Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: disinfection

58 Solar Heating System to Promote the Disinfection

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It presents a heating system using low cost alternative solar collectors to promote the disinfection of water in low income communities that take water contaminated by bacteria. The system consists of two solar collectors, with total area of 4 m² and was built using PET bottles and cans of beer and soft drinks. Each collector is made up of 8 PVC tubes, connected in series and work in continuous flow. It will determine the flux the most appropriate to generate the temperature to promote the disinfection. Will be presented results of the efficiency and thermal loss of system and results of analysis of water after undergoing the process of heating.

Keywords: disinfection of water, solar heating system, poor communities, PVC

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57 Solar Heating System to Promote the Disinfection of Water

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It presents a heating system using low cost alternative solar collectors to promote the disinfection of water in low income communities that take water contaminated by bacteria. The system consists of two solar collectors, with total area of 4 m² and was built using PET bottles and cans of beer and soft drinks. Each collector is made up of 8 PVC tubes, connected in series and work in continuous flow. It will determine the flux the most appropriate to generate the temperature to promote the disinfection. It will be presented results of the efficiency and thermal loss of system and results of analysis of water after undergoing the process of heating.

Keywords: Disinfection of water, solar heating system, poor communities, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
56 Numerical Simulation of Solar Reactor for Water Disinfection

Authors: A. Sebti Bouzid, S. Igoud, L. Aoudjit, H. Lebik

Abstract:

Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation have emerged over the past two decades as one of the key tools for design and optimize performances of physical and chemical processes intended to water disinfection. Water photolysis is an efficient and economical technique to reduce bacterial contamination. It exploits the germicidal effect of solar ultraviolet irradiation to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms. The design of photo-reactor operating in continuous disinfection system, required tacking in account the hydrodynamic behavior of water in the reactor. Since the kinetic of disinfection depends on irradiation intensity distribution, coupling the hydrodynamic and solar radiation distribution is of crucial importance. In this work we propose a numerical simulation study for hydrodynamic and solar irradiation distribution in a tubular photo-reactor. We have used the Computational Fluid Dynamic code Fluent under the assumption of three-dimensional incompressible flow in unsteady turbulent regimes. The results of simulation concerned radiation, temperature and velocity fields are discussed and the effect of inclination angle of reactor relative to the horizontal is investigated.

Keywords: solar water disinfection, hydrodynamic modeling, solar irradiation modeling, CFD Fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
55 Environmental Study on Urban Disinfection Using an On-site Generation System

Authors: Víctor Martínez del Rey, Kourosh Nasr Esfahani, Amir Masoud Samani Majd

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In this experimental study, the behaviors of Mixed Oxidant solution components (MOS) and sodium hypochlorite (HYPO) as the most commonly applied surface disinfectant were compared through the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection as a function of the contact time and residual chlorine. In this regard, the variation of pH, free available chlorine (FAC) concentration, and electric conductivity (EC) of disinfection solutions in different concentrations were monitored over 48 h contact time. In parallel, the plant stress activated by chlorine-based disinfectants was assessed by comparing MOS and HYPO. The elements of pH and EC in the plant-soil and their environmental impacts, spread by disinfection solutions were analyzed through several concentrations of FAC including 500 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, and 5000 mg/L in irrigated water. All the experiments were carried out at the service station of Sant Cugat, Spain. The outcomes indicated lower pH and higher durability of MOS than HYPO at the same concentration of FAC which resulted in promising stability of FAC within MOS. Furthermore, the pH and EC value of plant-soil irrigated by NaOCl solution were higher than that of MOS solution at the same FAC concentration. On-site generation of MOS as a safe chlorination option might be considered an imaginary future of smart cities.

Keywords: disinfection, free available chlorine, on-site generation, sodium hypochlorite

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54 The Dependency of the Solar Based Disinfection on the Microbial Quality of the Source Water

