Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5912

Search results for: common drug combinations

5912 Genetics of Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions of Most Commonly Used Drug Combinations in the UK: Uncovering Unrecognised Associations

Authors: Mustafa Malki, Ewan R. Pearson

Abstract:

Tools utilized by health care practitioners to flag potential adverse drug reactions secondary to drug-drug interactions ignore individual genetic variation, which has the potential to markedly alter the severity of these interactions. To our best knowledge, there have been limited published studies on the impact of genetic variation on drug-drug interactions. Therefore, our aim in this project is the discovery of previously unrecognized, clinically important drug-drug-gene interactions (DDGIs) within the list of most commonly used drug combinations in the UK. The UKBB database was utilized to identify the top most frequently prescribed drug combinations in the UK with at least one route of interaction (over than 200 combinations were identified). We have recognised 37 common and unique interacting genes considering all of our drug combinations. Out of around 600 potential genetic variants found in these 37 genes, 100 variants have met the selection criteria (common variant with minor allele frequency ≥ 5%, independence, and has passed HWE test). The association between these variants and the use of each of our top drug combinations has been tested with a case-control analysis under the log-additive model. As the data is cross-sectional, drug intolerance has been identified from the genotype distribution as presented by the lower percentage of patients carrying the risky allele and on the drug combination compared to those free of these risk factors and vice versa with drug tolerance. In GoDARTs database, the same list of common drug combinations identified by the UKBB was utilized here with the same list of candidate genetic variants but with the addition of 14 new SNPs so that we have a total of 114 variants which have met the selection criteria in GoDARTs. From the list of the top 200 drug combinations, we have selected 28 combinations where the two drugs in each combination are known to be used chronically. For each of our 28 combinations, three drug response phenotypes have been identified (drug stop/switch, dose decrease, or dose increase of any of the two drugs during their interaction). The association between each of the three phenotypes belonging to each of our 28 drug combinations has been tested against our 114 candidate genetic variants. The results show replication of four findings between both databases : (1) Omeprazole +Amitriptyline +rs2246709 (A > G) variant in CYP3A4 gene (p-values and ORs with the UKBB and GoDARTs respectively = 0.048,0.037,0.92,and 0.52 (dose increase phenotype)) (2) Simvastatin + Ranitidine + rs9332197 (T > C) variant in CYP2C9 gene (0.024,0.032,0.81, and 5.75 (drug stop/switch phenotype)) (3) Atorvastatin + Doxazosin + rs9282564 (T > C) variant in ABCB1 gene (0.0015,0.0095,1.58,and 3.14 (drug stop/switch phenotype)) (4) Simvastatin + Nifedipine + rs2257401 (C > G) variant in CYP3A7 gene (0.025,0.019,0.77,and 0.30 (drug stop/switch phenotype)). In addition, some other non-replicated, but interesting, significant findings were detected. Our work also provides a great source of information for researchers interested in DD, DG, or DDG interactions studies as it has highlighted the top common drug combinations in the UK with recognizing 114 significant genetic variants related to drugs' pharmacokinetic.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, common drug combinations, drug-drug-gene interactions, pharmacogenomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
5911 Management Practices in Hypertension: Results of Win-Over-A Pan India Registry

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya, Kamlesh Patel

Abstract:

Background: Hypertension is a common disease seen in clinical practice and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many patients require combination therapy for the management of hypertension. Objective: To evaluate co-morbidities, risk factors and management practices of hypertension in Indian population. Material and methods: A total of 1596 hypertensive adult patients received anti-hypertensive medications were studied in a cross-sectional, multi-centric, non-interventional, observational registry. Statistical analysis: Categories or nominal data was expressed as numbers with percentages. Continuous variables were analyzed by descriptive statistics using mean, SD, and range Chi square test was used for in between group comparison. Results: The study included 73.50% males and 26.50% females. Overweight (50.50%) and obesity (30.01%) was common in the hypertensive patients (n=903). A total of 54.76% patients had history of smoking. Alcohol use (33.08%), sedentary life style (32.96%) and history of tobacco chewing (17.92%) were the other lifestyle habits of hypertensive patients. Diabetes (36.03%) and dyslipidemia (39.79%) history was common in these patients. Family history of hypertension and diabetes was seen in 82.21% and 45.99% patients respectively. Most (89.16%) patients were treated with combination of antihypertensive agents. ARBs were the by far most commonly used agents (91.98%) followed by calcium channel blockers (68.23%) and diuretics (60.21%). ARB was the most (80.35%) preferred agent as monotherapy. ARB was also the most common agent as a component of dual therapy, four drug and five drug combinations. Conclusion: Most of the hypertensive patients need combination treatment with antihypertensive agents. ARBs are the most preferred agents as monotherapy for the management of hypertension. ARBs are also very commonly used as a component of combination therapy during hypertension management.

