Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Vinay U. Rao

43 Seismic Retrofitting of RC Buildings with Soft Storey and Floating Columns

Authors: Vinay Agrawal, Suyash Garg, Ravindra Nagar, Vinay Chandwani


Open ground storey with floating columns is a typical feature in the modern multistory constructions in urban India. Such features are very much undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas. The present study proposes a feasible solution to mitigate the effects caused due to non-uniformity of stiffness and discontinuity in load path and to simultaneously hold the functional use of the open storey particularly under the floating column, through a combination of various lateral strengthening systems. An investigation is performed on an example building with nine different analytical models to bring out the importance of recognising the presence of open ground storey and floating columns. Two separate analyses on various models of the building namely, the equivalent static analysis and the response spectrum analysis as per IS: 1893-2002 were performed. Various measures such as incorporation of Chevron bracings and shear walls, strengthening the columns in the open ground storey, and their different combinations were examined. The analysis shows that, in comparison to two short ones separated by interconnecting beams, the structural walls are most effective when placed at the periphery of the buildings and used as one long structural wall. Further, it can be shown that the force transfer from floating columns becomes less horizontal when the Chevron Bracings are placed just below them, thereby reducing the shear forces in the beams on which the floating column rests.

Keywords: equivalent static analysis, floating column, open ground storey, response spectrum analysis, shear wall, stiffness irregularity

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42 Dual Biometrics Fusion Based Recognition System

Authors: Prakash, Vikash Kumar, Vinay Bansal, L. N. Das


Dual biometrics is a subpart of multimodal biometrics, which refers to the use of a variety of modalities to identify and authenticate persons rather than just one. We limit the risks of mistakes by mixing several modals, and hackers have a tiny possibility of collecting information. Our goal is to collect the precise characteristics of iris and palmprint, produce a fusion of both methodologies, and ensure that authentication is only successful when the biometrics match a particular user. After combining different modalities, we created an effective strategy with a mean DI and EER of 2.41 and 5.21, respectively. A biometric system has been proposed.

Keywords: multimodal, fusion, palmprint, Iris, EER, DI

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41 Mapping the Core Processes and Identifying Actors along with Their Roles, Functions and Linkages in Trout Value Chain in Kashmir, India

Authors: Stanzin Gawa, Nalini Ranjan Kumar, Gohar Bilal Wani, Vinay Maruti Hatte, A. Vinay


Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) are the two species of trout which were once introduced by British in waters of Kashmir has well adapted to favorable climatic conditions. Cold water fisheries are one of the emerging sectors in Kashmir valley and trout holds an important place Jammu and Kashmir fisheries. Realizing the immense potential of trout culture in Kashmir region, the state fisheries department started privatizing trout culture under the centrally funded scheme of RKVY in which they provide 80 percent subsidy for raceway construction and supply of feed and seed for the first year since 2009-10 and at present there are 362 private trout farms. To cater the growing demand for trout in the valley, it is important to understand the bottlenecks faced in the propagation of trout culture. Value chain analysis provides a generic framework to understand the various activities and processes, mapping and studying linkages is first step that needs to be done in any value chain analysis. In Kashmir, it is found that trout hatcheries play a crucial role in insuring the continuous supply of trout seed in valley. Feed is most limiting factor in trout culture and the farmer has to incur high cost in payment and in the transportation of feed from the feed mill to farm. Lack of aqua clinic in the Kashmir valley needs to be addressed. Brood stock maintenance, breeding and seed production, technical assistance to private farmer, extension services have to be strengthened and there is need to development healthier environment for new entrepreneurs. It was found that trout farmers do not avail credit facility as there is no well define credit scheme for fisheries in the state. The study showed weak institutional linkages. Research and development should focus more on applied science rather than basic science.

Keywords: trout, Kashmir, value chain, linkages, culture

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40 Synthesis Characterisation and Evaluation of Co-Processed Wax Matrix Excipient for Controlled Release Tablets Formulation

Authors: M. Kalyan Raj, Vinay Umesh Rao, M. Sudhakar


The work focuses on the development of a directly compressible controlled release co-processed excipient using melt granulation technique. Erodible wax matrix systems are fabricated in which three different types of waxes are co processed separately with Maize starch in different ratios by melt granulation. The resultant free flowing powder is characterized by FTIR, NMR, Mass spectrophotometer and gel permeation chromatography. Also, controlled release tablets of Aripiprazole were formulated and dissolution profile was compared with that of the target product profile given in Zysis patent (Patent no. 20100004262) for Aripiprazole once a week formulation.