Authors: M. T. Amina, A. A. Alazba, U. Manzoor

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Solar disinfection (SODIS) is a viable method for household water treatment and is recommended by the World Health Organization as cost effective approach that can be used without special skills. The efficiency of both SODIS and solar collector disinfection (SOCODIS) system was evaluated using four different sources of water including stored rainwater, storm water, ground water and treated sewage. Samples with naturally occurring microorganisms were exposed to sunlight for about 8-9 hours in 2-L polyethylene terephthalate bottles under similar experimental conditions. Total coliform (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) were used as microbial water quality indicators for evaluating the disinfection efficiency at different sunlight intensities categorized as weak, mild and strong weathers. Heterotrophic bacteria showed lower inactivation rates compared to E. coli and TC in both SODIS and SOCODIS system. The SOCODIS system at strong weather was the strongest disinfection system in this study and the complete inactivation of HPC was observed after 8-9 hours of exposure with SODIS being ineffective for HPC. At moderate weathers, however, the SOCODIS system did not show complete inactivation of HPC due to very high concentrations (up to 5x10^7 CFU/ml) in both storm water and treated sewage. SODIS even remained ineffective for the complete inactivation of E. coli due to its high concentrations of about 2.5x10^5 in treated sewage compared with other waters even after 8-9 hours of exposure. At weak weather, SODIS was not effective at all while SOCODIS system, though incomplete, showed good disinfection efficiency except for HPC and to some extent for high E. coli concentrations in storm water. Largest reduction of >5 log occurred for TC when used stored rainwater even after 6 hours of exposure in the case of SOCODIS system at strong weather. The lowest E. coli and HPC reduction of ~2 log was observed in SODIS system at weak weather. Further tests with varying pH and turbidity are required to understand the effects of reaction parameters that could be a step forward towards maximizing the disinfection efficiency of such systems for the complete inactivation of naturally occurring E. coli or HPC at moderate or even at weak weathers.

Keywords: efficiency, microbial, SODIS, SOCODIS, weathers

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53 Effect of Environmental Factors on Photoreactivation of Microorganisms under Indoor Conditions

Authors: Shirin Shafaei, James R. Bolton, Mohamed Gamal El Din

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Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection causes damage to the DNA or RNA of microorganisms, but many microorganisms can repair this damage after exposure to near-UV or visible wavelengths (310–480 nm) by a mechanism called photoreactivation. Photoreactivation is gaining more attention because it can reduce the efficiency of UV disinfection of wastewater several hours after treatment. The focus of many photoreactivation research activities on the single species has caused a considerable lack in knowledge about complex natural communities of microorganisms and their response to UV treatment. In this research, photoreactivation experiments were carried out on the influent of the UV disinfection unit at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Edmonton, Alberta after exposure to a Medium-Pressure (MP) UV lamp system to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on photoreactivation of microorganisms in the actual municipal wastewater. The effect of reactivation fluence, temperature, and river water on photoreactivation of total coliforms was examined under indoor conditions. The results showed that higher effective reactivation fluence values (up to 20 J/cm2) and higher temperatures (up to 25 °C) increased the photoreactivation of total coliforms. However, increasing the percentage of river in the mixtures of the effluent and river water decreased the photoreactivation of the mixtures. The results of this research can help the municipal wastewater treatment industry to examine the environmental effects of discharging their effluents into receiving waters.

Keywords: photoreactivation, reactivation fluence, river water, temperature, ultraviolet disinfection, wastewater effluent

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52 Bench-scale Evaluation of Alternative-to-Chlorination Disinfection Technologies for the Treatment of the Maltese Tap-water

Authors: Georgios Psakis, Imren Rahbay, David Spiteri, Jeanice Mallia, Martin Polidano, Vasilis P. Valdramidis

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Absence of surface water and progressive groundwater quality deterioration have exacerbated scarcity rapidly, making the Mediterranean island of Malta one of the most water-stressed countries in Europe. Water scarcity challenges have been addressed by reverse osmosis desalination of seawater, 60% of which is blended with groundwater to form the current potable tap-water supply. Chlorination has been the adopted method of water disinfection prior to distribution. However, with the Malteseconsumer chlorine sensory-threshold being as low as 0.34 ppm, presence of chorine residuals and chlorination by-products in the distributed tap-water impacts negatively on its organoleptic attributes, deterring the public from consuming it. As part of the PURILMA initiative, and with the aim of minimizing the impact of chlorine residual on the quality of the distributed water, UV-C, and hydrosonication, have been identified as cost- and energy-effective decontamination alternatives, paving the way for more sustainable water management. Bench-scale assessment of the decontamination efficiency of UV-C (254 nm), revealed 4.7-Log10 inactivation for both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis at 36 mJ/cm2. At >200 mJ/cm2fluence rates, there was a systematic 2-Log10 difference in the reductions exhibited by E. coli and E. faecalis to suggest that UV-C disinfection was more effective against E. coli. Hybrid treatment schemes involving hydrosonication(at 9.5 and 12.5 dm3/min flow rates with 1-5 MPa maximum pressure) and UV-C showed at least 1.1-fold greater bactericidal activity relative to the individualized UV-C treatments. The observed inactivation appeared to have stemmed from additive effects of the combined treatments, with hydrosonication-generated reactive oxygen species enhancing the biocidal activity of UV-C.

