Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: epigallocatechin gallate

21 In vitro P-Glycoprotein Modulation: Combinatorial Approach Using Natural Products

Authors: Jagdish S. Patel, Piyush Chudasama


Context: Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays critical role in absorption of many drug candidates which results into lower bioavailability of the drug. P-glycoprotein also over expresses in many pathological conditions like diabetes, affecting the drug therapy. Modulation of P-gp expression using inhibitors can help in designing novel formulation enhancing the bioavailability of the drug in question. Objectives: The main focus of the study was to develop advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced P-gp over expression in Caco-2 cells. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate were used to evaluate their P-gp inhibitory action using combinatorial approach. Materials and methods: Methylglyoxal (MG) induced P-gp over expression was checked in Caco-2 cells using real time PCR. P-gp inhibitory effects of the phytochemicals were measured after induction with MG alone and in combination of any two compounds. Cytotoxicity of each of the phytochemical was evaluated using MTT assay. Results: Induction with MG (100mM) significantly induced the over expression of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells after 24 hr. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate alone significantly reduced the level of P-gp within 6 hr of treatment period monitored by real time PCR. The combination of any two phytochemical also down regulated the expression of P-gp in cells. Combinations of Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have shown significant down regulation when compared with other two combinations. Conclusions: Combinatorial approach for down regulating the expression of P-gp, in pathological conditions like diabetes, has demonstrated promising approach for therapeutic purpose.

Keywords: p-glycoprotein, curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, p-gp inhibition

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20 Implementation of Metabolomics in Conjunction with Chemometrics for the Dentification of the Differential Chemical Markers of Different Grades of Sri Lankan White, Green and Black Tea: Camellia Sinenesis L.

Authors: Dina A. Selim, Eman Shawky, Rasha M. Abu El-Khair


In the current study, UPLC-MS/MS combined to chemometrics were applied on seven Sri Lankan tea grades; Orange Pekoe, Flowery Pekoe, Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings, Broken Orange Pekoe black tea, green tea, silver tips and golden tips white tea grades for their comprehensive metabolic profiling. Certain metabolites, namely, Theasensinin C and E, theaflavin and theacitrin appeared to be the main chemical markers of black tea type, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, methyl epigallocatechin were the main discriminatory markers of green tea type, while theanine, oolongotheanine and quercetin glycosides were the main chemical markers of white tea type. Theogalloflavin, epigallocatechin and flavonoid glycosides were the main down-accumulated metabolites while theaflavin gallate, and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin were the chief up- accumulated metabolites between whole and broken black tea leave grades while puerin A and C and gallic acid was the main down- accumulated metabolites and N-ethyl pyrrolidinone epicatechin gallate was the main up-accumulated one between broken and fanning black tea grades.

Keywords: tea grading, Sri Lankan tea, chemometrics, metabolomics, chemical markers

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19 Investigation of Ameliorative Effect of a Polyphenolic Compound of Green Tea Extract against Rotenone Induced Neurotoxicity: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Sandeep Goyal, Sandeep Saluja


Natural antioxidants have major role in maintenance of health. Green tea extract principally contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), as its abundant antioxidant constituent. Green tea is consumed daily worldwide as antioxidant to combat CNS diseases and has traditional importance also. EGCG has neuroprotective potential in various animal models of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease etc. but its exact mechanism has not been ruled out. The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and mitochondrial modulating mechanism of neuroprotective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against rodent model of rotenone induced Parkinson’s disease (PD). The behavioural alterations were assessed by using open field test apparatus, Chatilon’s grip strength test apparatus and elevated plus maze for determining the locomotor activity, grip strength and cognition respectively. Biochemically, various parameters to assess oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurochemical estimations were performed on rat brain homogenates. A histological examination of rat brain striatum was done to check the neurodegeneration. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) at 10 & 20 mg/kg, were investigated for their neuroprotective potential along with levodopa as a standard agent. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, was administered alone and in combination with EGCG. EGCG and minocycline produced ameliorative effect against rotenone induced PD like symptoms by significantly reduced behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations. Results of our study reveal the neuroprotective effect of EGCG and minocycline against rotenone induced PD. Results of our study indicate that EGCG exerted neuroprotective effect against rotenone induced PD via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitochondrial modulating mechanisms and substantiate its previously reported and traditional claims for its use in CNS diseases.