Keywords: antihypertensive, hypertension, management, ARB

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
5910 Potential Drug-Drug Interactions at a Referral Hematology-Oncology Ward in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Sara Ataei, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Shirinsadat Badri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Iman Karimzadeh, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh

Abstract:

Purpose: To assess the pattern and probable risk factors for moderate and major drug–drug interactions in a referral hematology-oncology ward in Iran. Methods: All patients admitted to hematology–oncology ward of Dr. Shariati Hospital during a 6-month period and received at least two anti-cancer or non-anti-cancer medications simultaneously were included. All being scheduled anti-cancer and non-anti-cancer medications both prescribed and administered during ward stay were considered for drug–drug interaction screening by Lexi-Interact On- Desktop software. Results: One hundred and eighty-five drug–drug interactions with moderate or major severity were detected from 83 patients. Most of drug–drug interactions (69.73 %) were classified as pharmacokinetics. Fluconazole (25.95 %) was the most commonly offending medication in drug–drug interactions. Interaction of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim with fluconazole was the most common drug–drug interaction (27.27 %). Vincristine with imatinib was the only identified interaction between two anti-cancer agents. The number of administered medications during ward stay was considered as an independent risk factor for developing a drug–drug interaction. Conclusions: Potential moderate or major drug–drug interactions occur frequently in patients with hematological malignancies or related diseases. Performing larger standard studies are required to assess the real clinical and economical effects of drug–drug interactions on patients with hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

Keywords: drug–drug interactions, hematology–oncology ward, hematological malignancies

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
5909 In vitro P-Glycoprotein Modulation: Combinatorial Approach Using Natural Products

Authors: Jagdish S. Patel, Piyush Chudasama

Abstract:

Context: Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays critical role in absorption of many drug candidates which results into lower bioavailability of the drug. P-glycoprotein also over expresses in many pathological conditions like diabetes, affecting the drug therapy. Modulation of P-gp expression using inhibitors can help in designing novel formulation enhancing the bioavailability of the drug in question. Objectives: The main focus of the study was to develop advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced P-gp over expression in Caco-2 cells. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate were used to evaluate their P-gp inhibitory action using combinatorial approach. Materials and methods: Methylglyoxal (MG) induced P-gp over expression was checked in Caco-2 cells using real time PCR. P-gp inhibitory effects of the phytochemicals were measured after induction with MG alone and in combination of any two compounds. Cytotoxicity of each of the phytochemical was evaluated using MTT assay. Results: Induction with MG (100mM) significantly induced the over expression of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells after 24 hr. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate alone significantly reduced the level of P-gp within 6 hr of treatment period monitored by real time PCR. The combination of any two phytochemical also down regulated the expression of P-gp in cells. Combinations of Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have shown significant down regulation when compared with other two combinations. Conclusions: Combinatorial approach for down regulating the expression of P-gp, in pathological conditions like diabetes, has demonstrated promising approach for therapeutic purpose.

Keywords: p-glycoprotein, curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, p-gp inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5908 Development of an Erodable Matrix Drug Delivery Platform for Controled Delivery of Non Steroidal Anti Inflamatory Drugs Using Melt Granulation Process

Authors: A. Hilsana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

Even though a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are available with different chemistries, they share a common solubility characteristic that is they are relatively more soluble in alkaline environment and practically insoluble in acidic environment. This work deals with developing a wax matrix drug delivery platform for controlled delivery of three model NSAIDS, Diclofenac sodium (DNa), Mefenamic acid (MA) and Naproxen (NPX) using the melt granulation technique. The aim of developing the platform was to have a general understanding on how an erodible matrix system modulates drug delivery rate and extent and how it can be optimized to give a delivery system which shall release the drug as per a common target product profile (TPP). Commonly used waxes like Cetostearyl alcohol and stearic acid were used singly an in combination to achieve a TPP of not 15 to 35% in 1 hour and not less than 80% Q in 24 hours. Full factorial design of experiments was followed for optimization of the formulation.

Keywords: NSAIDs, controlled delivery, target product profile, melt granulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5907 Cannabis for the Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy in Children

Authors: Sarah E. Casey

Abstract:

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in children and approximately one-third of children with epilepsy have seizures that are uncontrolled on anticonvulsants alone. Cannabidiol is shown to be an effective treatment at reducing the amount of breakthrough seizures experienced by children with drug resistant epilepsy. Improvements in quality of life and overall condition were noted during cannabidiol treatment. Adverse side effects were experienced and were generally mild to moderate in nature. Additional double-blind, controlled studies with a more diverse sample population and standardized dosing are needed to ensure the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol use in children with drug resistant epilepsy.

Keywords: cannabis, drug resistant epilepsy, children, epilepsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
5906 Akt: Isoform-Specific Regulation of Cellular Signaling in Cancer

Authors: Bhumika Wadhwa, Fayaz Malik

Abstract:

The serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt, is one of the multifaceted kinase in human kinome, existing in three isoforms. Akt plays a vital role in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediated oncogenesis in various malignancies and is one of the attractive targets for cancer drug discovery. The functional significance of an individual isoform of Akt is not redundant in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis instead Akt isoforms play distinct roles during metastasis; thereby regulating EMT. This study aims to determine isoform specific functions of Akt in cancer. The results obtained suggest that Akt1 restrict tumor invasion, whereas Akt2 promotes cell migration and invasion by various techniques like MTT, wound healing and invasion assay. Similarly, qRT-PCR also revealed that Akt3 has shown promising results in promoting cancer cell migration. Contrary to pro-oncogenic properties attributed to Akt, it is to be understood how various isoforms of Akt compensates each other in the regulation of common pathways during cancer progression and drug resistance. In conclusion, this study aims to target selective isoforms which is essential to inhibit cancer. However, the question now is whether, and how much, Akt inhibition will be tolerated in the clinic remains to be answered and the experiments will have to address the question of which combinations of newly devised Akt isoform specific inhibitors exert a favourable therapeutic effect in in vivo models of cancer to provide the therapeutic window with minimal toxicity.