Keywords: co-processing, hot melt extrusion, direct compression, maize starch, stearic acid, aripiprazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
39 Optimization of Process Parameters by Using Taguchi Method for Bainitic Steel Machining

Authors: Vinay Patil, Swapnil Kekade, Ashish Supare, Vinayak Pawar, Shital Jadhav, Rajkumar Singh


In recent days, bainitic steel is used in automobile and non-automobile sectors due to its high strength. Bainitic steel is difficult to machine because of its high hardness, hence in this paper machinability of bainitic steel is studied by using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) approach. Convectional turning experiments were done by using L16 orthogonal array for three input parameters viz. cutting speed, depth of cut and feed. The Taguchi method is applied to study the performance characteristics of machining parameters with surface roughness (Ra), cutting force and tool wear rate. By using Taguchi analysis, optimized process parameters for best surface finish and minimum cutting forces were analyzed.

Keywords: conventional turning, Taguchi method, S/N ratio, bainitic steel machining

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38 Optical and Mechanical Characterization of Severe Plastically Deformed Copper Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing

Authors: Jaya Prasad Vanam, Vinay Anurag P, Vidya Sravya N S, Kishore Babu Nagamothu


Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) is one of the severe plastic deformation technique (SPD) by which we can process Ultra Fine Grained (UFG)/plane metallic materials. This paper discusses the effects of CGP on Cu-Zn alloy specimen at room temperature. A comprehensive study is made on the structural and mechanical properties of Brass specimen before and after Constrained grooves Pressing. Entire process is simulated in AFDEX CAE Software. It is found that most of the properties are superior with respect to brass samples such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness, strain rate, etc., and they are found to be better for the CGP processed specimen. The results are discussed with respective graphs.

Keywords: constrained groove pressing, AFDEX, ultra fine grained materials, severe plastic deformation technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
37 Fisheries Education in Karnataka: Trends, Current Status, Performance and Prospects

Authors: A. Vinay, Mary Josephine, Shreesha. S. Rao, Dhande Kranthi Kumar, J. Nandini


This paper looks at the development of Fisheries education in Karnataka and the supply of skilled human capital to the sector. The study tries to analyse their job occupancy patterns, Compound Growth Rate (CGR) and forecasts the fisheries graduates supply using the Holt method. In Karnataka, fisheries are one of the neglected allied sectors of agriculture in spite of having enormous scope and potential to contribute to the State's agriculture GDP. The State Government has been negligent in absorbing skilled human capital for the development of fisheries, as there are so many vacant positions in both education institutes, as well as the State fisheries department. CGR and forecasting of fisheries graduates shows a positive growth rate and increasing trend, from which we can understand that by proper utilization of skilled human capital can bring development in the fisheries sector of Karnataka.

Keywords: compound growth rate, fisheries education, holt method, skilled human capital

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36 A Study on Pre and Post Competitive State Anxiety among the Athletes

Authors: Vinay Choudhary, Ibakordor Patlong


This study investigates and evaluates pre and post competitive anxiety, self-confidence, and performance of the athletes. The Cognitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was administered to collect data from 73 athletes, both men, and women, before and after the competition, who participated in the Reliance Foundation Youth Sports (RFYS)-Athletics, held at Gachibowli Stadium, Hyderabad. A paired t-test was used to find the significant difference between the pre and post-competition. Results showed that the levels of cognitive state anxiety before the competition was low as compared after the competition and the levels of somatic state anxiety before the competition was high as compared after the competition whereas the levels of self-confidence before the competition was high as compared after the competition. This study concludes that the levels of cognitive state anxiety increases after the competition as athletes could not perform according to the performance expectations, on the contrary, the levels of somatic anxiety decrease as there was no pressure of performance on the athletes after the competition and the levels of self-confidence decreases after the competition as athletes could not reach their desired performance levels.

Keywords: anxiety, athletes, pre and post, CSAI-2, self-confidence, performance

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35 Development of an Erodable Matrix Drug Delivery Platform for Controled Delivery of Non Steroidal Anti Inflamatory Drugs Using Melt Granulation Process

Authors: A. Hilsana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar


Even though a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are available with different chemistries, they share a common solubility characteristic that is they are relatively more soluble in alkaline environment and practically insoluble in acidic environment. This work deals with developing a wax matrix drug delivery platform for controlled delivery of three model NSAIDS, Diclofenac sodium (DNa), Mefenamic acid (MA) and Naproxen (NPX) using the melt granulation technique. The aim of developing the platform was to have a general understanding on how an erodible matrix system modulates drug delivery rate and extent and how it can be optimized to give a delivery system which shall release the drug as per a common target product profile (TPP). Commonly used waxes like Cetostearyl alcohol and stearic acid were used singly an in combination to achieve a TPP of not 15 to 35% in 1 hour and not less than 80% Q in 24 hours. Full factorial design of experiments was followed for optimization of the formulation.

