Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5273

Search results for: pilot scale

5273 Adjustment and Scale-Up Strategy of Pilot Liquid Fermentation Process of Azotobacter sp.

Authors: G. Quiroga-Cubides, A. Díaz, M. Gómez


The genus Azotobacter has been widely used as bio-fertilizer due to its significant effects on the stimulation and promotion of plant growth in various agricultural species of commercial interest. In order to obtain significantly viable cellular concentration, a scale-up strategy for a liquid fermentation process (SmF) with two strains of A. chroococcum (named Ac1 and Ac10) was validated and adjusted at laboratory and pilot scale. A batch fermentation process under previously defined conditions was carried out on a biorreactor Infors®, model Minifors of 3.5 L, which served as a baseline for this research. For the purpose of increasing process efficiency, the effect of the reduction of stirring speed was evaluated in combination with a fed-batch-type fermentation laboratory scale. To reproduce the efficiency parameters obtained, a scale-up strategy with geometric and fluid dynamic behavior similarities was evaluated. According to the analysis of variance, this scale-up strategy did not have significant effect on cellular concentration and in laboratory and pilot fermentations (Tukey, p > 0.05). Regarding air consumption, fermentation process at pilot scale showed a reduction of 23% versus the baseline. The percentage of reduction related to energy consumption reduction under laboratory and pilot scale conditions was 96.9% compared with baseline.

Keywords: Azotobacter chroococcum, scale-up, liquid fermentation, fed-batch process

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5272 Deproteinization of Moroccan Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Scales: A Pilot-Scale Study

Authors: F. Bellali, M. Kharroubi, Y. Rady, N. Bourhim


In Morocco, fish processing industry is an important source income for a large amount of by-products including skins, bones, heads, guts, and scales. Those underutilized resources particularly scales contain a large amount of proteins and calcium. Sardina plichardus scales from resulting from the transformation operation have the potential to be used as raw material for the collagen production. Taking into account this strong expectation of the regional fish industry, scales sardine upgrading is well justified. In addition, political and societal demands for sustainability and environment-friendly industrial production systems, coupled with the depletion of fish resources, drive this trend forward. Therefore, fish scale used as a potential source to isolate collagen has a wide large of applications in food, cosmetic, and biomedical industry. The main aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the acid solubilize collagen from sardine fish scale, Sardina pilchardus. Experimental design methodology was adopted in collagen processing for extracting optimization. The first stage of this work is to investigate the optimization conditions of the sardine scale deproteinization on using response surface methodology (RSM). The second part focus on the demineralization with HCl solution or EDTA. And the last one is to establish the optimum condition for the isolation of collagen from fish scale by solvent extraction. The advancement from lab scale to pilot scale is a critical stage in the technological development. In this study, the optimal condition for the deproteinization which was validated at laboratory scale was employed in the pilot scale procedure. The deproteinization of fish scale was then demonstrated on a pilot scale (2Kg scales, 20l NaOH), resulting in protein content (0,2mg/ml) and hydroxyproline content (2,11mg/l). These results indicated that the pilot-scale showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one.

Keywords: deproteinization, pilot scale, scale, sardine pilchardus

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5271 Pharmaceutical Scale up for Solid Dosage Forms

Authors: A. Shashank Tiwari, S. P. Mahapatra


Scale-up is defined as the process of increasing batch size. Scale-up of a process viewed as a procedure for applying the same process to different output volumes. There is a subtle difference between these two definitions: batch size enlargement does not always translate into a size increase of the processing volume. In mixing applications, scale-up is indeed concerned with increasing the linear dimensions from the laboratory to the plant size. On the other hand, processes exist (e.g., tableting) where the term ‘scale-up’ simply means enlarging the output by increasing the speed. To complete the picture, one should point out special procedures where an increase of the scale is counterproductive and ‘scale-down’ is required to improve the quality of the product. In moving from Research and Development (R&D) to production scale, it is sometimes essential to have an intermediate batch scale. This is achieved at the so-called pilot scale, which is defined as the manufacturing of drug product by a procedure fully representative of and simulating that used for full manufacturing scale. This scale also makes it possible to produce enough products for clinical testing and to manufacture samples for marketing. However, inserting an intermediate step between R&D and production scales does not, in itself, guarantee a smooth transition. A well-defined process may generate a perfect product both in the laboratory and the pilot plant and then fail quality assurance tests in production.