Keywords: disinfection, groundwater, hydrosonication, UV-C

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51 A Practical Approach Towards Disinfection Challenges in Sterile Manufacturing Area.

Authors: Doris Lacej, Eni Bushi

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Cleaning and disinfection procedures are essential for maintaining the cleanliness status of the pharmaceutical manufacturing environment particularly of the cleanrooms and sterile unit area. The Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Annex 1 recommendation highly requires the implementation of the standard and validated cleaning and disinfection protocols. However, environmental monitoring has shown that even a validated cleaning method with certified agents may result in the presence of atypical microorganisms’ colony that exceeds GMP limits for a specific cleanroom area. In response to this issue, this case study aims to arrive at the root cause of the microbial contamination observed in the sterile production environment in Profarma pharmaceutical industry in Albania through applying a problem-solving practical approach that ensures the appropriate sterility grade. The guidelines and literature emphasize the importance of several factors in the prevention of possible microbial contamination occurring in cleanrooms, grade A and C. These factors are integrated into a practical framework, to identify the root cause of the presence of Aspergillus Niger colony in the sterile production environment in Profarma pharmaceutical industry in Albania. In addition, the application of a semi-automatic disinfecting system such as H2O2 FOG into sterile grade A and grade C cleanrooms has been an effective solution in eliminating the atypical colony of Aspergillus Niger. Selecting the appropriate detergents and disinfectants at the right concentration, frequency, and combination; the presence of updated and standardized guidelines for cleaning and disinfection as well as continuous training of operators on these practices in accordance with the updated GMP guidelines are some of the identified factors that influence the success of achieving sterility grade. However, to ensure environmental sustainability it is important to be prepared for identifying the source of contamination and making the appropriate decision. The proposed case-based practical approach may help pharmaceutical companies to achieve sterile production and cleanliness environmental sustainability in challenging situations. Apart from the integration of valid agents and standardized cleaning and disinfection protocols according to GMP Annex 1, pharmaceutical companies must be careful and investigate the source and all the steps that can influence the results of an abnormal situation. Subsequently apart from identifying the root cause it is important to solve the problem with a successful alternative approach.

Keywords: cleanrooms, disinfectants, environmental monitoring, GMP Annex 1

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50 Use of Opti-Jet Cs Md1mr Device for Biocide Aerosolisation in 3t Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Robert Pintaric, Joze Matela, Stefan Pintaric, Stanka Vadnjal

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Introduction: This work is aimed to represent the use of the OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR prototype for application of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW) in magnetic resonance rooms. Material and Methods: We produced and used OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR aerosolisator whereby was performed aerosolization. The presence of microorganisms before and after the aerosolisation was recorded with the help of cyclone air sampling. Colony formed units (CFU) was counted. Results: The number of microorganisms in magnetic resonance 3T room was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible CFU reduction of 87% was recorded. Conclusions: The research has shown that the use of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of microorganisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the use of OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR is very good. With this research, we started new guidelines for aerosolization in magnetic resonance rooms. Future work: We predict that presented technique works very good but we must focus also on time capacity sensors, and new appropriate toxicological studies.

Keywords: biocide, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW), disinfection, microorganisms, OPTI-JET CS MD1MR

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49 Biosecurity Control Systems in Two Phases for Poultry Farms

Authors: M. Peña Aguilar Juan, E. Nava Galván Claudia, Pastrana Palma Alberto

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In this work was developed and implemented a thermal fogging disinfection system to counteract pathogens from poultry feces in agribusiness farms, to reduce mortality rates and increase biosafety in them. The control system consists of two phases for the conditioning of the farm during the sanitary break. In the first phase, viral and bacterial inactivation was performed by treating the stool dry cleaning, along with the development of a specialized product that foster the generation of temperatures above 55 °C in less than 24 hr, for virus inactivation. In the second phase, a process for disinfection by fogging was implemented, along with the development of a specialized disinfectant that guarantee no risk for the operators’ health or birds. As a result of this process, it was possible to minimize the level of mortality of chickens on farms from 12% to 5.49%, representing a reduction of 6.51% in the death rate, through the formula applied to the treatment of poultry litter based on oxidising agents used as antiseptics, hydrogen peroxide solutions, glacial acetic acid and EDTA in order to act on bacteria, viruses, micro bacteria and spores.

