Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6259

Search results for: plasma technology

6259 A Study on the Water and Oil Repellency Characteristics of Plasma-Treated Pet and Pet/Elastane Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

New orientations have emerged in the textile sector as a result of increasing global competition and environmental problems. Under the scope of new understandings, it is required to bring forward multi-functional, simple and environmentally friendly methods that will meet tight economic and ecological demands of today. Plasma technology has become a significant alternative in this sense. This technology may provide great advantages in case it is developed, however, it does not receive adequate consideration. In this study, plasma treatment was applied by using glow discharge plasma system to 100% polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and 95% PET/5% elastane fabrics and then the effects of plasma polymerization on fabric surface was tested and analyzed using water and oil repellent finishes.

Keywords: plasma, polyester, elastane, water repellency, oil repellency

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
6258 Plasma Properties Effect on Fluorescent Tube Plasma Antenna Performance

Authors: A. N. Dagang, E. I. Ismail, Z. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis on the performance of monopole antenna with fluorescent tubes. In this research, the simulation and experimental approach is conducted. The fluorescent tube with different length and size is designed using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and the characteristics of antenna parameter are simulated throughout the software. CST was used to simulate antenna parameters such as return loss, resonant frequency, gain and directivity. Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) was used to measure the return loss of plasma antenna in order to validate the simulation results. In the simulation and experiment, the supply frequency is set starting from 1 GHz to 10 GHz. The results show that the return loss of plasma antenna changes when size of fluorescent tubes is varied, correspond to the different plasma properties. It shows that different values of plasma properties such as plasma frequency and collision frequency gives difference result of return loss, gain and directivity. For the gain, the values range from 2.14 dB to 2.36 dB. The return loss of plasma antenna offers higher value range from -22.187 dB to -32.903 dB. The higher the values of plasma frequency and collision frequency, the higher return loss can be obtained. The values obtained are comparative to the conventional type of metal antenna.

Keywords: plasma antenna, fluorescent tube, CST, plasma parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6257 Magnetic Field Generation in Inhomogeneous Plasma via Ponderomotive Force

Authors: Fatemeh Shahi, Mehdi Sharifian, Laia Shahrassai, Elham Eskandari A.

Abstract:

A new mechanism is reported here for magnetic field generation in laser-plasma interaction by means of nonlinear ponderomotive force. The plasma considered here is unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasma with an exponentially decreasing profile. A damped periodic magnetic field with a relatively lower frequency is obtained using the ponderomotive force exerted on plasma electrons. Finally, with an electric field and by using Faraday’s law, the magnetic field profile in the plasma has been obtained. Because of the negative exponential density profile, the generated magnetic field is relatively slowly oscillating and damped through the plasma.

Keywords: magnetic field generation, laser-plasma interaction, ponderomotive force, inhomogeneous plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
6256 Condition for Plasma Instability and Stability Approaches

Authors: Ratna Sen

Abstract:

As due to very high temperature of Plasma it is very difficult to confine it for sufficient time so that nuclear fusion reactions to take place, As we know Plasma escapes faster than the binary collision rates. We studied the ball analogy and the ‘energy principle’ and calculated the total potential energy for the whole Plasma. If δ ⃗w is negative, that is decrease in potential energy then the plasma will be unstable. We also discussed different approaches of stability analysis such as Nyquist Method, MHD approximation and Vlasov approach of plasma stability. So that by using magnetic field configurations we can able to create a stable Plasma in Tokamak for generating energy for future generations.

Keywords: jello, magnetic field configuration, MHD approximation, energy principle

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
6255 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Krittiya Pornmai, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: natural gas, reforming process, gliding arc discharge, plasma technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
6254 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani

Abstract:

Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
6253 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado

Abstract:

The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, degradation, cold plasma, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
6252 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
6251 Interesting Behavior of Non-Thermal Plasma Photonic Crystals

Authors: A. Mousavi, S. Sadegzadeh

Abstract:

In this research, the effect of non-thermal micro plasma with non-Maxwellian distribution function on the one dimensional plasma photonic crystals containing alternate plasma-dielectric layers, has been studied. By using Kronig Penny model, the dispersion relation of electromagnetic modes for such a periodic structure is obtained. In this study we take two plasma photonic crystals with different dielectric layers: the first one with Silicon monoxide named PPCI, and the second one with Tellurium dioxide named PPCII. The effects of the plasma layer thickness and the material of the dielectric layer on the plasma photonic crystal band gaps have been illustrated in the dispersion relation and the group velocity figures. Results revealed that in such a system, the non-thermal plasma exerts stronger limit on the wave’s propagation. In another word, for the non-thermal plasma photonic crystals (NPPC), there are two distinct regions in the dispersion plot. The upper region consists of alternate band gaps in such a way that both width and length of the bands decrease gradually as the band gaps order increases. Whereas in the lower region where v_ph > 20 c (for PPCI), waves will not be allowed to propagate.