Keywords: scale up, research, size, batch

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5270 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: Jonjaua Ranogajec, Ognjen Rudic, Snezana Pasalic, Snezana Vucetic, Damir Cjepa


The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: pilot production, self-cleaning materials, compatibility, cultural heritage

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5269 Low Power Consuming Electromagnetic Actuators for Pulsed Pilot Stages

Authors: M. Honarpardaz, Z. Zhang, J. Derkx, A. Trangärd, J. Larsson


Pilot stages are one of the most common positioners and regulators in industry. In this paper, we present two novel concepts for pilot stages with low power consumption to regulate a pneumatic device. Pilot 1, first concept, is designed based on a conventional frame core electro-magnetic actuator and a leaf spring to control the air flow and pilot 2 has an axisymmetric actuator and spring made of non-oriented electrical steel. Concepts are simulated in a system modeling tool to study their dynamic behavior. Both concepts are prototyped and tested. Experimental results are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The most promising concept that consumes less than 8 mW is highlighted and presented.

Keywords: electro-magnetic actuator, multidisciplinary system, low power consumption, pilot stage

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5268 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz


The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: activated carbon, groundwater, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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5267 Overhead Reduction by Channel Estimation Using Linear Interpolation for Single Carrier Frequency Domain Equalization Transmission

Authors: Min-Su Song, Haeng-Bok Kil, Eui-Rim Jeong


This paper proposes a new method to reduce the overhead by pilots for single carrier frequency domain equalization (SC-FDE) transmission. In the conventional SC-FDE transmission structure, the overhead by transmitting pilot is heavy because the pilot are transmitted at every SC-FDE block. The proposed SC-FDE structure has fewer pilots and many SC-FCE blocks are transmitted between pilots. The channel estimation and equalization is performed at the pilot period and the channels between pilots are estimated through linear interpolation. This reduces the pilot overhead by reducing the pilot transmission compared with the conventional structure, and enables reliable channel estimation and equalization.

Keywords: channel estimation, linear interpolation, pilot overhead, SC-FDE

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5266 Effect of Self-Compassion Techniques for Individuals with Depression: A Pilot Study

Authors: Piyanud Chompookard


This research aims to study the effect of self-compassion techniques for individuals with depression (A pilot study). A quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest is used to design this work. The research includes 30 participants, divided into the experimental group (ten samples) and the control group (twenty samples). The experimental group received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment for a total six times. The control group received an appropriate treatment. The measurement of this study using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai version). There are significant differences in levels of depression after received a self-compassion techniques with an appropriate treatment (p<.01). And there are significant differences in levels of depression between the experimental group and the control group (p<.01).

Keywords: depression, self compassion techniques, psychotherapy, pilot study

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5265 Development of an Instrument: The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS)

Authors: Camille Rault, Mark Bahr


The aim of the present study was to develop a contemporaneous instrument measuring adolescent’s subjective well-being (SWB). The instrument development underwent a three-phase pilot study. Phase one (N = 31) used a qualitative approach to generate domains of SWB relevant to adolescents. During the second phase (N = 22), items were tested targeting these domains. Finally, the third phase (N = 22) assisted in addition, deletion and refinement according to the first two phases of the pilot. A total of 49 items were retained for the final version of the instrument. The Contemporary Adolescent Well-Being Scale (CAWBS) was administered to 1071 school children (599 girls) aged between ten to 18 years old (M = 14,70; SD = 1.45) from Queensland, Australia. Results confirmed the seven-factor construct hypothesized and explained 45% of the variance. The questionnaire pertained to seven domains of adolescent’s SWB, namely; Overall life satisfaction; Bullying; Body image; Social connectedness; Activities; Control appraisal; and Negative feelings. Reliability was shown to be acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from .58 to .89. Future research should refine the CAWBS and investigate the psychometric properties of this instrument.

Keywords: adolescence, construct validity, instrument, subjective well-being

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5264 Reburning Characteristics of Biomass Syngas in a Pilot Scale Heavy Oil Furnace

Authors: Sang Heon Han, Daejun Chang, Won Yang


NOx reduction characteristics of syngas fuel were numerically investigated for the 2MW pilot scale heavy oil furnace of KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology). The secondary fuel and syngas was fed into the furnace with two purposes- partial replacement of main fuel and reburning of NOx. Some portion of syngas was fed into the flame zone to partially replace the heavy oil, while the other portion was fed into the furnace downstream to reduce NOx generation. The numerical prediction was verified by comparing it with the experimental results. Syngas of KITECH’s experiment, assumed to be produced from biomass, had very low calorific value and contained 3% hydrocarbon. This study investigated the precise behavior of NOx generation and NOx reduction as well as thermo-fluidic characteristics inside the furnace, which was unavailable with experiment. In addition to 3% hydrocarbon syngas, 5%, and 7% hydrocarbon syngas were numerically tested as reburning fuels to analyze the effect of hydrocarbon proportion to NOx reduction. The prediction showed that the 3% hydrocarbon syngas is as much effective as 7% hydrocarbon syngas in reducing NOx.