Keywords: NSAIDs, controlled delivery, target product profile, melt granulation

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34 Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon Based Cryosorption Pump

Authors: K. B. Vinay, K. G. Vismay, S. Kasturirengan, G. A. Vivek


Cryosorption pumps are considered to be safe, quiet and ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon and Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of development of Cryosorption pump which is the modern ultra-high vacuum pump and characterization of different activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel, bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds than large sized pellets.

Keywords: adhesive, cryopanel, granules, pellets

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33 Modelling of Creep in a Thick-Walled Cylindrical Vessel Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Ishvneet Singh, Vinay Gupta


The present study focussed on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminium matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behaviour of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The value of stress exponent appearing in the creep law was selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stresses and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.

Keywords: creep, composite, cylindrical vessel, internal pressure

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32 Distributed Processing for Content Based Lecture Video Retrieval on Hadoop Framework

Authors: U. S. N. Raju, Kothuri Sai Kiran, Meena G. Kamal, Vinay Nikhil Pabba, Suresh Kanaparthi


There is huge amount of lecture video data available for public use, and many more lecture videos are being created and uploaded every day. Searching for videos on required topics from this huge database is a challenging task. Therefore, an efficient method for video retrieval is needed. An approach for automated video indexing and video search in large lecture video archives is presented. As the amount of video lecture data is huge, it is very inefficient to do the processing in a centralized computation framework. Hence, Hadoop Framework for distributed computing for Big Video Data is used. First, step in the process is automatic video segmentation and key-frame detection to offer a visual guideline for the video content navigation. In the next step, we extract textual metadata by applying video Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology on key-frames. The OCR and detected slide text line types are adopted for keyword extraction, by which both video- and segment-level keywords are extracted for content-based video browsing and search. The performance of the indexing process can be improved for a large database by using distributed computing on Hadoop framework.

Keywords: video lectures, big video data, video retrieval, hadoop

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31 FLIME - Fast Low Light Image Enhancement for Real-Time Video

Authors: Vinay P., Srinivas K. S.


Low Light Image Enhancement is of utmost impor- tance in computer vision based tasks. Applications include vision systems for autonomous driving, night vision devices for defence systems, low light object detection tasks. Many of the existing deep learning methods are resource intensive during the inference step and take considerable time for processing. The algorithm should take considerably less than 41 milliseconds in order to process a real-time video feed with 24 frames per second and should be even less for a video with 30 or 60 frames per second. The paper presents a fast and efficient solution which has two main advantages, it has the potential to be used for a real-time video feed, and it can be used in low compute environments because of the lightweight nature. The proposed solution is a pipeline of three steps, the first one is the use of a simple function to map input RGB values to output RGB values, the second is to balance the colors and the final step is to adjust the contrast of the image. Hence a custom dataset is carefully prepared using images taken in low and bright lighting conditions. The preparation of the dataset, the proposed model, the processing time are discussed in detail and the quality of the enhanced images using different methods is shown.

Keywords: low light image enhancement, real-time video, computer vision, machine learning

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30 1,8-Naphthalimide Substituted 4,4-Difluoroboradiaza-S-Indacene Dyads: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Live-Cell Imaging

Authors: Madhurima Poddar, Vinay Sharma, Shaikh M. Mobin, Rajneesh Misra


Three 1,8-naphthalimide (NPI) substituted 4,4-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyads were synthesized via Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction of ethynyl substituted NPI with the meso-, β- and α-halogenated BODIPYs, respectively. The photophysical and electrochemical data reveals considerable electronic communication between the BODIPY and NPI moieties. The electronic absorption spectrum reveals that the substitution of NPI at α position of BODIPY exhibit better electronic communication between the NPI and the BODIPY units. The electronic structures of all the dyads exhibit planar geometries which are in a good correlation with the structures obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of the dyads exhibit interesting supramolecular interactions. The dyads show good cytocompatibility with the potential of multicolor live-cell imaging; making them excellent candidates for biological applications. The work provides an important strategy of screening the substitution pattern at different position of BODIPYs which will be useful for the design of BODIPY based organic molecules for various optoelectronic applications as well as bio-imaging.