Keywords: innovation, triple helix, poultry farms, biosecurity

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
48 Numerical Simulation of Ultraviolet Disinfection in a Water Reactor

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, H. Sobhani, B. Sajadi, M. Degheh

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In recent years, experimental and numerical investigation of water UV reactors has increased significantly. The main drawback of experimental methods is confined and expensive survey of UV reactors features. In this study, a CFD model utilizing the eulerian-lagrangian framework is applied to analysis the disinfection performance of a closed conduit reactor which contains four UV lamps perpendicular to the flow. A discrete ordinates (DO) model was employed to evaluate the UV irradiance field. To investigate the importance of each of lamps on the inactivation performance, in addition to the reference model (with 4 bright lamps), several models with one or two bright lamps in various arrangements were considered. All results were reported in three inactivation kinetics. The results showed that the log inactivation of the two central bright lamps model was between 88-99 percent, close to the reference model results. Also, whatever the lamps are closer to the main flow region, they have more effect on microbial inactivation. The effect of some operational parameters such as water flow rate, inlet water temperature, and lamps power were also studied.

Keywords: Eulerian-Lagrangian framework, inactivation kinetics, log inactivation, water UV reactor

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47 Bacterial Contamination of Kitchen Sponges and Cutting Surfaces and Disinfection Procedures

Authors: Hayyan I Al Taweil

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Background: The most common of bacterium in kitchen sponges and cutting surfaces which can play a task within the cross-contamination of foods, fomites and hands by foodborne pathogens. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the incidence of bacterium in kitchen Sponge, and cutting surfaces. Material and methods: a complete of twenty four kitchen Sponges were collected from home kitchens and therefore the numbers of mesotrophic microorganism, coliform microorganism, E. coli, Salmonella, genus {pseudomonas|bacteria genus} and staphylococci in every kitchen Sponges were determined. Microbiological tests of all sponges for total mesophilic aerobic microorganism, S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella spp., and E. coli were performed on days 3, 7, and 14 by sampling. The sponges involved in daily use in kitchens countenosely with the dishwasher detergent a minimum of doubly daily Results: Results from the overall mesophilic aerobic microorganism, indicate a major increase within the variety of log CFU/ml. the amount of E. coli was reduced, Salmonella spp. was stabled, S. aureus was enhanced from the sponges throughout fourteen days. Genus Pseudomonas was enhanced and was the dominant micro flora within the sponges throughout fourteen days.

Keywords: Kitchen Sponges, Microbiological Contamination, Disinfection; cutting surface; , Cross-Contamination

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46 Spatial and Temporal Evaluations of Disinfection By-Products Formation in Coastal City Distribution Systems of Turkey

Authors: Vedat Uyak

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Seasonal variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) concentrations were investigated within three distribution systems of a coastal city of Istanbul, Turkey. Moreover, total trihalomethanes and other organics concentration were also analyzed. The investigation was based on an intensive 16 month (2009-2010) sampling program, undertaken during the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. Four THM (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform), and nine HAA (the most commonly occurring one being dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA); other compounds are monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA) and chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBAA)) species and other water quality and operational parameters were monitored at points along the distribution system between the treatment plant and the system’s extremity. The effects of coastal water sources, seasonal variation and spatial variation were examined. The results showed that THMs and HAAs concentrations vary significantly between treated waters and water at the distribution networks. When water temperature exceeds 26°C in summer, the THMs and HAAs levels are 0.8 – 1.1, and 0.4 – 0.9 times higher than treated water, respectively. While when water temperature is below 12°C in the winter, the measured THMs and HAAs concentrations at the system’s extremity were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L, and 60 μg/L, respectively. The highest THM concentrations occurred in the Buyukcekmece distribution system, with an average total HAA concentration of 92 μg/L. Moreover, the lowest THM levels were observed in the Omerli distribution network, with a mean concentration of 7 μg/L. For HAA levels, the maximum concentrations again were observed in the Buyukcekmece distribution system, with an average total HAA concentration of 57 μg/l. High spatial and seasonal variation of disinfection by-products in the drinking water of Istanbul was attributed of illegal wastewater discharges to water supplies of Istanbul city.