Keywords: syngas, reburning, heavy oil, furnace

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5263 Optimization of the Co-Precipitation of Industrial Waste Metals in a Continuous Reactor System

Authors: Thomas S. Abia II, Citlali Garcia-Saucedo


A continuous copper precipitation treatment (CCPT) system was conceived at Intel Chandler Site to serve as a first-of-kind (FOK) facility-scale waste copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and manganese (Mn) co-precipitation facility. The process was designed to treat highly variable wastewater discharged from a substrate packaging research factory. The paper discusses metals co-precipitation induced by internal changes for manufacturing facilities that lack the capacity for hardware expansion due to real estate restrictions, aggressive schedules, or budgetary constraints. Herein, operating parameters such as pH and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) were examined to analyze the ability of the CCPT System to immobilize various waste metals. Additionally, influential factors such as influent concentrations and retention times were investigated to quantify the environmental variability against system performance. A total of 2,027 samples were analyzed and statistically evaluated to measure the performance of CCPT that was internally retrofitted for Mn abatement to meet environmental regulations. In order to enhance the consistency of the influent, a separate holding tank was cannibalized from another system to collect and slow-feed the segregated Mn wastewater from the factory into CCPT. As a result, the baseline influent Mn decreased from 17.2+18.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 5.15+8.11 mg1L-1 post-pilot (70.1% reduction). Likewise, the pre-trial and post-trial average influent Cu values to CCPT were 52.0+54.6 mg1L-1 and 33.9+12.7 mg1L-1, respectively (34.8% reduction). However, the raw Ni content of 0.97+0.39 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot increased to 1.06+0.17 mg1L-1 at post-pilot. The average Mn output declined from 10.9+11.7 mg1L-1 at pre-pilot to 0.44+1.33 mg1L-1 at post-pilot (96.0% reduction) as a result of the pH and ORP operating setpoint changes. In similar fashion, the output Cu quality improved from 1.60+5.38 mg1L-1 to 0.55+1.02 mg1L-1 (65.6% reduction) while the Ni output sustained a 50% enhancement during the pilot study (0.22+0.19 mg1L-1 reduced to 0.11+0.06 mg1L-1). pH and ORP were shown to be significantly instrumental to the precipitative versatility of the CCPT System.

Keywords: copper, co-precipitation, industrial wastewater treatment, manganese, optimization, pilot study

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5262 Impact of Teacher Qualifications on the Pedagogical Competencies of University Lecturers in Northwest Nigeria: A Pilot Study Report

Authors: Collins Ekpiwre Augustine


Taking into account the impact of teacher training on primary and secondary teachers’ classroom competencies and practices, as revealed by many empirical studies, this study investigated the impact of teacher qualifications on the pedagogical competencies of university teachers in Northwest Nigeria.Four research questions were answered while four hypotheses were tested. Both descriptive statistic of frequencies/arithmetic mean and inferential statistic oft-test were used to analyze the data collected. In order to provide a focus to the study,an observational rating scale titled “University Teachers’ Pedagogical Competency Observation Rating Scale” (UTPCORS) was used to collect data for the study. The population for the study comprised all the university teachers in the three Federal Universities in Northwest Nigeria totaling about 3,401. However, this pilot study was administered on 8 teachers - with 4 participants in each comparison group in Bayero University, Kano.The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in the four hypotheses postulated for the study.

Keywords: impact, university teachers, teachers' qualifications, competencies

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5261 Effect of Hydraulic Residence Time on Aromatic Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Using Pilot-Scale Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Fatemeh Yousefi, Narges Fallah, Mohsen Kian, Mehrzad Pakzadeh


The petrochemical complex releases wastewater, which is rich in organic pollutants and could not be treated easily. Treatment of the wastewater from a petrochemical industry has been investigated using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR). For this purpose, a pilot-scale submerged MBR with a flat-sheet ultrafiltration membrane was used for treatment of petrochemical wastewater according to Bandar Imam Petrochemical complex (BIPC) Aromatic plant. The testing system ran continuously (24-h) over 6 months. Trials on different membrane fluxes and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were conducted and the performance evaluation of the system was done. During the 167 days operation of the MBR at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18, 12, 6, and 3 and at an infinite sludge retention time (SRT), the MBR effluent quality consistently met the requirement for discharge to the environment. A fluxes of 6.51 and 13.02 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) was sustainable and HRT of 6 and 12 h corresponding to these fluxes were applicable. Membrane permeability could be fully recovered after cleaning. In addition, there was no foaming issue in the process. It was concluded that it was feasible to treat the wastewater using submersed MBR technology.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor (MBR), petrochemical wastewater, COD removal, biological treatment

