plasma treatments, which are known to be clean, economical and controlled. In this type of treatment, a gas contained in a reactor in the form of plasma acts on the fiber generating changes in its structure, morphology and topography. This work compares the effects on fibers of PLF and BPF treated with cold argon plasma, alternating time and current. These fibers are grown in the regions of Antioquia-Colombia. The morphological, compositional and wettability properties of the fibers were analyzed by Raman microscopy, contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy analysis (AFM). The treatment with cold plasma on PLF and BPF allowed increasing its wettability, the topography and the microstructural relationship between lignin and cellulose.

Keywords: cold plasma, contact angle, natural fibers, Raman, SEM, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
6611 Micro-Arc Oxidation Titanium and Post Treatment by Cold Plasma and Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid for Biomedical Application

Authors: Shu-Chuan Liao, Chia-Ti Chang, Ko-Shao Chen

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloy are widely used in many fields such as dentistry or orthopaedics. Due to their high strength low elastic modulus that chemical inertness and bio inert. The micro-arc oxidation used to formation a micro porous ceramic oxide layer film on Titanium surface and also to improve the resistance corrosion. For improving the biocompatibility, micro-arc oxidation surfaces bio-inert need to introduce reactive group. We introduced boundary layer by used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and organic active layer by UV light graft reactive monomer acrylic acid (AAc) therefore we can immobilize Chondroitin sulphate on surface easily by crosslinking EDC/NHS. The surface properties and composition of the modified layer were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and water contact angle. Water contact angle of the plasma-treated Ti surface decreases from 60° to 38°, which is an indication of hydrophilicity. The results of electrochemical polarization analysis showed that the sample plasma treated at micro-arc oxidation after plasma treatment has the best corrosion resistance. The result showed that we can immobilize chondroitin sulfate successful by a series of modification and MTT assay indicated the biocompatibility has been improved in this study.

Keywords: MAO, plasma, graft polymerization, biomedical application

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
6610 Effect of Plasma Treatment on UV Protection Properties of Fabrics

Authors: Sheila Shahidi

Abstract:

UV protection by fabrics has recently become a focus of great interest, particularly in connection with environmental degradation or ozone layer depletion. Fabrics provide simple and convenient protection against UV radiation (UVR), but not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. To describe the degree of UVR protection offered by clothing materials, the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) is commonly used. UV-protective fabric can be generated by application of a chemical finish using normal wet-processing methodologies. However, traditional wet-processing techniques are known to consume large quantities of water and energy and may lead to adverse alterations of the bulk properties of the substrate. Recently, usage of plasmas to generate physicochemical surface modifications of textile substrates has become an intriguing approach to replace or enhance conventional wet-processing techniques. In this research work the effect of plasma treatment on UV protection properties of fabrics was investigated. DC magnetron sputtering was used and the parameters of plasma such as gas type, electrodes, time of exposure, power and, etc. were studied. The morphological and chemical properties of samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Furrier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The transmittance and UPF values of the original and plasma-treated samples were measured using a Shimadzu UV3101 PC (UV–Vis–NIR scanning spectrophotometer, 190–2, 100 nm range). It was concluded that, plasma which is an echo-friendly, cost effective and dry technique is being used in different branches of the industries, and will conquer textile industry in the near future. Also it is promising method for preparation of UV protection textile.

Keywords: fabric, plasma, textile, UV protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 452