Keywords: band gap, dispersion relation, non-thermal plasma, plasma photonic crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
6250 Wear Resistance of 20MnCr5 Steel Nitrided by Plasma

Authors: Okba Belahssen, Said Benramache

Abstract:

This paper presents wear behavior of the plasma-nitrided 20MnCr5 steel. Untreated and plasma nitrided samples were tested. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plasma nitriding behaviors of 20MnCr5 steel have been assessed by evaluating tribological properties and surface hardness by using a pin-on-disk wear machine and microhardness tester. Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer improve the wear resistance.

Keywords: plasma-nitriding, alloy 20mncr5, steel, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
6249 Investigation of Fusion Zone Microstructures in Plasma Arc Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS-304L) with Low Carbon Steel (A-36) with or without Filler Alloy

Authors: Shan-e-Fatima, Mushtaq Khan, Syed Imran Hussian

Abstract:

Plasma arc welding technology is used for welding SS-304L with A-36. Two different optimize butt welded joints were produced by using austenitic filler alloy E-309L and with direct fusion at 45 A, 2mm/sec by keeping plasma gas flow rate at 0.5LPM. Microstructure analysis of the weld bead was carried out. The results reveal complex heterogeneous microstructure in austenitic base filler alloy sample where as full martensite was found in directly fused sample.

Keywords: fusion zone microstructure, stainless steel, low carbon steel, plasma arc welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
6248 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 589
6247 Effects of Plasma Treatment on Seed Germination

Authors: Yong Ho Jeon, Youn Mi Lee, Yong Yoon Lee

Abstract:

Effects of cold plasma treatment on various plant seed germination were studied. The seeds of hot pepper, cucumber, tomato and arabidopsis were exposed to plasma and the plasma was generated in various devices. The germination speed was evaluated compared to an unexposed control. A positive effect on germination speed was observed in all tested seeds but the effects strongly depended on the type of the used plasma device (Argon-DBD, surface-DBD or MARX generator), time of exposure (6s~10min or 1~10shots) and kind of seeds. The SEM images showed that arrays of gold particles along the cell wall were observed on the surface of cucumber seeds showed a germination-accelerating effect by plasma treatment, which was the same as untreated. However, when treated with the high dose plasma, gold particles were not arrayed at the seed surface, it seems that due to the surface etching. This may suggest that the germination is not promoted by etching or damage of surface caused by the plasma treatment. Seedling growth improvement was also observed by indirect plasma treatment. These lead to an important conclusion that the effect of charged particles on plasma play the essential role in plant germination and indirect plasma treatment offers new perspectives for large scale application.

Keywords: cold plasma, cucumber, germination, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6246 Arc Plasma Thermochemical Preparation of Coal to Effective Combustion in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

This work presents plasma technology for solid fuel ignition and combustion. Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal ignition and combustion. To realise this technology at coal fired power plants plasma-fuel systems (PFS) were developed. PFS improve efficiency of power coals combustion and decrease harmful emission. PFS is pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch. Plasma torch is the main element of the PFS. Plasma forming gas is air. It is blown through the electrodes forming plasma flame. Temperature of this flame is varied from 5000 to 6000 K. Plasma torch power is varied from 100 to 350 kW and geometrical sizes are the following: the height is 0.4-0.5 m and diameter is 0.2-0.25 m. The base of the PFS technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of coal for burning. It consists of heating of the pulverized coal and air mixture by arc plasma up to temperature of coal volatiles release and char carbon partial gasification. In the PFS coal-air mixture is deficient in oxygen and carbon is oxidised mainly to carbon monoxide. As a result, at the PFS exit a highly reactive mixture is formed of combustible gases and partially burned char particles, together with products of combustion, while the temperature of the gaseous mixture is around 1300 K. Further mixing with the air promotes intensive ignition and complete combustion of the prepared fuel. PFS have been tested for boilers start up and pulverized coal flame stabilization in different countries at power boilers of 75 to 950 t/h steam productivity. They were equipped with different types of pulverized coal burners (direct flow, muffle and swirl burners). At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (lignite, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were incinerated. Volatile content of them was from 4 to 50%, ash varied from 15 to 48% and heat of combustion was from 1600 to 6000 kcal/kg. To show the advantages of the plasma technology before conventional technologies of coal combustion numerical investigation of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration in an experimental furnace with heat capacity of 3 MW was fulfilled. Two computer-codes were used for the research. The computer simulation experiments were conducted for low-rank bituminous coal of 44% ash content. The boiler operation has been studied at the conventional mode of combustion and with arc plasma activation of coal combustion. The experiments and computer simulation showed ecological efficiency of the plasma technology. When a plasma torch operates in the regime of plasma stabilization of pulverized coal flame, NOX emission is reduced twice and amount of unburned carbon is reduced four times. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.613.21.0005, project RFMEFI61314X0005).