Keywords: bio-imaging studies, cross-coupling, cyclic voltammetry, density functional calculations, fluorescence spectra, single crystal XRD, UV/Vis spectroscopy

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29 Effect of Velocity Slip on Two Phase Flow in an Eccentric Annular Region

Authors: Umadevi B., Dinesh P. A., Indira. R., Vinay C. V.


A mathematical model is developed to study the simultaneous effects of particle drag and slip parameter on the velocity as well as rate of flow in an annular cross sectional region bounded by two eccentric cylinders. In physiological flows this phenomena can be observed in an eccentric catheterized artery with inner cylinder wall is impermeable and outer cylinder wall is permeable. Blood is a heterogeneous fluid having liquid phase consisting of plasma in which a solid phase of suspended cells and proteins. Arterial wall gets damaged due to aging and lipid molecules get deposited between damaged tissue cells. Blood flow increases towards the damaged tissues in the artery. In this investigation blood is modeled as two phase fluid as one is a fluid phase and the other is particulate phase. The velocity of the fluid phase and rate of flow are obtained by transforming eccentric annulus to concentric annulus with the conformal mapping. The formulated governing equations are analytically solved for the velocity and rate of flow. The numerical investigations are carried out by varying eccentricity parameter, slip parameter and drag parameter. Enhancement of slip parameter signifies loss of fluid then the velocity and rate of flow will be decreased. As particulate drag parameter increases then the velocity as well as rate flow decreases. Eccentricity facilitates transport of more fluid then the velocity and rate of flow increases.

Keywords: catheter, slip parameter, drag parameter, eccentricity

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28 Erosion Susceptibility Zoning and Prioritization of Micro-Watersheds: A Remote Sensing-Gis Based Study of Asan River Basin, Western Doon Valley, India

Authors: Pijush Roy, Vinay Kumar Rai


The present study highlights the estimation of soil loss and identification of critical area for implementation of best management practice is central to the success of soil conservation programme. The quantification of morphometric and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors using remote sensing and GIS for prioritization of micro-watersheds in Asan River catchment, western Doon valley at foothills of Siwalik ranges in the Dehradun districts of Uttarakhand, India. The watershed has classified as a dendritic pattern with sixth order stream. The area is classified into very high, high, moderately high, medium and low susceptibility zones. High to very high erosion zone exists in the urban area and agricultural land. Average annual soil loss of 64 tons/ha/year has been estimated for the watershed. The optimum management practices proposed for micro-watersheds of Asan River basin are; afforestation, contour bunding suitable sites for water harvesting structure as check dam and soil conservation, agronomical measure and bench terrace.

Keywords: erosion susceptibility zones, morphometric characteristics, prioritization, remote sensing and GIS, universal soil loss equation

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27 Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Practice among Patients Attending Dental Institution: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Vinay Gupta, Seema Malhotra


Background: Patients who usually consume tobacco are unaware of its ill effects completely therefore it becomes necessary to educate and counselling them after obtaining their knowledge about tobacco. Aim: To measure prevalence of tobacco use among dental outpatients and to evaluation of tobacco user attending dental outpatients (OPD) prepared to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey, which was carried out on patients attending Outside Patient Department (OPD) of dental college of King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, India. All the patients who consumed tobacco attending the Dental College were asked to participate in the study. The questionnaire was written in English/ Hindi (local language). Participation in this study was voluntary and the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. The proposal of this survey had been approved by the ethical committee of institution. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Results: Prevalence of tobacco user attending the Dental OPD was 46.4%. Male tobacco user represented 85.9%. Smokeless tobacco (57%) user were more than smoking (1.4%) and 18.9% were using both smokeless and smoking tobacco. 40.7% start using tobacco since less than 5 years. 55.3% uses tobacco after get up in the morning. 87.1% tobacco user knows that it cause cancer. 54.8% respond that warning sign on packet/pouch effect on mind but due to addiction, it would not work out. 54.8% attempted for quitting but not successful. 90.0% willing to quit in future if facility provide. Conclusion: Higher prevalence of tobacco usage among study population and will to quit in future shows need of cessation clinic in every dental institution in India.