Keywords: Akt isoforms, cancer, drug resistance, epithelial mesenchymal transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
5905 Adaptive Strategies to Nutrient Deficiency of Doubled Diploid Citrumelo 4475: A Prospective Study Based on Structural, Ultrastructural, Physiological and Biochemical Parameters

Authors: J. Oustric, L. Berti, J. Santini

Abstract:

Nowadays, the objective of durable agriculture, and in particular organic agriculture, is to reduce the level of fertilizer inputs used in crops. Limiting the quantity of fertilizer inputs would optimize the economical result and minimizing the environmental impact. Nutrient deficiency, particularly of a major nutrient (N, P, and K), can seriously affect fruit production and quality. In citrus crops, rootstock/scion combinations. In citrus crop, scion/rootstock combinations are used frequently to improve tolerance to various abiotic stresses. New rootstocks are needed to respond to these constraints, and the use of new tetraploid rootstocks better adapted to lower nutrient intake could offer a promising way forward. The aim of this work was to determine whether a better tolerance to nutrient deficiency could be observed in a doubled diploid seedling and whether this tolerance could be observed in common clementine scion if used as rootstocks. We selected diploid (CM2x) and doubled diploid (CM4x) Citrumelo 4475 seedlings and common clementine (C) grafted onto Citrumelo 4475 diploid (C/CM2x) and doubled diploid (C/CM4x) rootstocks. Nutrient deficiency effects on the seedlings and scion/rootstock combinations were analyzed by studying anatomical, structural and ultrastructural determinants (chlorosis, stomata, ostiole and cells and their organelles), photosynthetic properties (leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pₙₑₜ), stomatal conductance (gₛ), chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fᵥ/Fₘ)) and oxidative marker (malondialdehyde). Nutrient deficiency affected differently foliar tissues, physiological parameters, and oxidative metabolism in leaves of seedlings depending on their ploidy level and of common clementine scion depending on their rootstocks ploidy level. Both CM4x and C/CM4x presented lower foliar damages (chlorosis, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and plastoglobuli), photosynthesis processes alteration (Pₙₑₜ, gₛ, and Fᵥ/Fₘ), and malondialdehyde accumulation than CM2x and C/CM2x after nutrient deficiency. Doubled diploid Citrumelo 4475 can improve nutrient deficiency tolerance, and its use as a rootstock allows to confer this tolerance to the common clementine scion.

Keywords: nutrient deficiency, oxidative stress, photosynthesis, polyploid rootstocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
5904 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe

Abstract:

Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
5903 Combination Therapies Targeting Apoptosis Pathways in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Authors: Ahlam Ali, Katrina Lappin, Jaine Blayney, Ken Mills

Abstract:

Leukaemia is the most frequently (30%) occurring type of paediatric cancer. Of these, approximately 80% are acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases making up the remaining 20% alongside other leukaemias. Unfortunately, children with AML do not have promising prognosis with only 60% surviving 5 years or longer. It has been highlighted recently the need for age-specific therapies for AML patients, with paediatric AML cases having a different mutational landscape compared with AML diagnosed in adult patients. Drug Repurposing is a recognized strategy in drug discovery and development where an already approved drug is used for diseases other than originally indicated. We aim to identify novel combination therapies with the promise of providing alternative more effective and less toxic induction therapy options. Our in-silico analysis highlighted ‘cell death and survival’ as an aberrant, potentially targetable pathway in paediatric AML patients. On this basis, 83 apoptotic inducing compounds were screened. A preliminary single agent screen was also performed to eliminate potentially toxic chemicals, then drugs were constructed into a pooled library with 10 drugs per well over 160 wells, with 45 possible pairs and 120 triples in each well. Seven cell lines were used during this study to represent the clonality of AML in paediatric patients (Kasumi-1, CMK, CMS, MV11-14, PL21, THP1, MOLM-13). Cytotoxicity was assessed up to 72 hours using CellTox™ Green reagent. Fluorescence readings were normalized to a DMSO control. Z-Score was assigned to each well based on the mean and standard deviation of all the data. Combinations with a Z-Score <2 were eliminated and the remaining wells were taken forward for further analysis. A well was considered ‘successful’ if each drug individually demonstrated a Z-Score <2, while the combination exhibited a Z-Score >2. Each of the ten compounds in one well (155) had minimal or no effect as single agents on cell viability however, a combination of two or more of the compounds resulted in a substantial increase in cell death, therefore the ten compounds were de-convoluted to identify a possible synergistic pair/triple combinations. The screen identified two possible ‘novel’ drug pairing, with BCL2 inhibitor ABT-737, combined with either a CDK inhibitor Purvalanol A, or AKT/ PI3K inhibitor LY294002. (ABT-737- 100 nM+ Purvalanol A- 1 µM) (ABT-737- 100 nM+ LY294002- 2 µM). Three possible triple combinations were identified (LY2409881+Akti-1/2+Purvalanol A, SU9516+Akti-1/2+Purvalanol A, and ABT-737+LY2409881+Purvalanol A), which will be taken forward for examining their efficacy at varying concentrations and dosing schedules, across multiple paediatric AML cell lines for optimisation of maximum synergy. We believe that our combination screening approach has potential for future use with a larger cohort of drugs including FDA approved compounds and patient material.