Keywords: disinfection byproducts, drinking water, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, seasonal variation

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45 Application of Box-Behnken Response Surface Design for Optimization of Essential Oil Based Disinfectant on Mixed Species Biofilm

Authors: Anita Vidacs, Robert Rajko, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Judit Krisch

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With the optimization of a new disinfectant the number of tests could be decreased and the cost of processing too. Good sanitizers are eco-friendly and allow no resistance evolvement of bacteria. The essential oils (EOs) are natural antimicrobials, and most of them have the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status. In our study, the effect of the EOs cinnamon, marjoram, and thyme was investigated against mixed species bacterial biofilms of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. The optimal concentration of EOs, disinfection time and level of pH were evaluated with the aid of Response Surface Box-Behnken Design (RSD) on 1 day and 7 days old biofilms on metal, plastic, and wood surfaces. The variable factors were in the range of 1-3 times of minimum bactericide concentration (MBC); 10-110 minutes acting time and 4.5- 7.5 pH. The optimized EO disinfectant was compared to industrial used chemicals (HC-DPE, Hypo). The natural based disinfectants were applicable; the acting time was below 30 minutes. EOs were able to eliminate the biofilm from the used surfaces except from wood. The disinfection effect of the EO based natural solutions was in most cases equivalent or better compared to chemical sanitizers used in food industry.

Keywords: biofilm, Box-Behnken design, disinfectant, essential oil

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44 A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Devendra Saroj, Judy Lee

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Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.

Keywords: abattoir wastewater, ultrasound, wastewater treatment, water disinfection

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43 Response of Planktonic and Aggregated Bacterial Cells to Water Disinfection with Photodynamic Inactivation

Authors: Thayse Marques Passos, Brid Quilty, Mary Pryce

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The interest in developing alternative techniques to obtain safe water, free from pathogens and hazardous substances, is growing in recent times. The photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms (PDI) is a promising ecologically-friendly and multi-target approach for water disinfection. It uses visible light as an energy source combined with a photosensitiser (PS) to transfer energy/electrons to a substrate or molecular oxygen generating reactive oxygen species, which cause cidal effects towards cells. PDI has mainly been used in clinical studies and investigations on its application to disinfect water is relatively recent. The majority of studies use planktonic cells. However, in their natural environments, bacteria quite often do not occur as freely suspended cells (planktonic) but in cell aggregates that are either freely floating or attached to surfaces as biofilms. Microbes can form aggregates and biofilms as a strategy to protect them from environmental stress. As aggregates, bacteria have a better metabolic function, they communicate more efficiently, and they are more resistant to biocide compounds than their planktonic forms. Among the bacteria that are able to form aggregates are members of the genus Pseudomonas, they are a very diverse group widely distributed in the environment. Pseudomonas species can form aggregates/biofilms in water and can cause particular problems in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic inactivation in killing a range of planktonic cells including Escherichia coli DSM 1103, Staphylococcus aureus DSM 799, Shigella sonnei DSM 5570, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas putida DSM 6125, and aggregating cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50090, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The experiments were performed in glass Petri dishes, containing the bacterial suspension and the photosensitiser, irradiated with a multi-LED (wavelengths 430nm and 660nm) for different time intervals. The responses of the cells were monitored using the pour plate technique and confocal microscopy. The study showed that bacteria belonging to Pseudomonads group tend to be more tolerant to PDI. While E. coli, S. aureus, S. sonnei and S. enterica required a dosage ranging from 39.47 J/cm2 to 59.21 J/cm2 for a 5 log reduction, Pseudomonads needed a dosage ranging from 78.94 to 118.42 J/cm2, a higher dose being required when the cells aggregated.

Keywords: bacterial aggregation, photoinactivation, Pseudomonads, water disinfection

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42 Effects of Ultraviolet Treatment on Microbiological Load and Phenolic Content of Vegetable Juice

Authors: Kubra Dogan, Fatih Tornuk

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Due to increasing consumer demand for the high-quality food products and awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food minimal processing becomes more popular in modern food preservation. To date, heat treatment is often used for inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in foods. However, it may cause significant changes in the quality and nutritional properties of food. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of heat treatment, several alternatives of non-thermal microbial inactivation processes have been investigated. Ultraviolet (UV) inactivation is a promising and feasible method for better quality and longer shelf life as an alternative to heat treatment, which aims to inhibit spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and to inactivate the enzymes in vegetable juice production. UV-C is a sub-class of UV treatment which shows the highest microcidal effect between 250-270 nm. The wavelength of 254 nm is used for the surface disinfection of certain liquid food products such as vegetable juice. Effects of UV-C treatment on microbiological load and quality parameter of vegetable juice which is a mix of celery, carrot, lemon and orange was investigated. Our results showed that storing of UV-C applied vegetable juice for three months, reduced the count of TMAB by 3.5 log cfu/g and yeast-mold by 2 log cfu/g compared to control sample. Total phenolic content was found to be 514.3 ± 0.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/L, and there wasn’t a significant difference compared to control. The present work suggests that UV-C treatment is an alternative method for disinfection of vegetable juice since it enables adequate microbial inactivation, longer shelf life and has minimal effect on degradation of quality parameters of vegetable juice.