Keywords: tobacco, knowledge, practice, counselling

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26 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar


In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor, sol-gel method

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25 Numerical Simulation of Lifeboat Launching Using Overset Meshing

Authors: Alok Khaware, Vinay Kumar Gupta, Jean Noel Pederzani


Lifeboat launching from marine vessel or offshore platform is one of the important areas of research in offshore applications. With the advancement of computational fluid dynamic simulation (CFD) technology to solve fluid induced motions coupled with Six Degree of Freedom (6DOF), rigid body dynamics solver, it is now possible to predict the motion of the lifeboat precisely in different challenging conditions. Traditionally dynamic remeshing approach is used to solve this kind of problems, but remeshing approach has some bottlenecks to control good quality mesh in transient moving mesh cases. In the present study, an overset method with higher-order interpolation is used to simulate a lifeboat launched from an offshore platform into calm water, and volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to track free surface. Overset mesh consists of a set of overlapping component meshes, which allows complex geometries to be meshed with lesser effort. Good quality mesh with local refinement is generated at the beginning of the simulation and stay unchanged throughout the simulation. Overset mesh accuracy depends on the precise interpolation technique; the present study includes a robust and accurate least square interpolation method and results obtained with overset mesh shows good agreement with experiment.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, free surface flow, lifeboat launching, overset mesh, volume of fluid

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24 Effect of Post and Pre Induced Treatment with Hesperidin in N-Methyl N-Nitrosourea Induced Mammary Gland Cancer in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

Authors: Vinay Kumar Theendra


The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hesperidin in the treatment of breast cancer and causing less (or) no bone marrow depression which is the major side effect of the present anticancer drugs treating breast cancer, also to evaluate the mechanisms through which these compounds are exerting their effect. Breast cancer is induced by administering N-methyl N-Nitrosourea (MNU) at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Upon the termination of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by the method of cervical dislocation. The animals were dissected along the ventral midline and were grossly examined for the presence of tumors. Then the tumours were removed along with the stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were estimated by using ELISA method. The first occurrence of palpable tumors was eight weeks after carcinogen treatment and the final tumour incidence was 100% in the MNU alone and topical treated rats. Whereas in rats of other treatment groups there is decreased tumour incidence which might be due to their antitumour activity. Hesperidin therapy inhibited angiogenesis which can be evident from the significant reduction in serum as well as tumour VEGF concentrations in comparison to the untreated mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Hesperidin is promising agents that exert direct antitumor and also antiangiogenic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Even though the potency is little lesser than standard drug vincristine, it has been proved to be safe without effecting haematological count.

Keywords: hesperidin, VEGF, COX 2, N-methyl N-nitrosourea

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23 Luminescent and Conductive Cathode Buffer Layer for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells

Authors: Swati Bishnoi, D. Haranath, Vinay Gupta


In this work, we demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs) could be improved significantly by using ZnO doped with Aluminum (Al) and Europium (Eu) as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The ZnO:Al,Eu nanoparticle layer has broadband absorption in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm) region. The Al doping contributes to the enhancement in the conductivity whereas Eu doping significantly improves emission in the visible region. Moreover, this emission overlaps with the absorption range of polymer poly [N -9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′,3′- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) significantly and results in an enhanced absorption by the active layer and hence high photocurrent. An increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.8% has been obtained for ZnO: Al,Eu CBL as compared to 5.9% for pristine ZnO, in the inverted device configuration ITO/CBL/active layer/MoOx/Al. The active layer comprises of a blend of PCDTBT donor and [6-6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) acceptor. In the reference device pristine ZnO has been used as CBL, whereas in the other one ZnO:Al,Eu has been used as CBL. The role of the luminescent CBL layer is to down-shift the UV light into visible range which overlaps with the absorption of PCDTBT polymer, resulting in an energy transfer from ZnO:Al,Eu to PCDTBT polymer and the absorption by active layer is enhanced as revealed by transient spectroscopy. This enhancement resulted in an increase in the short circuit current which contributes in an increased PCE in the device employing ZnO: Al,Eu CBL. Thus, the luminescent ZnO: Al, Eu nanoparticle CBL has great potential in organic solar cells.

Keywords: cathode buffer layer, energy transfer, organic solar cell, power conversion efficiency

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22 A Deep Learning Approach to Calculate Cardiothoracic Ratio From Chest Radiographs

Authors: Pranav Ajmera, Amit Kharat, Tanveer Gupte, Richa Pant, Viraj Kulkarni, Vinay Duddalwar, Purnachandra Lamghare