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5260 Oily Sludge Bioremediation Pilot Plant Project, Nigeria

Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John


Brass terminal, one of the several crude oil and petroleum products storage/handling facilities in the Niger Delta was built in the 1980s. Activities at this site, over the years, released crude oil into this 3 m-deep, 1500 m-long canal lying adjacent to the terminal with oil floating on it and its sediment heavily polluted. To ensure effective clean-up, three major activities were planned: Site characterization, bioremediation pilot plant construction and testing and full-scale bioremediation of contaminated sediment/bank soil by land farming. The canal was delineated into 12 lots and each characterized, with reference to the floating oily phase, contaminated sediment and canal bank soil. As a result of site characterization, a pilot plant for on-site bioremediation was designed and a treatment basin constructed for carrying out pilot bioremediation test. Following a designed sampling protocol, samples from this pilot plant were collected for analysis at two laboratories as a quality assurance/quality control check. Results showed that Brass Canal upstream is contaminated with dark, thick and viscous oily film with characteristic hydrocarbon smell while downstream, thin oily film interspersed with water were observed. Sediments were observed to be dark with mixture of brownish sandy soil with TPH ranging from 17,800 mg/kg in Lot 1 to 88,500 mg/kg in Lot 12 samples. Brass Canal bank soil was observed to be sandy from ground surface to 3m, below ground surface (bgs) it was silty-sandy and brownish while subsurface soil (4-10m bgs) was sandy-clayey and whitish/grayish with typical hydrocarbon smell. Preliminary results obtained so far have been very promising but were proprietary. This project is considered, to the best of technical literature knowledge, the first large-scale on-site bioremediation project in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria.

Keywords: bioremediation, contaminated sediment, land farming, oily sludge, oil terminal

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5259 Understanding Student Pilot Mental Workload in Recreational Aircraft Training

Authors: Ron Bishop, Jim Mitchell, Talitha Best


The increase in air travel worldwide has resulted in a pilot shortage. To increase student pilot capacity and lower costs, flight schools have increased the use of recreational aircraft (RA) with technological advanced cockpits in flight schools. The impact of RA based training compared to general aviation (GA) aircraft training on student mental workload is not well understood. This research investigated student pilot (N = 17) awareness of mental workload between technologically advanced cockpit equipped RA training with analogue gauge equipped GA training. The results showed a significantly higher rating of mental workload across subscales of mental and physical demand on the NASA-TLX in recreational aviation aircraft training compared to GA aircraft. Similarly, thematic content analysis of follow-up questions identified that mental workload of the student pilots flying the RA was perceived to be more than the GA aircraft.

Keywords: mental workload, recreational aircraft, student pilot, training

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5258 Biofiltration Odour Removal at Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Natural Materials: Pilot Scale Studies

Authors: D. Lopes, I. I. R. Baptista, R. F. Vieira, J. Vaz, H. Varela, O. M. Freitas, V. F. Domingues, R. Jorge, C. Delerue-Matos, S. A. Figueiredo


Deodorization is nowadays a need in wastewater treatment plants. Nitrogen and sulphur compounds, volatile fatty acids, aldehydes and ketones are responsible for the unpleasant odours, being ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans the most common pollutants. Although chemical treatments of the air extracted are efficient, these are more expensive than biological treatments, namely due the use of chemical reagents (commonly sulphuric acid, sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide). Biofiltration offers the advantage of avoiding the use of reagents (only in some cases, nutrients are added in order to increase the treatment efficiency) and can be considered a sustainable process when the packing medium used is of natural origin. In this work the application of some natural materials locally available was studied both at laboratory and pilot scale, in a real wastewater treatment plant. The materials selected for this study were indigenous Portuguese forest materials derived from eucalyptus and pinewood, such as woodchips and bark, and coconut fiber was also used for comparison purposes. Their physico-chemical characterization was performed: density, moisture, pH, buffer and water retention capacity. Laboratory studies involved batch adsorption studies for ammonia and hydrogen sulphide removal and evaluation of microbiological activity. Four pilot-scale biofilters (1 cubic meter volume) were installed at a local wastewater treatment plant treating odours from the effluent receiving chamber. Each biofilter contained a different packing material consisting of mixtures of eucalyptus bark, pine woodchips and coconut fiber, with added buffering agents and nutrients. The odour treatment efficiency was monitored over time, as well as other operating parameters. The operation at pilot scale suggested that between the processes involved in biofiltration - adsorption, absorption and biodegradation - the first dominates at the beginning, while the biofilm is developing. When the biofilm is completely established, and the adsorption capacity of the material is reached, biodegradation becomes the most relevant odour removal mechanism. High odour and hydrogen sulphide removal efficiencies were achieved throughout the testing period (over 6 months), confirming the suitability of the materials selected, and mixtures thereof prepared, for biofiltration applications.