Keywords: AML, drug repurposing, ABT-737, apoptosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
5902 Drug Therapy Problem and Its Contributing Factors among Pediatric Patients with Infectious Diseases Admitted to Jimma University Medical Center, South West Ethiopia: Prospective Observational Study

Authors: Desalegn Feyissa Desu

Abstract:

Drug therapy problem is a significant challenge to provide high quality health care service for the patients. It is associated with morbidity, mortality, increased hospital stay, and reduced quality of life. Moreover, pediatric patients are quite susceptible to drug therapy problems. Thus this study aimed to assess drug therapy problem and its contributing factors among pediatric patients diagnosed with infectious disease admitted to pediatric ward of Jimma university medical center, from April 1 to June 30, 2018. Prospective observational study was conducted among pediatric patients with infectious disease admitted from April 01 to June 30, 2018. Drug therapy problems were identified by using Cipolle’s and strand’s drug related problem classification method. Patient’s written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study. Patient’s specific data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi data version 4.0.2 and then exported to statistical software package version 21.0 for analysis. To identify predictors of drug therapy problems occurrence, multiple stepwise backward logistic regression analysis was done. The 95% CI was used to show the accuracy of data analysis and statistical significance was considered at p-value < 0.05. A total of 304 pediatric patients were included in the study. Of these, 226(74.3%) patients had at least one drug therapy problem during their hospital stay. A total of 356 drug therapy problems were identified among two hundred twenty six patients. Non-compliance (28.65%) and dose too low (27.53%) were the most common type of drug related problems while disease comorbidity [AOR=3.39, 95% CI= (1.89-6.08)], Polypharmacy [AOR=3.16, 95% CI= (1.61-6.20)] and more than six days stay in hospital [AOR=3.37, 95% CI= (1.71-6.64) were independent predictors of drug therapy problem occurrence. Drug therapy problems were common in pediatric patients with infectious disease in the study area. Presence of comorbidity, polypharmacy and prolonged hospital stay were the predictors of drug therapy problem in study area. Therefore, to overcome the significant gaps in pediatric pharmaceutical care, clinical pharmacists, Pediatricians, and other health care professionals have to work in collaboration.

Keywords: drug therapy problem, pediatric, infectious disease, Ethiopia

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
5901 Formulation and Evaluation of TDDS for Sustained Release Ondansetron HCL Patches

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

Abstract:

The skin can be used as the site for drug administration for continuous transdermal drug infusion into the systemic circulation. For the continuous diffusion/penetration of the drugs through the intact skin surface membrane-moderated systems, matrix dispersion type systems, adhesive diffusion controlled systems and micro reservoir systems have been developed. Various penetration enhancers are used for the drug diffusion through skin. In matrix dispersion type systems, the drug is dispersed in the solvent along with the polymers and solvent allowed to evaporate forming a homogeneous drug-polymer matrix. Matrix type systems were developed in the present study. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system comprising of ondansetron-HCl with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric combinations using solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was studied by infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed no physical-chemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. The patches were further subjected to various physical evaluations along with the in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin. On the basis of results obtained form the in vitro study and physical evaluation, the patches containing hydrophilic polymers i.e. polyvinyl alcohol and poly vinyl pyrrolidone with oleic acid as the penetration enhancer(5%) were considered as suitable for large scale manufacturing with a backing layer and a suitable adhesive membrane.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, penetration enhancers, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, ondansetron HCl

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
5900 Effect of Ecologic Fertilizers on Productivity and Yield Quality of Common and Spelt Wheat

Authors: Danutė Jablonskytė-Raščė, Audronė MankevičIenė, Laura Masilionytė

Abstract:

During the period 2009–2015, in Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, the effect of ecologic fertilizers Ekoplant, bio-activators Biokal 01 and Terra Sorb Foliar and their combinations on the formation of the productivity elements, grain yield and quality of winter wheat, spelt (Triticum spelta L.), and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analysed in ecological agro-system. The soil under FAO classification – Endocalcari-Endo-hypogleyic-Cambisol. In a clay loam soil, ecological fertilizer produced from sunflower hull ash and this fertilizer in combination with plant extracts and bio-humus exerted an influence on the grain yield of spelt and common wheat and their mixture (increased the grain yield by 10.0%, compared with the unfertilized crops). Spelt grain yield was by on average 16.9% lower than that of common wheat and by 11.7% lower than that of the mixture, but the role of spelt in organic production systems is important because with no mineral fertilization it produced grains with a higher (by 4%) gluten content and exhibited a greater ability to suppress weeds (by on average 61.9% lower weed weight) compared with the grain yield and weed suppressive ability of common wheat and mixture. Spelt cultivation in a mixture with common wheat significantly improved quality indicators of the mixture (its grain contained by 2.0% higher protein content and by 4.0% higher gluten content than common wheat grain), reduced disease incidence (by 2-8%), and weed infestation level (by 34-81%).