The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is the ratio of the diameter of the heart to the diameter of the thorax. An abnormal CTR, that is, a value greater than 0.55, is often an indicator of an underlying pathological condition. The accurate prediction of an abnormal CTR from chest X-rays (CXRs) aids in the early diagnosis of clinical conditions. We propose a deep learning-based model for automatic CTR calculation that can assist the radiologist with the diagnosis of cardiomegaly and optimize the radiology flow. The study population included 1012 posteroanterior (PA) CXRs from a single institution. The Attention U-Net deep learning (DL) architecture was used for the automatic calculation of CTR. A CTR of 0.55 was used as a cut-off to categorize the condition as cardiomegaly present or absent. An observer performance test was conducted to assess the radiologist's performance in diagnosing cardiomegaly with and without artificial intelligence (AI) assistance. The Attention U-Net model was highly specific in calculating the CTR. The model exhibited a sensitivity of 0.80 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.85], precision of 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98, 1], and a F1 score of 0.88 [95% CI: 0.85, 0.91]. During the analysis, we observed that 51 out of 1012 samples were misclassified by the model when compared to annotations made by the expert radiologist. We further observed that the sensitivity of the reviewing radiologist in identifying cardiomegaly increased from 40.50% to 88.4% when aided by the AI-generated CTR. Our segmentation-based AI model demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity for CTR calculation. The performance of the radiologist on the observer performance test improved significantly with AI assistance. A DL-based segmentation model for rapid quantification of CTR can therefore have significant potential to be used in clinical workflows.

Keywords: cardiomegaly, deep learning, chest radiograph, artificial intelligence, cardiothoracic ratio

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21 Mental Disorders and Physical Illness in Geriatric Population

Authors: Vinay Kumar, M. Kishor, Sathyanarayana Rao Ts


Background: Growth of elderly people in the general population in recent years is termed as ‘greying of the world’ where there is a shift from high mortality & fertility to low mortality and fertility, resulting in an increased proportion of older people as seen in India. Improved health care promises longevity but socio-economic factors like poverty, joint families and poor services pose a psychological threat. Epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in geriatric population with physical illness is required for proper health planning. Methods: Sixty consecutive elderly patients aged 60 years or above of both sexes, reporting with physical illness to general outpatient registration counter of JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysore, India, were considered for the Study. With informed consent, they were screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and were further evaluated for diagnosing mental disorders according to WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Results: Mental disorders were detected in 48.3%, predominantly depressive disorders, nicotine dependence, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and least was dementia. Most common physical illness was cardiovascular disease followed by metabolic, respiratory and other diseases. Depressive disorders, substance dependence and dementia were more associated with cardiovascular disease compared to metabolic disease and respiratory diseases were more associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Depression and Substance use disorders among elderly population is of concern, which needs to be further studied with larger population. Psychiatric morbidity will adversely have an impact on physical illness which needs proper assessment and management. This will enhance our understanding and prioritize our planning for future.

Keywords: Geriatric, mental disorders, physical illness, psychiatry

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20 Impact of Maternal Nutrition on Newborn Anthropometry and Hemoglobin

Authors: Vinay Mishra, Meena Malkani


Objectives: To study the effect of physical maternal nutritional markers (viz. weight, height, gestational weight gain, BMI) and third-trimester haemoglobin concentration on anthropometry and cord blood haemoglobin of their newborn. Methods: Study area: Post-natal ward of a tertiary care hospital in an urban area. Study population: All post-partum women and their newborns. Sample size: 100. Maternal and neonatal data and anthropometric measurements were recorded in semi-structured case proforma. Data analysis: The data obtained was analysed using SPSS 20 software.The comparison between the groups was done using One-Way Analysis of Variance for two groups. For more than two groups comparisons further posthoc analysis was done using Tukey test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for correlating the variables. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 1. Out of the 100 studied mothers, 52% were anaemic. 2. Cord blood haemoglobin values decreased significantly with the order of birth. 3. Cord blood haemoglobin of normal-weight newborns is significantly higher as compared to that of LBW newborns. 4. Cord blood haemoglobin has strong statistical significance with maternal anaemia. 5. Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain significantly influence the neonates anthropometry. Conclusions: 1. Birth order has a prominent inverse effect on the cord blood haemoglobin. 2. Majority of the expectant mothers are anaemic and give birth to LBW babies with reduced anthropometric markers. 3. Pre-pregnancy weight, height and gestational weight gain has a very significant impact on the neonatal anthropometry. 4. Thus, maternal nutrition during gestation and during the crucial periods of growth in the pre-child bearing age group has a very significant impact on foetal development.