Keywords: ammonia hydrogen sulphide and removal, biofiltration, natural materials, odour control in wastewater treatment plants

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5257 To Investigate a Discharge Planning Connect with Long Term Care 2.0 Program in a Medical Center in Taiwan

Authors: Chan Hui-Ya, Ding Shin-Tan


Background and Aim: The discharge planning is considered helpful to reduce the hospital length of stay and readmission rate, and then increased satisfaction with healthcare for patients and professionals. In order to decrease the waiting time of long-term care and boost the care quality of patients after discharge from the hospital, the Ministry of Health and Welfare department in Taiwan initiates a program “discharge planning connects with long-term care 2.0 services” in 2017. The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcome of the pilot of this program in a medical center. Methods: By purpose sampling, the study chose five wards in a medical center as pilot units. The researchers compared the beds of service, the numbers of cases which were transferred to the long-term care center and transferred rates per month between the pilot units and the other units, and analyze the basic data, the long-term care service needs and the approval service items of cases transfer to the long-term care center in pilot units. Results: From June to September 2017, a total of 92 referrals were made, and 51 patients were enrolled into the pilot program. There is a significant difference of transferring rate between the pilot units and the other units (χ = 702.6683, p < 0.001). Only 20 cases (39.2% success rate) were approved to accept the parts of service items of long-term care in the pilot units. The most approval item was respite care service (n = 13; 65%), while it was third at needs ranking of service lists during linking services process. Among the reasons of patients who cancelled the request, 38.71% reasons were related to the services which could not match the patients’ needs and expectation. Conclusion: The results indicate there is a requirement to modify the long-term care services to fit the needs of cases. The researchers suggest estimating the potential cases by screening data from hospital informatics systems and to hire more case manager according the service time of potential cases. Meanwhile, the strategies shortened the assessment scale and authorized hospital case managers to approve some items of long-term care should be considered.

Keywords: discharge planning, long-term care, case manager, patient care

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5256 On the Application and Comparison of Two Geostatistics Methods in the Parameterisation Step to Calibrate Groundwater Model: Grid-Based Pilot Point and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point Methods

Authors: Dua K. S. Y. Klaas, Monzur A. Imteaz, Ika Sudiayem, Elkan M. E. Klaas, Eldav C. M. Klaas


Properly selecting the most suitable and effective geostatistics method in the parameterization step of groundwater modeling is critical to attain a satisfactory model. In this paper, two geostatistics methods, i.e., Grid-Based Pilot Point (GB-PP) and Head-Zonation Based Pilot Point (HZB-PP) methods, were applied in an eogenetic karst catchment and compared using as model performances and computation time the criteria. Overall, the results show that appropriate selection of method is substantial in the parameterization of physically-based groundwater models, as it influences both the accuracy and simulation times. It was found that GB-PP method performed comparably superior to HZB-PP method. However, reflecting its model performances, HZB-PP method is promising for further application in groundwater modeling.

Keywords: groundwater model, geostatistics, pilot point, parameterization step

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5255 Determinaton of Processing Parameters of Decaffeinated Black Tea by Using Pilot-Scale Supercritical CO₂ Extraction

Authors: Saziye Ilgaz, Atilla Polat


There is a need for development of new processing techniques to ensure safety and quality of final product while minimizing the adverse impact of extraction solvents on environment and residue levels of these solvents in final product, decaffeinated black tea. In this study pilot scale supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) extraction was used to produce decaffeinated black tea in place of solvent extraction. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO₂ flow rate (1, 2 ,3 LPM) and co-solvent quantity (0, 2.5, 5 %mol) were selected as extraction parameters. The five factors BoxBehnken experimental design with three center points was performed to generate 46 different processing conditions for caffeine removal from black tea samples. As a result of these 46 experiments caffeine content of black tea samples were reduced from 2.16 % to 0 – 1.81 %. The experiments showed that extraction time, pressure, CO₂ flow rate and co-solvent quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Optimum extraction parameters obtained of decaffeinated black tea were as follows: extraction temperature of 62,5 °C, extraction pressure of 375 bar, CO₂ flow rate of 3 LPM, extraction time of 176.5 min and co-solvent quantity of 5 %mol.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, decaffeination, black tea, extraction

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5254 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon


We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset

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5253 Pilot Scale Sub-Surface Constructed Wetland: Evaluation of Performance of Bed Vegetated with Water Hyacinth in the Treatment of Domestic Sewage

Authors: Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji Abiola, A. E. Adeniran, A. O. Ajimo, A. B. Lamilisa


Introduction: Conventional wastewater treatment technology has been found to fail in developing countries because they are expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Constructed wetlands are nowadays considered as a low-cost alternative for effective wastewater treatment, especially where suitable land can be available. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the constructed wetland vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) plant for the treatment of wastewater. Methodology: The sub-surface flow wetland used for this study was an experimental scale constructed wetland consisting of four beds A, B, C, and D. Beds A, B, and D were vegetated while bed C which was used as a control was non-vegetated. This present study presents the results from bed B vegetated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and control bed C which was non-vegetated. The influent of the experimental scale wetland has been pre-treated with sedimentation, screening and anaerobic chamber before feeding into the experimental scale wetland. Results: pH and conductivity level were more reduced, colour of effluent was more improved, nitrate, iron, phosphate, and chromium were more removed, and dissolved oxygen was more improved in the water hyacinth bed than the control bed. While manganese, nickel, cyanuric acid, and copper were more removed from the control bed than the water hyacinth bed. Conclusion: The performance of the experimental scale constructed wetland bed planted with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is better than that of the control bed. It is therefore recommended that plain bed without any plant should not be encouraged.

Keywords: constructed experimental scale wetland, domestic sewage, treatment, water hyacinth

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5252 Analysis of the Benefits of Motion Simulators in 5th Generation Fighter Pilots' Training

Authors: Ali Mithad Emre


In military aviation, the use of flight simulators has proliferated recently in order to train fifth generation fighter pilots. With these simulators, pilots can carry out real-time flights resulting in seeing their faults and can perform emergency drills prior to real flights. Since we cannot risk losing the aircraft and the pilot himself/herself in the flight training process, flight simulators are of great importance to adapt the fighter pilots competently to real flights aboard the fifth generation aircraft. The real flights are impossible to simulate thoroughly on the ground. To some extent, the fixed-based simulators may assist the pilot to steer aircraft technically and visually but flight simulators can’t trick the pilot’s vestibular, sensory, and perceptual systems without motion platforms. This paper discusses the benefits of motion simulators for fifth generation fighter pilots’ training in preference to the fixed-based counterparts by analyzing their pros and cons.

Keywords: military, pilot, sickness, simulator

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5251 Actor Training in Social Work Education: A Pilot Study of Theatre Workshops to Enhance Clinical Empathy

Authors: Amanda Coleman, Estefanía Gonzalez


Empathy is considered an essential skill for engaging with social work clients. Drawing from developments in medical education, researchers will conduct and evaluate a three-part pilot theatre workshop with master level social work students (n ≈ 30) to evaluate the workshop's ability to enhance empathy among participants. Outcomes will be measured using semi-structured post-intervention interviews with a subset of participants (n ≈ 10) as well post-intervention written reflections and pre-and-post intervention quantitative evaluation of empathy using King and Holosko’s 2011 Empathy Scale for Social Workers. The content of the workshop will differ from traditional role plays, which are common in social work education, in that it will draw from role theory and research on creative empathy to emphasize role reversal with clients. Workshops will be held February and March of 2017 with preliminary findings available by April.

Keywords: education, empathy, social work, theatre

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5250 Web-Based Learning in Nursing: The Sample of Delivery Lesson Program

Authors: Merve Kadioğlu, Nevin H. Şahin


Purpose: This research is organized to determine the influence of the web-based learning program. The program has been developed to gain information about normal delivery skill that is one of the topics of nursing students who take the woman health and illness. Material and Methods: The methodology of this study was applied as pre-test post-test single-group quasi-experimental. The pilot study consisted of 28 nursing student study groups who agreed to participate in the study. The findings were gathered via web-based technologies: student information form, information evaluation tests, Web Based Training Material Evaluation Scale and web-based learning environment feedback form. In the analysis of the data, the percentage, frequency and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used. The Web Based Instruction Program was developed in the light of full learning model, Mayer's research-based multimedia development principles and Gagne's Instructional Activities Model. Findings: The average scores of it was determined in accordance with the web-based educational material evaluation scale: ‘Instructional Suitability’ 4.45, ‘Suitability to Educational Program’ 4.48, ‘Visual Adequacy’ 4.53, ‘Programming Eligibility / Technical Adequacy’ 4.00. Also, the participants mentioned that the program is successful and useful. A significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test results of the seven modules (p < 0.05). Results: According to pilot study data, the program was rated ‘very good’ by the study group. It was also found to be effective in increasing knowledge about normal labor.