Keywords: common and spelt-wheat, ecological fertilizers, bio-activators, productivity elements, yield, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
5899 Long-Baseline Single-epoch RTK Positioning Method Based on BDS-3 and Galileo Penta-Frequency Ionosphere-Reduced Combinations

Authors: Liwei Liu, Shuguo Pan, Wang Gao

Abstract:

In order to take full advantages of the BDS-3 penta-frequency signals in the long-baseline RTK positioning, a long-baseline RTK positioning method based on the BDS-3 penta-frequency ionospheric-reduced (IR) combinations is proposed. First, the low noise and weak ionospheric delay characteristics of the multi-frequency combined observations of BDS-3is analyzed. Second, the multi-frequency extra-wide-lane (EWL)/ wide-lane (WL) combinations with long-wavelengths are constructed. Third, the fixed IR EWL combinations are used to constrain the IR WL, then constrain narrow-lane (NL)ambiguityies and start multi-epoch filtering. There is no need to consider the influence of ionospheric parameters in the third step. Compared with the estimated ionospheric model, the proposed method reduces the number of parameters by half, so it is suitable for the use of multi-frequency and multi-system real-time RTK. The results using real data show that the stepwise fixed model of the IR EWL/WL/NL combinations can realize long-baseline instantaneous cimeter-level positioning.

Keywords: penta-frequency, ionospheric-reduced (IR), RTK positioning, long-baseline

Procedia PDF Downloads 0
5898 Fabrication and Characterization of Transdermal Spray Using Film Forming Polymer

Authors: Paresh Patel, Harshit Patel

Abstract:

Superficial fungal skin infection is among the most common skin disease. The drug administration through skin has received attention due to several advantages: Avoidance of significant pre-systemic metabolism, drug levels within the therapeutic window, drugs with short biological half-lives, decreased side effects, the non-invasive character, and very high acceptance.

Keywords: transdermal spray, ketoconazole, Eudragit® RLPO, therapeutic window

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
5897 Pattern of ICU Admission due to Drug Problems

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Drug related problems (DRPs) are of major concern, affecting patients of both sex. They impose considerable economic burden on the society and the health-care systems. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to identify and categorize drug-related problems in adult intensive care unit. Patients and methods: The study was a prospective, observational study as eighty six patients were included. They were consecutively admitted to ICU through the emergency room or transferred from the general ward due to DRPs. Parameters included in the study as length of stay in ICU, need for cardiovascular support or mechanical ventilation, dialysis, as well as APACHE II score were recorded. Results: Drug related problems represent 3.6% of the total ICU admission. The median (range) of APACHE II score for 86 patients included in the study was 17 (10-23), and length of ICU stay was 2.4 (1.5-4.2) days. In 45 patients (52%), DRP was drug over dose (group 1), while other DRP was present in the other 41 patients (48%, group 11). Patients in group 1 were older (39 years versus 32 years in group 11), with significant impaired renal function. The need of inotropic drugs and mechanical ventilation as well as the length of stay (LOS) in ICU was significantly higher in group 1. There were no significant difference in GCS between both groups, however APACHE II score was significantly higher in group 1. Only four patients (4.6%) were admitted by suicidal attempt as well as three patients (3.4%) due to trauma drug-related admissions, all were in (group 1). Nineteen percent of the patients had drug related problem due to hypoglycaemic medication followed by tranquilizer (15%). Adverse drug effect followed by failure to receive medication were the most causes of drug problem in (group11).The total mortality rate was 4.6%, all of them were eventually non preventable. Conclusion: The critically ill patients admitted due to drug related problems represented a small proportion (3.6%) of admissions to the ICU. Hypoglycaemic medication was one of the most common causes of admission by drug related problems.

Keywords: drug related problems, ICU, cost, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
5896 Modeling of Drug Distribution in the Human Vitreous

Authors: Judith Stein, Elfriede Friedmann

Abstract:

The injection of a drug into the vitreous body for the treatment of retinal diseases like wet aged-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common medical intervention worldwide. We develop mathematical models for drug transport in the vitreous body of a human eye to analyse the impact of different rheological models of the vitreous on drug distribution. In addition to the convection diffusion equation characterizing the drug spreading, we use porous media modeling for the healthy vitreous with a dense collagen network and include the steady permeating flow of the aqueous humor described by Darcy's law driven by a pressure drop. Additionally, the vitreous body in a healthy human eye behaves like a viscoelastic gel through the collagen fibers suspended in the network of hyaluronic acid and acts as a drug depot for the treatment of retinal diseases. In a completely liquefied vitreous, we couple the drug diffusion with the classical Navier-Stokes flow equations. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of the weak solution of the developed initial-boundary value problem describing the drug distribution in the healthy vitreous considering the permeating aqueous humor flow in the realistic three-dimensional setting. In particular, for the drug diffusion equation, results from the literature are extended from homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions to our mixed boundary conditions that describe the eye with the Galerkin's method using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and trace theorem. Because there is only a small effective drug concentration range and higher concentrations may be toxic, the ability to model the drug transport could improve the therapy by considering patient individual differences and give a better understanding of the physiological and pathological processes in the vitreous.