Keywords: maternal nutrition, anthropometry, cord blood hemoglobin, newborn

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19 Genetic Association and Functional Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 Promoter Variants rs1004030 and rs1003349 in Gallbladder Cancer Pathogenesis

Authors: J. Vinay , Kusumbati Besra, Niharika Pattnaik, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Manjusha Dixit


Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare but highly malignant cancer; its prevalence is more in certain geographical regions and ethnic groups, which include the Northern and Eastern states of India. Previous studies in India have reported genetic predisposition as one of the risk factors in GBC pathogenesis. Although the matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP14) is a well-known modulator of the tumor microenvironment and tumorigenesis and TCGA data also suggests its upregulation yet, its role in the genetic predisposition for GBC is completely unknown. We elucidated the role of MMP14 promoter variants as genetic risk factors and their implications in expression modulation. We screened MMP14 promoter variants association with GBC using Sanger’s sequencing in approximately 300 GBC and 300 control subjects and 26 GBC tissue samples of Indian ethnicity. The immunohistochemistry was used to check the MMP14 protein expression in GBC tissue samples. The role of promoter variants on expression levels was elucidated using a luciferase reporter assay. The variants rs1004030 (p-value = 0.0001) and rs1003349 (p-value = 0.0008) were significantly associated with gallbladder cancer. The luciferase assay in two different cell lines, HEK-293 (p = 0.0006) and TGBC1TKB (p = 0.0036) showed a significant increase in relative luciferase activity in the presence of risk alleles for both the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Similarly, genotype-phenotype correlation in patients samples confirmed that the presence of risk alleles at rs1004030 and rs1003349 increased MMP14 expression. Overall, this study unravels the genetic association of MMP14 promoter variants with gallbladder cancer, which may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing its expression.

Keywords: gallbladder cancer, matrix metalloproteinase-14, single nucleotide polymorphism, case control study, genetic association study

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18 Calling Persons with Disability as Divine: Exploring and Critiquing Meanings of Divyang (The One with a Divine Limb) in the Indian Context

Authors: Vinay Suhalka


In India, the official nomenclature used by the State for persons with disability is divyang (literally, the one with a divine limb), a word coming from the Sanskrit language. Disability thus gets portrayed as divine, at least in the welfare sector from where it flows down even to the popular imagination where it gets equated to divinity. This paper looks at reference to persons with disabilities as divyangs and goes on to discusses what such usage for an already marginalized group achieves and misses out. The issue of nomenclature and language has always been a contested one when it comes to disability. At the same time, there is also an issue of who determines these labels for the persons with disability. Nomenclature and language used for disability can have real consequences for the population of persons with disability as it may empower or disempower them. Thus, this paper looks at the issue of what it means for persons with disabilities as ‘exceptionally gifted’ and hence divyang. Language can be a powerful tool to communicate meanings and messages associated with a term. When the persons with disabilities as a group are described as ‘exceptionally gifted, talented and the source of inspiration’, it essentially stereotypes and marginalizes them by putting a burden of performance that all of them ought to be achievers, and it is only then that they would be assimilated in the larger society. This paper also argues that such a situation creates a ‘double bind’ where the person is always trying to match up to the labels (the disabled as ‘achiever, overcomer, inspirational’) created by somebody else and looks at self through the eyes of others. This conceptual paper also presents an overview of disability labels while simultaneously looking at projecting disability as divinity which has the potential to wrongly portray the lives of persons with disability in India due to the official usage of the term. It also explores the question of visibility of disability since the idea of divyang implicitly assumes that all disabilities are visible. In reality, however, it may not be the case simply because all forms of disabilities are not visible, people may choose not to visibilize their disabilities if they can and pass as able-bodied, fearing the stigma that surrounds disability. Finally, it argues for an increased focus on understanding the everyday lived realities of those with disability in order to regard it as an important form of difference which could be a potential resource for the society.

Keywords: persons with disability, labels, language use, divinity

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17 Identifying and Optimizing the Critical Excipients in Moisture Activated Dry Granulation Process for Two Anti TB Drugs of Different Aqueous Solubilities