Keywords: coal, ignition, plasma-fuel system, plasma torch, thermal power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
6245 Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules: A Tool for Analysis of Protein Structures

Authors: Yuting Wu, Faraz Choudhury, Daniel Benjamin, James Whalin, Joshua Blatz, Leon Shohet, Michael Sussman, Mark Richards

Abstract:

Plasma-Induced Modification of Biomolecules (PLIMB) has been developed as a technology, which, together with mass spectrometry, measures three-dimensional structural characteristics of proteins. This technique uses hydroxyl radicals generated by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge to react with the solvent-accessible side chains of protein in an aqueous solution. In this work, we investigate the three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin and myoglobin using PLIMB. Additional modifications to these proteins, such as oxidation, fragmentations, and conformational changes caused by PLIMB are also explored. These results show that PLIMB, coupled with mass spectrometry, is an effective way to determine solvent access to hemoproteins. Furthermore, we show that many factors, including pH and the electrical parameters used to generate the plasma, have a significant influence on solvent accessibility.

Keywords: plasma, hemoglobin, myoglobin, solvent access

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
6244 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred

Abstract:

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: cosmology, EMP, plasma physics, relativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
6243 Plasma Technology for Hazardous Biomedical Waste Treatment

Authors: V. E. Messerle, A. L. Mosse, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. N. Nikonchuk, A. B. Ustimenko

Abstract:

One of the most serious environmental problems today is pollution by biomedical waste (BMW), which in most cases has undesirable properties such as toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, fire. Sanitary and hygienic survey of typical solid BMW, made in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and other countries shows that their risk to the environment is significantly higher than that of most chemical wastes. Utilization of toxic BMW requires use of the most universal methods to ensure disinfection and disposal of any of their components. Such technology is a plasma technology of BMW processing. To implement this technology a thermodynamic analysis of the plasma processing of BMW was fulfilled and plasma-box furnace was developed. The studies have been conducted on the example of the processing of bone. To perform thermodynamic calculations software package Terra was used. Calculations were carried out in the temperature range 300 - 3000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. It is shown that the final products do not contain toxic substances. From the organic mass of BMW synthesis gas containing combustible components 77.4-84.6% was basically produced, and mineral part consists mainly of calcium oxide and contains no carbon. Degree of gasification of carbon reaches 100% by the temperature 1250 K. Specific power consumption for BMW processing increases with the temperature throughout its range and reaches 1 kWh/kg. To realize plasma processing of BMW experimental installation with DC plasma torch of 30 kW power was developed. The experiments allowed verifying the thermodynamic calculations. Wastes are packed in boxes weighing 5-7 kg. They are placed in the box furnace. Under the influence of air plasma flame average temperature in the box reaches 1800 OC, the organic part of the waste is gasified and inorganic part of the waste is melted. The resulting synthesis gas is continuously withdrawn from the unit through the cooling and cleaning system. Molten mineral part of the waste is removed from the furnace after it has been stopped. Experimental studies allowed determining operating modes of the plasma box furnace, the exhaust gases was analyzed, samples of condensed products were assembled and their chemical composition was determined. Gas at the outlet of the plasma box furnace has the following composition (vol.%): CO - 63.4, H2 - 6.2, N2 - 29.6, S - 0.8. The total concentration of synthesis gas (CO + H2) is 69.6%, which agrees well with the thermodynamic calculation. Experiments confirmed absence of the toxic substances in the final products.

Keywords: biomedical waste, box furnace, plasma torch, processing, synthesis gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
6242 Simulation Study on Spacecraft Surface Charging Induced by Jovian Plasma Environment with Particle in Cell Method

Authors: Meihua Fang, Yipan Guo, Tao Fei, Pengyu Tian

Abstract:

Space plasma caused spacecraft surface charging is the major space environment hazard. Particle in cell (PIC) method can be used to simulate the interaction between space plasma and spacecraft. It was proved that surface charging level of spacecraft in Jupiter’s orbits was high for its’ electron-heavy plasma environment. In this paper, Jovian plasma environment is modeled and surface charging analysis is carried out by PIC based software Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System (SPIS). The results show that the spacecraft charging potentials exceed 1000V at 2Rj, 15Rj and 25Rj polar orbits in the dark side at worst case plasma model. Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the large Jovian magnetic field increases the surface charging level for secondary electron gyration.