Keywords: coupled PDE systems, drug diffusion, mixed boundary conditions, vitreous body

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
5895 S-N-Pf Relationship for Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Made with Cement Additives

Authors: Gurbir Kaur, Surinder Pal Singh

Abstract:

The present study is a part of the research work on the effect of limestone powder (LP), silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK), on the flexural fatigue performance of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). Corrugated rectangular steel fibres of size 0.6x2.0x35 mm at a constant volume fraction of 1.0% have been incorporated in all mix combinations as the reinforcing material. Three mix combinations were prepared by replacing 30% of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by weight with these cement additives in binary and ternary fashion to demonstrate their contribution. An experimental programme was conducted to obtain the fatigue lives of all mix combinations at various stress levels. The fatigue life data have been analysed as an attempt to determine the relationship between stress level ‘S’, number of cycles to failure ‘N’ and probability of failure ‘Pf’ for all mix combinations. The experimental coefficients of the fatigue equation have also been obtained from the fatigue data to represent the S-N-Pf curves analytically.

Keywords: cement additives, fatigue life, probability of failure, steel fibre reinforced concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
5894 Investigating the Essentiality of Oxazolidinones in Resistance-Proof Drug Combinations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Selected under in vitro Conditions

Authors: Gail Louw, Helena Boshoff, Taeksun Song, Clifton Barry

Abstract:

Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily attributed to mutations in target genes. These mutations incur a fitness cost and result in bacterial generations that are less fit, which subsequently acquire compensatory mutations to restore fitness. We hypothesize that mutations in specific drug target genes influence bacterial metabolism and cellular function, which affects its ability to develop subsequent resistance to additional agents. We aim to determine whether the sequential acquisition of drug resistance and specific mutations in a well-defined clinical M. tuberculosis strain promotes or limits the development of additional resistance. In vitro mutants resistant to pretomanid, linezolid, moxifloxacin, rifampicin and kanamycin were generated from a pan-susceptible clinical strain from the Beijing lineage. The resistant phenotypes to the anti-TB agents were confirmed by the broth microdilution assay and genetic mutations were identified by targeted gene sequencing. Growth of mono-resistant mutants was done in enriched medium for 14 days to assess in vitro fitness. Double resistant mutants were generated against anti-TB drug combinations at concentrations 5x and 10x the minimum inhibitory concentration. Subsequently, mutation frequencies for these anti-TB drugs in the different mono-resistant backgrounds were determined. The initial level of resistance and the mutation frequencies observed for the mono-resistant mutants were comparable to those previously reported. Targeted gene sequencing revealed the presence of known and clinically relevant mutations in the mutants resistant to linezolid, rifampicin, kanamycin and moxifloxacin. Significant growth defects were observed for mutants grown under in vitro conditions compared to the sensitive progenitor. Mutation frequencies determination in the mono-resistant mutants revealed a significant increase in mutation frequency against rifampicin and kanamycin, but a significant decrease in mutation frequency against linezolid and sutezolid. This suggests that these mono-resistant mutants are more prone to develop resistance to rifampicin and kanamycin, but less prone to develop resistance against linezolid and sutezolid. Even though kanamycin and linezolid both inhibit protein synthesis, these compounds target different subunits of the ribosome, thereby leading to different outcomes in terms of fitness in the mutants with impaired cellular function. These observations showed that oxazolidinone treatment is instrumental in limiting the development of multi-drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in vitro.

Keywords: oxazolidinones, mutations, resistance, tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
5893 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal

Abstract:

With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
5892 Toxicological Analysis of Some Plant Combinations Used for the Treatment of Hypertension by Lay People in Northern Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: Mmbulaheni Ramulondi, Sandy Van Vuuren, Helene De Wet

Abstract:

The use of plant combinations to treat various medical conditions is not a new concept, and it is known that traditional people do not only rely on a single plant extract for efficacy but often combine various plant species for treatment. The knowledge of plant combinations is transferred from one generation to the other in the belief that combination therapy may enhance efficacy, reduce toxicity, decreases adverse effects, increase bioavailability and result in lower dosages. However, combination therapy may also be harmful when the interaction is antagonistic, since it may result in increasing toxicity. Although a fair amount of research has been done on the toxicity of medicinal plants, there is very little done on the toxicity of medicinal plants in combination. The aim of the study was to assess the toxicity potential of 19 plant combinations which have been documented as treatments of hypertension in northern KwaZulu-Natal by lay people. The aqueous extracts were assessed using two assays; the Brine shrimp assay (Artemia franciscana) and the Ames test (Mutagenicity). Only one plant combination (Aloe marlothii with Hypoxis hemerocallidea) in the current study has been previously assessed for toxicity. With the Brine shrimp assay, the plant combinations were tested in two concentrations (2 and 4 mg/ml), while for mutagenicity tests, they were tested at 5 mg/ml. The results showed that in the Brine shrimp assay, six combinations were toxic at 4 mg/ml. The combinations were Albertisia delagoensis with Senecio serratuloides (57%), Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (98%), Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea (66%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (89%), Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (99%) and Aloe marlothii with Trichilia emetica and Hyphaene coriacea (50%). However when the concentration was reduced to 2 mg/ml, only three combinations were toxic which were Aloe marlothii with Catharanthus roseus (76%), Catharanthus roseus with Musa acuminata (66%) and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina (73%). For the mutagenicity assay, only the combinations between Catharanthus roseus with Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Catharanthus roseus with Momordica balsamina were mutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Most of the combinations which were toxic involve C. roseus which was also toxic when tested singularly. It is worth noting that C. roseus was one of the most frequently used plant species both to treat hypertension singularly and in combination and some of the individuals have been using this for the last 20 years. The mortality percentage of the Brine shrimp showed a significant correlation between dosage and toxicity thus toxicity was dosage dependant. A combination which is worth noting is the combination between A. delagoensis and S. serratuloides. Singularly these plants were non-toxic towards Brine shrimp, however their combination resulted in antagonism with the mortality rate of 57% at the total concentration of 4 mg/ml. Low toxicity was mostly observed, giving some validity to combined use, however the few combinations showing increased toxicity demonstrate the importance of analysing plant combinations.