Authors: K. Srujana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar


Isoniazide (INH) a freely water soluble and pyrazinamide (Z) a practically water insoluble first line anti tubercular (TB) drugs were identified as candidates for optimizing the Moisture Activated Dry Granulation (MADG) process. The work focuses on identifying the effect of binder type and concentration as well as the effect of magnesium stearate level on critical quality attributes of Disintegration time (DT) and in vitro dissolution test when the tablets are processed by the MADG process. Also, the level of the drug concentration, binder concentration and fluid addition during the agglomeration stage of the MADG process was evaluated and optimized. For INH, it was identified that for tablets with HPMC as binder at both 2% w/w and 5% w/w level and Magnesium stearate upto 1%w/w as lubrication the DT is within 1 minute and the dissolution rate is the fastest (> 80% in 15 minutes) as compared to when PVP or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. Regarding the process, fast disintegrating and rapidly dissolving tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 25% w/w 0% w/w binder and 0.033%. w/w. At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is also slower. For pyrazinamide,it was identified that for the tablets with 2% w/w level of each of PVP as binder and Cross Caramellose Sodium disintegrant the DT is within 2 minutes and the dissolution rate is the fastest(>80 in 15 minutes)as compared to when HPMC or pregelatinized starch is used as binder. This may be attributed to the fact that PVP may be acting as a solubilizer for the practically insoluble Pyrazinamide. Regarding the process,fast dispersing and rapidly disintegrating tablets are obtained when the level of drug, binder and fluid uptake in agglomeration stage is 10% w/w,25% w/w binder and 1% w/w.At the other 2 levels of these three ingredients, the DT is significantly impacted and dissolution is comparatively slower and less complete.

Keywords: agglomeration stage, isoniazide, MADG, moisture distribution stage, pyrazinamide

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16 Modelling of Heat Transfer during Controlled Cooling of Thermo-Mechanically Treated Rebars Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

Authors: Rohit Agarwal, Mrityunjay K. Singh, Soma Ghosh, Ramesh Shankar, Biswajit Ghosh, Vinay V. Mahashabde


Thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) of rebars is a critical process to impart sufficient strength and ductility to rebar. TMT rebars are produced by the Tempcore process, involves an 'in-line' heat treatment in which hot rolled bar (temperature is around 1080°C) is passed through water boxes where it is quenched under high pressure water jets (temperature is around 25°C). The quenching rate dictates composite structure consisting (four non-homogenously distributed phases of rebar microstructure) pearlite-ferrite, bainite, and tempered martensite (from core to rim). The ferrite and pearlite phases present at core induce ductility to rebar while martensitic rim induces appropriate strength. The TMT process is difficult to model as it brings multitude of complex physics such as heat transfer, highly turbulent fluid flow, multicomponent and multiphase flow present in the control volume. Additionally the presence of film boiling regime (above Leidenfrost point) due to steam formation adds complexity to domain. A coupled heat transfer and fluid flow model based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been developed at product technology division of Tata Steel, India which efficiently predicts temperature profile and percentage martensite rim thickness of rebar during quenching process. The model has been validated with 16 mm rolling of New Bar mill (NBM) plant of Tata Steel Limited, India. Furthermore, based on the scenario analyses, optimal configuration of nozzles was found which helped in subsequent increase in rolling speed.

Keywords: boiling, critical heat flux, nozzles, thermo-mechanical treatment

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15 Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects

Authors: Vinay Kant Shankhdhar


Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.

Keywords: maxilla reconstruction, fibula maxilla, post cancer maxillary reconstruction

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14 Comparison of Rainfall Trends in the Western Ghats and Coastal Region of Karnataka, India

Authors: Vinay C. Doranalu, Amba Shetty


In recent days due to climate change, there is a large variation in spatial distribution of daily rainfall within a small region. Rainfall is one of the main end climatic variables which affect spatio-temporal patterns of water availability. The real task postured by the change in climate is identification, estimation and understanding the uncertainty of rainfall. This study intended to analyze the spatial variations and temporal trends of daily precipitation using high resolution (0.25º x 0.25º) gridded data of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). For the study, 38 grid points were selected in the study area and analyzed for daily precipitation time series (113 years) over the period 1901-2013. Grid points were divided into two zones based on the elevation and situated location of grid points: Low Land (exposed to sea and low elevated area/ coastal region) and High Land (Interior from sea and high elevated area/western Ghats). Time series were applied to examine the spatial analysis and temporal trends in each grid points by non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen estimator to perceive the nature of trend and magnitude of slope in trend of rainfall. Pettit-Mann-Whitney test is applied to detect the most probable change point in trends of the time period. Results have revealed remarkable monotonic trend in each grid for daily precipitation of the time series. In general, by the regional cluster analysis found that increasing precipitation trend in shoreline region and decreasing trend in Western Ghats from recent years. Spatial distribution of rainfall can be partly explained by heterogeneity in temporal trends of rainfall by change point analysis. The Mann-Kendall test shows significant variation as weaker rainfall towards the rainfall distribution over eastern parts of the Western Ghats region of Karnataka.

Keywords: change point analysis, coastal region India, gridded rainfall data, non-parametric

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