Keywords: normal delivery, web-based learning, nursing students, e-learning

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5249 Developing of Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale in Turkey

Authors: Ayşegül Bilge, Merve Uğuryol, Şeyda Dülgerler, Mustafa Yıldız


The purpose of this research is to prove the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale reliability and validity. The research is a methodological type of research that has been planned to determine the validity and reliability of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale. The scale has been developed by the researchers. In the scale, there are 23 questions including complementary and modern therapies individuals apply when they have health problems 4-item Likert-type evaluation has been carried out in preparing the questionnaire. High score obtained from the scale indicates a positive attitude towards complementary therapies. In the course of validity assessment of the scale, expert opinion has been received, and the content validity of the scale has been determined by using Kendall coefficient correlation test (Wa=0.200, p = 0.460). In the course of the reliability assessment of the scale, total score correlations of 23 materials have been examined, and those under 0.20 correlation limit has been removed from the scale correlation. As a result, the scale was left to be 13 items. In the internal consistency tests of the analyses, Cronbach's alpha value has been found to be 0.79. As a result, of the validity analyses of the Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale, the content and language validity analyses has been found to be at the expected level. It has been determined to be a highly reliable scale as the result of the reliability analyses. In conclusion, Attitude towards Using Complementary Treatments Scale is a valid and reliable scale.

Keywords: alternative health care, complementary treatment, instrument development, nursing practice

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5248 Tourist Cultural Literacy: Scale Development and Validation

Authors: Yun-Ru Tsai, Jo-Hui Lin


The cultural interactions between tourists and destination communities have received increased attention. Tourists play an important role in constructing a rewarding intercultural experience and cultural understanding. Cultural literacy is the ability for tourists to negotiate different cultures, this research aimed to develop a measurement of Tourist Cultural Literacy (TCL), the result provides a theoretical framework to assess how tourists interact with different cultural destinations. A pilot qualitative research was conducted in order to generate the initial items. In this study, the procedure of developing the TCL scale was divided into two parts. First, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, a 25-item TCL scale was developed and six factors were identified: cultural sensitivity, appreciation of the culture, respect for the culture, knowledge of the culture, participate in the culture, and empathy for the culture. Second, confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation modeling were employed, the six-factor model was verified, and was proven to have good fit, reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity. The study provides managerial implications for tourist management and education, the popularization of TCL might increase the respect and understanding between tourists and local societies as well as decrease the cultural shocks and negative social-cultural impacts derived from tourism activities, thereby reducing the maintenance cost of management and allowing tourists to obtain a better cultural experience. Future research suggestions are also provided.

Keywords: cultural literacy, cultural tourism, scale development, tourism contact

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5247 Electronic Patient Record (EPR) System in South Africa: Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Temitope O. Tokosi, Visvanathan Naicker


Patient health records contain sensitive information for which an electronic patient record (EPR) system can safely secure and transmit amongst clinicians for use in improving health delivery. Clinician’s use of the behaviour of these systems is under scrutiny to assess their attributes towards health technology. South Africa (SA) clinicians responded to a pilot study survey to assess their understanding of EPR, what attributes are important towards technology use and more importantly streamlining the survey for a larger study. Descriptive statistics using mean scores was used because of the small sample size of 11 clinicians who completed the survey. Nine (9) constructs comprising 62 items were used and a Cronbach alpha score of 0.883 was obtained. Limitations and discussions conclude the study.

Keywords: EPR, clinicians, pilot study, South Africa

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5246 Establishment and Validation of Correlation Equations to Estimate Volumetric Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient (KLa) from Process Parameters in Stirred-Tank Bioreactors Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Jantakan Jullawateelert, Korakod Haonoo, Sutipong Sananseang, Sarun Torpaiboon, Thanunthon Bowornsakulwong, Lalintip Hocharoen


Process scale-up is essential for the biological process to increase production capacity from bench-scale bioreactors to either pilot or commercial production. Scale-up based on constant volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (KLa) is mostly used as a scale-up factor since oxygen supply is one of the key limiting factors for cell growth. However, to estimate KLa of culture vessels operated with different conditions are time-consuming since it is considerably influenced by a lot of factors. To overcome the issue, this study aimed to establish correlation equations of KLa and operating parameters in 0.5 L and 5 L bioreactor employed with pitched-blade impeller and gas sparger. Temperature, gas flow rate, agitation speed, and impeller position were selected as process parameters and equations were created using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). In addition, the effects of these parameters on KLa were also investigated. Based on RSM, second-order polynomial models for 0.5 L and 5 L bioreactor were obtained with an acceptable determination coefficient (R²) as 0.9736 and 0.9190, respectively. These models were validated, and experimental values showed differences less than 10% from the predicted values. Moreover, RSM revealed that gas flow rate is the most significant parameter while temperature and agitation speed were also found to greatly affect the KLa in both bioreactors. Nevertheless, impeller position was shown to influence KLa in only 5L system. To sum up, these modeled correlations can be used to accurately predict KLa within the specified range of process parameters of two different sizes of bioreactors for further scale-up application.