Keywords: Jupiter, PIC, space plasma, surface charging

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
6241 Effect of Pre-Plasma Potential on Laser Ion Acceleration

Authors: Djemai Bara, Mohamed Faouzi Mahboub, Djamila Bennaceur-Doumaz

Abstract:

In this work, the role of the preformed plasma created on the front face of a target, irradiated by a high intensity short pulse laser, in the framework of ion acceleration process, modeled by Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, is studied. This plasma is composed of cold ions governed by fluid equations and non-thermal & trapped with densities represented by a "Cairns-Gurevich" equation. The self-similar solution of the equations shows that electronic trapping and the presence of non-thermal electrons in the pre-plasma are both responsible in ion acceleration as long as the proportion of energetic electrons is not too high. In the case where the majority of electrons are energetic, the electrons are accelerated directly by the ponderomotive force of the laser without the intermediate of an accelerating plasma wave.

Keywords: Cairns-Gurevich Equation, ion acceleration, plasma expansion, pre-plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
6240 2D RF ICP Torch Modelling with Fluid Plasma

Authors: Mokhtar Labiod, Nabil Ikhlef, Keltoum Bouherine, Olivier Leroy

Abstract:

A numerical model for the radio-frequency (RF) Argon discharge chamber is developed to simulate the low pressure low temperature inductively coupled plasma. This model will be of fundamental importance in the design of the plasma magnetic control system. Electric and magnetic fields inside the discharge chamber are evaluated by solving a magnetic vector potential equation. To start with, the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics theory will be presented describing the basic behaviour of magnetically confined plasma and equations are discretized with finite element method in cylindrical coordinates. The discharge chamber is assumed to be axially symmetric and the plasma is treated as a compressible gas. Plasma generation due to ionization is added to the continuity equation. Magnetic vector potential equation is solved for the electromagnetic fields. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

Keywords: direct-coupled model, magnetohydrodynamic, modelling, plasma torch simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
6239 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
6238 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan

Abstract:

The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
6237 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
6236 Numerical Investigation of Plasma-Fuel System (PFS) for Coal Ignition and Combustion

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

To enhance the efficiency of solid fuels’ use, to decrease the fuel oil rate in the thermal power plants fuel balance and to minimize harmful emissions, a plasma technology of coal ignition, gasification and incineration is successfully applied. This technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of fuel for burning (PTCPF). In the framework of this concept, some portion of pulverized solid fuel (PF) is separated from the main PF flow and undergone the activation by arc plasma in a specific chamber with plasma torch – PFS. The air plasma flame is a source of heat and additional oxidation, it provides a high-temperature medium enriched with radicals, where the fuel mixture is heated, volatile components of coal are extracted, and carbon is partially gasified. This active blended fuel can ignite the main PF flow supplied into the furnace. This technology provides the boiler start-up and stabilization of PF flame and eliminates the necessity for addition of highly reactive fuel. In the report, a model of PTCPF, implemented as a program PlasmaKinTherm for the PFS calculation is described. The model combines thermodynamic and kinetic methods for describing the process of PTCPF in PFS. The numerical investigation of operational parameters of PFS depending on the electric power of the plasma generator and steam coal ash content revealed the temperature and velocity of gas and coal particles, and concentrations of PTCPF products dependences on the PFS length. Main mechanisms of PTCPF were disclosed. It was found that in the range of electric power of plasma generator from 40 to 100 kW high ash bituminous coal, having consumption 1667 kg/h is ignited stably. High level of temperature (1740 K) and concentration of combustible components (44%) at the PFS exit is a confirmation of it. Augmentation in power of plasma generator results displacement maxima temperatures and speeds of PTCPF products upstream (in the direction of the plasma source). The maximum temperature and velocity vary in a narrow range of values and practically do not depend on the power of the plasma torch. The numerical study of indicators of the process of PTCPF depending on the ash content in the range of its values 20-70% demonstrated that at the exit of PFS concentration of combustible components decreases with an increase in coal ash, the temperature of the gaseous products is increasing, and coal carbon conversion rate is increased to a maximum value when the ash content of 60%, dramatically decreasing with further increase in the ash content.