Keywords: heat treatment, phenolic content, shelf life, ultraviolet (UV-C), vegetable juice

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41 Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer

Authors: Nikolai Nosik, Vladislav Podmasterjev, Nina Kondrashina, Marina Chataeva, Olga Lobach, Dmitry Noosik, Sergei Razumovskii

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Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.

Keywords: adenovirus, disinfection, ozone, poliovirus

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40 Efficiency on the Enteric Viral Removal in Four Potable Water Treatment Plants in Northeastern Colombia

Authors: Raquel Amanda Villamizar Gallardo, Oscar Orlando Ortíz Rodríguez

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Enteric viruses are cosmopolitan agents present in several environments including water. These viruses can cause different diseases including gastroenteritis, hepatitis, conjunctivitis, respiratory problems among others. Although in Colombia there are not regulations concerning to routine viral analysis of drinking water, an enhanced understanding of viral pollution and resistance to treatments is desired in order to assure pure water to the population. Viral detection is often complex due to the need of specialized and time-consuming procedures. In addition, viruses are highly diluted in water which is a drawback from the analytical point of view. To this end, a fast and selective detection method for detection enteric viruses (i.e. Hepatitis A and Rotavirus) were applied. Micro- magnetic particles were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies anti-Hepatitis and anti-Rotavirus and they were used to capture, concentrate and separate whole viral particles in raw water and drinking water samples from four treatment plants identified as CAR-01, MON-02, POR-03, TON-04 and located in the Northeastern Colombia. Viruses were molecularly by using RT-PCR One Step Superscript III. Each plant was analyzed at the entry and exit points, in order to determine the initial presence and eventual reduction of Hepatitis A and Rotavirus after disinfection. The results revealed the presence of both enteric viruses in a 100 % of raw water analyzed in all plants. This represents a potential health hazard, especially for those people whose use this water for agricultural purposes. However, in drinking water analysis, enteric viruses was only positive in CAR-01, where was found the presence of Rotavirus. As a conclusion, the results confirm Rotavirus as the best indicator to evaluate the efficacy of potable treatment plant in eliminating viruses. CAR potable water plant should improve their disinfection process in order to remove efficiently enteric viruses.

Keywords: drinking water, hepatitis A, rotavirus, virus removal

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39 Inactivation of Root-Knot Nematode Eggs Meloidogyne enterolobii in Irrigation Water Treated with Ozone

Authors: I. A. Landa-Fernandez, I. Monje-Ramirez, M. T. Orta-Ledesma

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Every year plant-parasitic nematodes diminish the yield of high-value crops worldwide causing important economic losses. Currently, Meloidogyne enterolobii has increased its importance due to its high aggressiveness, increasing geographical distribution and host range. Root-knot nematodes inhabit the rhizosphere soil around plant roots. However, they can come into contact with irrigation water. Thus, plant-parasitic nematodes can be transported by water, as eggs or juveniles. Due to their high resistance, common water disinfection methods are not effective for inactivating these parasites. Ozone is the most effective disinfectant for microbial inactivation. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that ozone treatment is an alternative method control in irrigation water of the root-knot nematode M. enterolobii. It has been shown that ozonation is an effective treatment for the inactivation of protozoan cysts and oocysts (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) and for other species of the genus Meloidogyne (M. incognita), but not for the enterolobii specie. In this study, the strain of M. enterolobii was isolated from tomatoes roots. For the tests, eggs were used and were inoculated in water with similar characteristics of irrigation water. Subsequently, the disinfection process was carried out in an ozonation unit. The performance of the treatments was evaluated through the egg's viability by assessing its structure by optical microscopy. As a result of exposure to ozone, the viability of the nematode eggs was reduced practically in its entirety; with dissolved ozone levels in water close to the standard concentration (equal to 0.4 mgO₃/L), but with high contact times (greater than 4 min): 0.2 mgO₃/L for 15 minutes or 0.55 mgO₃/L for 10 minutes. Additionally, the effect of temperature, alkalinity and organic matter of the water was evaluated. Ozonation is effective and a promising alternative for the inactivation of nematodes in irrigation water, which could contribute to diminish the agricultural losses caused by these organisms.