Keywords: response surface methodology, scale-up, stirred-tank bioreactor, volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient

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5245 Industrial Waste Multi-Metal Ion Exchange

Authors: Thomas S. Abia II


Intel Chandler Site has internally developed its first-of-kind (FOK) facility-scale wastewater treatment system to achieve multi-metal ion exchange. The process was carried out using a serial process train of carbon filtration, pH / ORP adjustment, and cationic exchange purification to treat dilute metal wastewater (DMW) discharged from a substrate packaging factory. Spanning a trial period of 10 months, a total of 3,271 samples were collected and statistically analyzed (average baseline + standard deviation) to evaluate the performance of a 95-gpm, multi-reactor continuous copper ion exchange treatment system that was consequently retrofitted for manganese ion exchange to meet environmental regulations. The system is also equipped with an inline acid and hot caustic regeneration system to rejuvenate exhausted IX resins and occasionally remove surface crud. Data generated from lab-scale studies was transferred to system operating modifications following multiple trial-and-error experiments. Despite the DMW treatment system failing to meet internal performance specifications for manganese output, it was observed to remove the cation notwithstanding the prevalence of copper in the waste stream. Accordingly, the average manganese output declined from 6.5 + 5.6 mg¹L⁻¹ at pre-pilot to 1.1 + 1.2 mg¹L⁻¹ post-pilot (83% baseline reduction). This milestone was achieved regardless of the average influent manganese to DMW increasing from 1.0 + 13.7 mg¹L⁻¹ at pre-pilot to 2.1 + 0.2 mg¹L⁻¹ post-pilot (110% baseline uptick). Likewise, the pre-trial and post-trial average influent copper values to DMW were 22.4 + 10.2 mg¹L⁻¹ and 32.1 + 39.1 mg¹L⁻¹, respectively (43% baseline increase). As a result, the pre-trial and post-trial average copper output values were 0.1 + 0.5 mg¹L⁻¹ and 0.4 + 1.2 mg¹L⁻¹, respectively (300% baseline uptick). Conclusively, the operating pH range upstream of treatment (between 3.5 and 5) was shown to be the largest single point of influence for optimizing manganese uptake during multi-metal ion exchange. However, the high variability of the influent copper-to-manganese ratio was observed to adversely impact the system functionality. The journal herein intends to discuss the operating parameters such as pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) that were shown to influence the functional versatility of the ion exchange system significantly. The literature also proposes to discuss limitations of the treatment system such as influent copper-to-manganese ratio variations, operational configuration, waste by-product management, and system recovery requirements to provide a balanced assessment of the multi-metal ion exchange process. The take-away from this literature is intended to analyze the overall feasibility of ion exchange for metals manufacturing facilities that lack the capability to expand hardware due to real estate restrictions, aggressive schedules, or budgetary constraints.

Keywords: copper, industrial wastewater treatment, multi-metal ion exchange, manganese

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5244 Large Scale Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Waste Water: A Study of Techno-Economics, Energy Use, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors: Cora Fernandez Dacosta, John A. Posada, Andrea Ramirez


The biodegradable family of polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates are interesting substitutes for convectional fossil-based plastics. However, the manufacturing and environmental impacts associated with their production via intracellular bacterial fermentation are strongly dependent on the raw material used and on energy consumption during the extraction process, limiting their potential for commercialization. Industrial wastewater is studied in this paper as a promising alternative feedstock for waste valorization. Based on results from laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, a conceptual process design, techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment are developed for the large-scale production of the most common type of polyhydroxyalkanoate, polyhydroxbutyrate. Intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate is obtained via fermentation of microbial community present in industrial wastewater and the downstream processing is based on chemical digestion with surfactant and hypochlorite. The economic potential and environmental performance results help identifying bottlenecks and best opportunities to scale-up the process prior to industrial implementation. The outcome of this research indicates that the fermentation of wastewater towards PHB presents advantages compared to traditional PHAs production from sugars because the null environmental burdens and financial costs of the raw material in the bioplastic production process. Nevertheless, process optimization is still required to compete with the petrochemicals counterparts.

Keywords: circular economy, life cycle assessment, polyhydroxyalkanoates, waste valorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 381