Keywords: dosage, hypertension, plant combinations, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
5891 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
5890 Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance and Grain Yield of 63 Common Bean Genotypes Grown Under Field Conditions at Malkerns Eswatini

Authors: Rotondwa P. Gunununu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora

Abstract:

Common bean is the most importantly high protein grain legume grown in Southern Africa for human consumption and income generation. Although common bean can associate with rhizobia to fix N₂ for bacterial use and plant growth, it is reported to be a poor nitrogen fixer when compared to other legumes. N₂ fixation can vary with legume species, genotype and rhizobial strain. Therefore, screening legume germplasm can reveal rhizobia/genotype combinations with high N₂-fixing efficiency for use by farmers. This study assessed symbiotic performance and N₂ fixation in 63 common bean genotypes under field conditions at Malkerns Station in Eswatini, using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The shoots of common bean genotypes were sampled at a pod-filling stage, oven-dried (65oC for 72h), weighed, ground into a fine powder (0.50 mm sieve), and subjected to ¹⁵N/¹⁴N isotopic analysis using mass spectrometry. At maturity, plants from the inner rows were harvested for the determination of grain yield. The results revealed significantly higher modulation (p≤0.05) in genotypes MCA98 and CIM-RM01-97-8 relative to the other genotypes. Shoot N concentration was highest in genotype MCA 98, followed by KAB 10 F2.8-84, with most genotypes showing shoot N concentrations below 2%. Percent N derived from atmospheric N₂ fixation (%Ndfa) differed markedly among genotypes, with CIM-RM01-92-3 and DAB 174, respectively, recording the highest values of 66.65% and 66.22 % N derived from fixation. There were also significant differences in grain yield, with CIM-RM02-79-1 producing the highest yield (3618.75 kg/ha). These results represent an important contribution in the profiling of symbiotic functioning of common bean germplasm for improved N₂ fixation.

Keywords: nitrogen fixation, %Ndfa, ¹⁵N natural abundance, grain yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
5889 Drug Use Knowledge and Antimicrobial Drug Use Behavior

Authors: Pimporn Thongmuang

Abstract:

The import value of antimicrobial drugs reached approximately fifteen million Baht in 2010, considered as the highest import value of all modern drugs, and this value is rising every year. Antimicrobials are considered the hazardous drugs by the Ministry of Public Health. This research was conducted in order to investigate the past knowledge of drug use and Antimicrobial drug use behavior. A total of 757 students were selected as the samples out of a population of 1,800 students. This selected students had the experience of Antimicrobial drugs use a year ago. A questionnaire was utilized in this research. The findings put on the view that knowledge gained by the students about proper use of antimicrobial drugs was not brought into practice. This suggests that the education procedure regarding drug use needs adjustment. And therefore the findings of this research are expected to be utilized as guidelines for educating people about the proper use of antimicrobial drugs. At a broader perspective, correct drug use behavior of the public may potentially reduce drug cost of the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand.

Keywords: drug use knowledge, antimicrobial drugs, drug use behavior, drug

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
5888 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Nanofluid Containing Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Antibiotic on Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Erfan Rahimi, Hadi Bahari Far, Mojgan Shikhpour

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections, especially among women. E. coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections and one of the most common antibiotics to fight this bacterium is ampicillin. As conventional antibiotics led to bacterial antibiotic resistance, modification of the pure drugs can address this issue. The aim of this study was to prepare nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes conjugated with ampicillin to improve drug performance and reduce antibiotic resistance. Methods: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were activated with thionyl chloride by reflux system and nanofluids containing antibiotics were prepared by ultrasonic method. The properties of the prepared nano-drug were investigated by general element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After the treatment of the desired strain with nanofluid, microbial studies were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects and molecular studies were carried out to measure the expression of the resistance gene AcrAB. Result: We have shown that the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs at low concentrations performed better than that of the conventional drug in both resistant and ATCC strains. Also, a decrease in antibiotic resistance of bacteria treated with ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs compared to the pure drug was observed. Also, ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs downregulated the expression of AcrAB in treated bacteria. Conclusion: Because carbon nanotubes are capable of destroying the bacterial wall, which provides antibiotic resistance features in bacteria, their usage in the form of nanofluids can make lower dosages (about three times less) than that of the pure drug more effective. Additionally, the expression of the bacterial resistance gene AcrAB decreased, thereby reducing antibiotic resistance and improving drug performance against bacteria.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic resistance, carbon nanotube, nanofluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
5887 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari

Abstract:

The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: capsule, drug delivery, dosages, solid, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
5886 Drug Sensitivity Pattern of Organisms Causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

Authors: Fatma M. Benrabha

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the type and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic microorganisms causing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which could lead to better therapeutic decisions and consequently avoidance of appearance of resistance to specific antibiotics. Most frequently isolated agents were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 28.5%; followed by Staphylococcus aureus 18.2%; proteus mirabilis 13.9%; Providencia stuartti 6.7%; Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Aspergillus sp., candida sp., 4.2% each; and other microorganisms were represented in 3-0.2%. Drug sensitivities pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that ciprofloxacin was active against the majority of isolates (93.9%) followed by ceftazidime 86.2%, amikacin 76.2% and gentamicin 40.8%. However, Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin 72.7%, erythromycin 28.6%, cephalothin 18.2%, cloxacillin 8.3% and ciprofloxacin was active against 96.2% of isolates. The resistance pattern of proteus mirabilis were 55.6% to ampicillin, 47.1% to carbencillin, 29.4% to cephalothin, 14.3% to gentamicin and 4.8% to amikacin while 100% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is the best drug of choice in treatment of CSOM caused by the common microorganisms.

Keywords: otitis media, chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), microorganism, drug sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5885 An Engineered Epidemic: Big Pharma's Role in the Opioid Crisis

Authors: Donna L. Roberts

Abstract:

2019 marked 23 years since Purdue Pharma launched its flagship drug, OxyContin, that unleashed an unprecedented epidemic touching both celebrities and common citizens, metropolitan, suburbia and rural areas and all levels of socioeconomic status. From rural Appalachia to East LA individuals, families and communities have been devastated by a trajectory of addiction that often began with the legitimate prescription of a pain killer for anything from a tooth extraction to a sports injury to recovery from surgery or chronic arthritis. Far from being a serendipitous progression of events, the proliferation of this new breed of 'miracle drug' was instead a carefully crafted marketing program aimed at both the medical community and common citizens. This research represents and in-depth investigation of the evolution of the marketing, distribution and promotion of prescription opioids by pharmaceutical companies and its relationship to the propagation of the opioid crisis. Specifically, key components of Purdue Pharma’s aggressive marketing campaign, including its bonus system and sales incentives, were analyzed in the context of the sociopolitical environment that essential created the proverbial 'perfect storm' for the changing manner in which pain is treated in the U.S. The analyses of these series of events clearly indicate their role in first, the increase in prescription of opioids for non-terminal pain relief and subsequently, the incidence of related addiction, overdose, and death. Through this examination of the conditions that facilitated and maintained this drug crisis, perhaps we can begin to chart a course toward its resolution.

Keywords: addiction, opioid, opioid crisis, Purdue Pharma

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
5884 A Cognitive Semantic Analysis of the Metaphorical Extensions of Come out and Take Over

Authors: Raquel Rossini, Edelvais Caldeira

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to investigate the motivation for the metaphorical uses of two verb combinations: come out and take over. Drawing from cognitive semantics theories, image schemas and metaphors, it was attempted to demonstrate that: a) the metaphorical senses of both 'come out' and 'take over' extend from both the verbs and the particles central (spatial) senses in such verb combinations; and b) the particles 'out' and 'over' also contribute to the whole meaning of the verb combinations. In order to do so, a random selection of 579 concordance lines for come out and 1,412 for take over was obtained from the Corpus of Contemporary American English – COCA. One of the main procedures adopted in the present work was the establishment of verb and particle central senses. As per the research questions addressed in this study, they are as follows: a) how does the identification of trajector and landmark help reveal patterns that contribute for the identification of the semantic network of these two verb combinations?; b) what is the relationship between the schematic structures attributed to the particles and the metaphorical uses found in empirical data?; and c) what conceptual metaphors underlie the mappings from the source to the target domains? The results demonstrated that not only the lexical verbs come and take, but also the particles out and over play an important whole in the different meanings of come out and take over. Besides, image schemas and conceptual metaphors were found to be helpful in order to establish the motivations for the metaphorical uses of these linguistic structures.

Keywords: cognitive linguistics, English syntax, multi-word verbs, prepositions

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
5883 Role of Social Support in Drug Cessation among Male Addicts in the West of Iran

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Fazel Zinat Motlagh

Abstract:

Social support is an important benchmark of health for people in avoidance conditions. The main goal of this study was to determine the three kinds of social support (family, friend and other significant) to drug cessation among male addicts, in Kermanshah, the west of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 addicts, randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Data were collected from conduct interviews based on standard questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS-18 at 95% significance level. The majority of addicts were young (Mean: 30.4 years), and with little education. Opium (36.4%), Crack (21.2%), and Methamphetamine (12.9%) were the predominant drugs. Inabilities to reject the offer and having addict friends are the most often reasons for drug usage. Almost, 18.9% reported history of drug injection. 43.2% of the participants already did drug cessation at least once. Logistic regression showed the family support (OR = 1.110), age (OR = 1.106) and drug use initiation age (OR = 0.918) was predicting drug cessation. Our result showed; family support is a more important effect among types of social support in drug cessation. It seems that providing educational program to addict’s families for more support of patients at drug cessation can be beneficial.

Keywords: drug cessation, family support, drug use, initiation age

Procedia PDF Downloads 415