Keywords: inactivation process, irrigation water treatment, ozonation, plant-parasite nematodes

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38 Electrochemical Inactivation of Toxic Cyanobacteria and Degradation of Cyanotoxins

Authors: Belal Bakheet, John Beardall, Xiwang Zhang, David McCarthy

Abstract:

The potential risks associated with toxic cyanobacteria have raised growing environmental and public health concerns leading to an increasing effort into researching ways to bring about their removal from water, together with destruction of their associated cyanotoxins. A variety of toxins are synthesized by cyanobacteria and include hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, and cytotoxins which can cause a range of symptoms in humans from skin irritation to serious liver and nerve damage. Therefore drinking water treatment processes should ensure the consumers’ safety by removing both cyanobacterial cells, and cyanotoxins from the water. Cyanobacterial cells and cyanotoxins presented challenges to the conventional water treatment systems; their accumulation within drinking water treatment plants has been reported leading to plants shut down. Thus, innovative and effective water purification systems to tackle cyanobacterial pollution are required. In recent years there has been increasing attention to the electrochemical oxidation process as a feasible alternative disinfection method which is able to generate in situ a variety of oxidants that would achieve synergistic effects in the water disinfection process and toxin degradation. By utilizing only electric current, the electrochemical process through electrolysis can produce reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals from the water, or other oxidants such as chlorine from chloride ions present in the water. From extensive physiological and morphological investigation of cyanobacterial cells during electrolysis, our results show that these oxidants have significant impact on cell inactivation, simultaneously with cyanotoxins removal without the need for chemicals addition. Our research aimed to optimize existing electrochemical oxidation systems and develop new systems to treat water containing toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. The research covers detailed mechanism study on oxidants production and cell inactivation in the treatment under environmental conditions. Overall, our study suggests that the electrochemical treatment process e is an effective method for removal of toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

Keywords: toxic cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, electrochemical process, oxidants

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37 Health Risk Assessment of Trihalogenmethanes in Drinking Water

Authors: Lenka Jesonkova, Frantisek Bozek

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Trihalogenmethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts with non-carcinogenic and genotoxic effects. The contamination of 6 sites close to the water treatment plant has been monitored in second largest city of the Czech Republic. Health risk assessment including both non-carcinogenic and genotoxic risk for long term exposition was realized using the critical concentrations. Concentrations of trihalogenmethanes met national standards in all samples. Risk assessment proved that health risks from trihalogenmethanes are acceptable on each site.

Keywords: drinking water, health risk assessment, trihalogenmethanes, water pollution

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36 Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Esther Paul, Ibrahim A. M. Alzaydani, Al Hakami, Caryl Beynon

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Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures

Keywords: healthcare-associated infections, infection control measures, perspectives, qualitative

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35 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz

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In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

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34 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra

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Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: aromatic fractions, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, spectral indices

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33 Assessment of Quality of Drinking Water in Residential Houses of Kuwait by Using GIS Method

Authors: Huda Aljabi

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The existence of heavy metals similar to cadmium, arsenic, lead and mercury in the drinking water be able to be a threat to public health. The amount of the substances of these heavy metals in drinking water has expected importance. The National Primary Drinking Water Regulations have set limits for the concentrations of these elements in drinking water because of their toxicity. Furthermore, bromate shaped during the disinfection of drinking water by Ozonation can also be a health hazard. The Paper proposed here will concentrate on the compilation of all available data and information on the presence of trace metals and bromate in the drinking water at residential houses distributed over different areas in Kuwait. New data will also be collected through a sampling of drinking water at some of the residential houses present in different areas of Kuwait and their analysis for the contents of trace metals and bromate. The collected data will be presented on maps showing the distribution of these metals and bromate in the drinking water of Kuwait. Correlation among different chemical parameters will also be investigated using the GRAPHER software. This will help both the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) in taking corrective measures and also in planning the infrastructure activities for the future.