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma generator, plasma-fuel system

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
6235 Development of new Ecological Cleaning Process of Metal Sheets

Authors: L. M. López López, J. V. Montesdeoca Contreras, A. R. Cuji Fajardo, L. E. Garzón Muñoz, J. I. Fajardo Seminario

Abstract:

In this article a new method of cleaning process of metal sheets for household appliances was developed, using low-pressure cold plasma. In this context, this research consist in analyze the results of metal sheets cleaning process using plasma and compare with pickling process to determinate the efficiency of each process and the level of contamination produced. Surface Cleaning was evaluated by measuring the contact angle with deionized water, diiodo methane and ethylene glycol, for the calculus of the surface free energy by means of the Fowkes theories and Wu. Showing that low-pressure cold plasma is very efficient both in cleaning process how in environment impact.

Keywords: efficient use of plasma, ecological impact of plasma, metal sheets cleaning means, plasma cleaning process.

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
6234 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
6233 FEDBD Plasma, A Promising Approach for Skin Rejuvenation

Authors: P. Charipoor, M. Khani, H. Mahmoudi, E. Ghasemi, P. Akbartehrani, B. Shokri

Abstract:

Cold air plasma could have a variety of effects on cells and living organisms and also shows good results in medical and cosmetic cases. Herein, plasma floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge (FEDBD) plasma was designed for mouse skin rejuvenation purposes. It is safe and easy to use in clinics, laboratories, and homes. The effects of this device were investigated on mouse skin. Vitamin C ointment in combination with plasma was also used as a new method to improve FEDBD results. In this study, 20 Wistar rats were evaluated in four groups. The first group received high-dose plasma, the second group received moderate-dose plasma (with vitamin C cream), the third group received low-dose plasma (with vitamin C cream) for 6 minutes, and the fourth group received only vitamin C cream. This process was done 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Skin temperature was monitored to evaluate the thermal effect of plasma. The presence of reactive species was also demonstrated using optical spectroscopy. Mechanical assays were performed to evaluate the effect of plasma and vitamin C on the mechanical strength of the tissue, which showed a positive effect of plasma on the treated tissue compared to the control group. Using pathological and biometric skin tests, an increase in collagen levels, epidermal thickness, and an increase in fibroblasts was observed in rat skin, as well as increased skin elasticity. This study showed the positive effect of using the FEDBD plasma device on the effective parameters in skin rejuvenation.

Keywords: plasma, skin rejuvenation, collagen, epidermal thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
6232 Effects of Plasma Technology in Biodegradable Films for Food Packaging

Authors: Viviane P. Romani, Bradley D. Olsen, Vilásia G. Martins

Abstract:

Biodegradable films for food packaging have gained growing attention due to environmental pollution caused by synthetic films and the interest in the better use of resources from nature. Important research advances were made in the development of materials from proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. However, the commercial use of these new generation of sustainable materials for food packaging is still limited due to their low mechanical and barrier properties that could compromise the food quality and safety. Thus, strategies to improve the performance of these materials have been tested, such as chemical modifications, incorporation of reinforcing structures and others. Cold plasma is a versatile, fast and environmentally friendly technology. It consists of a partially ionized gas containing free electrons, ions, and radicals and neutral particles able to react with polymers and start different reactions, leading to the polymer degradation, functionalization, etching and/or cross-linking. In the present study, biodegradable films from fish protein prepared through the casting technique were plasma treated using an AC glow discharge equipment. The reactor was preliminary evacuated to ~7 Pa and the films were exposed to air plasma for 2, 5 and 8 min. The films were evaluated by their mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and changes in the protein structure were observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Potential cross-links and elimination of surface defects by etching might be the reason for the increase in tensile strength and decrease in the elongation at break observed. Among the times of plasma application tested, no differences were observed when higher times of exposure were used. The X-ray pattern showed a broad peak at 2θ = 19.51º that corresponds to the distance of 4.6Å by applying the Bragg’s law. This distance corresponds to the average backbone distance within the α-helix. Thus, the changes observed in the films might indicate that the helical configuration of fish protein was disturbed by plasma treatment. SEM images showed surface damage in the films with 5 and 8 min of plasma treatment, indicating that 2 min was the most adequate time of treatment. It was verified that plasma removes water from the films once weight loss of 4.45% was registered for films treated during 2 min. However, after 24 h in 50% of relative humidity, the water lost was recovered. WVP increased from 0.53 to 0.65 g.mm/h.m².kPa after plasma treatment during 2 min, that is desired for some foods applications which require water passage through the packaging. In general, the plasma technology affects the properties and structure of fish protein films. Since this technology changes the surface of polymers, these films might be used to develop multilayer materials, as well as to incorporate active substances in the surface to obtain active packaging.

Keywords: fish protein films, food packaging, improvement of properties, plasma treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
6231 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Tomislava Vukušić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Višnja Stulić

Abstract:

Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment, inactivation, stress response

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
6230 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh

Abstract:

This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 27