Keywords: bromate, ozonation, GIS, heavy metals

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32 N-Type GaN Thinning for Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency in GaN-Based Thin-Film Flip-Chip Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Authors: Anil Kawan, Soon Jae Yu, Jong Min Park

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GaN-based 365 nm wavelength ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LED) have various applications: curing, molding, purification, deodorization, and disinfection etc. However, their usage is limited by very low output power, because of the light absorption in the GaN layers. In this study, we demonstrate a method utilizing removal of 365 nm absorption layer buffer GaN and thinning the n-type GaN so as to improve the light extraction efficiency of the GaN-based 365 nm UV LED. The UV flip chip LEDs of chip size 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm were fabricated using GaN epilayers on a sapphire substrate. Via-hole n-type contacts and highly reflective Ag metal were used for efficient light extraction. LED wafer was aligned and bonded to AlN carrier wafer. To improve the extraction efficiency of the flip chip LED, sapphire substrate and absorption layer buffer GaN were removed by using laser lift-off and dry etching, respectively. To further increase the extraction efficiency of the LED, exposed n-type GaN thickness was reduced by using inductively coupled plasma etching.

Keywords: extraction efficiency, light emitting diodes, n-GaN thinning, ultraviolet

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31 Numerical Study of UV Irradiation Effect on Air Disinfection Systems

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, M. Degheh, B. Sajadi, H. Sobhani

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The induct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) systems are broadly used nowadays and their utilization is widened every day. Even though these systems are not applicable individually, they are very suitable supplements for the traditional filtration systems. The amount of inactivated microorganisms is dependent on the air velocity, lamp power, fluence rate distribution, and also germicidal susceptibility of microorganisms. In this paper, these factors are investigated utilizing an air-microorganism two-phase numerical model. The eulerian-lagrangian method was used to have more detailed information on the history of each particle. The UVGI system was modeled in three steps including: 1) modeling the air flow, 2) modeling the discrete phase of particles, 3) modeling the UV intensity field, and 4) modeling the particle inactivation. The results from modeling different lamp arrangements and powers showed that the system functions better at more homogeneous irradiation distribution. Since increasing the air flow rate of the device results in increasing of particle inactivation rate, the optimal air velocity shall be adjusted in accordance with the microorganism production rate, and the air quality requirement using the curves represented in this paper.

Keywords: CFD, microorganism, two-phase flow, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

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30 Upgrading along Value Chains: Strategies for Thailand's Functional Milk Industry

Authors: Panisa Harnpathananun

Abstract:

This paper is 'Practical Experience Analysis' which aims to analyze critical obstacles hampering the growth of the functional milk industry and suggest recommendations to overcome those obstacles. Using the Sectoral Innovation System (SIS) along value chain analysis, it is found that restriction in regulation of milk disinfection process, difficulty of dairy entrepreneurs for health claim approval of functional food and beverage and lack of intermediary between entrepreneurs and certified units for certification of functional foods and milk are major causes that needed to be resolved. Consequently, policy recommendations are proposed to tackle the problems occurring throughout the value chain. For the upstream, a collaborative platform using the quadruple helix model is proposed in a pattern of effective dairy cooperatives. For the midstream, regulation issues of new process, extended shelf life (ESL) milk, or prolonged milk are necessary, which can be extended the global market opportunity. For the downstream, mechanism of intermediary between entrepreneurs and certified units can be assisted in certified process of functional milk, especially a process of 'health claim' approval.

Keywords: Thailand, functional milk, supply chain, quadruple helix, intermediary, functional food

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29 Eradication of Gram-Positive Bacteria by Photosensitizers Immobilized in Polymers

Authors: Marina Nisnevitch, Anton Valkov, Faina Nakonechny, Kate Adar Raik, Yamit Mualem

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Photosensitizers are dye compounds belonging to various chemical groups that in all the cases have a developed structure of conjugated double bonds. Under illumination with visible light, the photosensitizers are excited and transfer the absorbed energy to the oxygen dissolved in an aqueous phase, leading to production of a reactive oxygen species which cause irreversible damage to bacterial cells. When immobilized onto a solid phase, photosensitizers preserve their antibacterial properties. In the present study, photosensitizers were immobilized in polyethylene or propylene and tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, S. epidermidis and Streptococcus sp. For this purpose, water-soluble photosensitizers, Rose Bengal sodium salt, and methylene blue as well as water-insoluble hematoporphyrin and Rose Bengal lactone, were immobilized by dissolution in melted polymers to yield 3 mm diameter rods and 3-5 mm beads. All four photosensitizers were found to be effective in the eradication of Gram-positive bacteria under illumination by a white luminescent lamp or sunlight. The immobilized photosensitizers can be applied for continuous water disinfection; they can be easily removed at the end of the treatment and reused.

Keywords: antimicrobial polymers, gram-positive bacteria, immobilization of photosensitizers, photodynamic antibacterial activity

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