Keywords: antioxidants, neurotoxicity, rotenone, EGCG

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18 Anti-Diabetic Effect of High Purity Epigallocatechin Gallate from Green Tea

Authors: Hye Jin Choi, Mirim Jin, Jeong June Choi


Green tea, which is one of the most popular of tea, contains various ingredients that help health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the main active polyphenolic compound possessing diverse biologically beneficial effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-cancer founding in green tea. This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of high-purity EGCG ( > 98%) in a spontaneous diabetic mellitus animal model, db/db mouse. Four-week-old male db/db mice, which was induced to diabetic mellitus by the high-fat diet, were orally administered with high-purity EGCG (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Daily weight and diet efficiency were examined, and blood glucose level was assessed once a week. After 4 weeks of EGCG administration, fasting blood glucose level was measured. Then, the mice were sacrificed and total abdominal fat was sampled to examine the change in fat weight. Plasma was separated from the blood and the levels of aspartate amino-transferase (ALT) and alanine amino-transferase (AST) were investigated. As results, blood glucose and body weight were significantly decreased by EGCG treatment compared to the control group. Also, the amount of abdominal fat was down-regulated by EGCG. However, ALT and AST levels, which are indicators of liver function, were similar to those of control group. Taken together, our study suggests that high purity EGCG is capable of treating diabetes mellitus based in db / db mice with safety and has a potent to develop a therapeutics for metabolic disorders. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (317034-03-2-HD030)

Keywords: anti-diabetic effect, db/db mouse, diabetes mellitus, green tea, epigallocatechin gallate

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17 Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Instant Fruit Green Tea Powders

Authors: Akanit Pisalwadcharin, Komate Satayawut, Virachnee Lohachoompol


Green tea, mangosteen and pomegranate contain high levels of bioactive compounds which have antioxidant effects and great potential in food applications. The aim of this study was to produce and determine catechin contents, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of two instant fruit green tea powders which were green tea fortified with mangosteen juice and green tea fortified with pomegranate juice. Seventy percent of hot water extract of green tea was mixed with 30% of mangosteen juice or pomegranate juice, and then spray-dried using a spray dryer. The results showed that the drying conditions optimized for the highest total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of both powders were the inlet air temperature of 170°C, outlet air temperatures of 90°C and maltodextrin concentration of 30%. The instant green tea with mangosteen powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 19.18 (mg gallic acid/kg), 85.44 (mg/kg) and 4,334 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The instant green tea with pomegranate powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 32.72 (mg gallic acid/kg), 156.36 (mg/kg) and 6,283 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The phenolic compounds in instant green tea with mangosteen powder comprised of tannic acid (2,156.87 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (898.23 mg/kg) and rutin (13.74 mg/kg). Also, the phenolic compounds in instant green tea with pomegranate powder comprised of tannic acid (2,275.82 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (981.23 mg/kg), rutin (14.97 mg/kg) and i-quercetin (5.86 mg/kg).

Keywords: green tea, mangosteen, pomegranate, antioxidant activity

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16 Proecological Antioxidants for Stabilisation of Polymeric Composites

Authors: A. Masek, M. Zaborski


Electrochemical oxidation of dodecyl gallate (lauryl gallate), the main monomer flavanol found in green tea, was investigated on platinum electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse (DPV) methods. The rate constant, electron transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients were determined for dodecyl gallate electrochemical oxidation. The oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps related to the hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring of dodecyl gallate. Confirmed antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate verified its use in polymers as an environment-friendly stabiliser to improve the resistance to aging of the elastomeric materials. Based on the energy change of the deformation, cross-linking density and time of the oxygen induction with the TG method, we confirmed the high antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate in polymers. Moreover, the research on biodegradation confirmed the environment-friendly influence of the antioxidant by increasing the susceptibility of the elastomeric materials to disintegration by mildew mushrooms.

Keywords: polymers, flavonoids, stabilization, ageing

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15 The Possible Interaction between Bisphenol A, Caffeine and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Neurotoxicity Induced by Manganese in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Hebatalla I. Ahmed, Asmaa Abdelaty


Background: Manganese (Mn) is a naturally occurring element. Exposure to high levels of Mn causes neurotoxic effects and represents an environmental risk factor. Mn neurotoxicity is poorly understood but changing of AChE activity, monoamines and oxidative stress has been established. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. There is considerable debate about whether its exposure represents an environmental risk. Caffeine is one of the major contributors to the dietary antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage and may reduce the risk of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is another major component of green tea and has known interactions with caffeine. It also has health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To evaluate the potential protective effects of Caffeine and/or EGCG against Mn-induced neurotoxicity either alone or in the presence of BPA in rats. Methods: Seven groups of rats were used and received daily for 5 weeks MnCl2.4H2O (10 mg/kg, IP) except the control group which received saline, corn oil and distilled H2O. Mn was injected either alone or in combination with each of the following: BPA (50 mg/kg, PO), caffeine (10 mg/kg, PO), EGCG (5 mg/kg, IP), caffeine + EGCG and BPA +caffeine +EGCG. All rats were examined in five behavioral tests (grid, bar, swimming, open field and Y- maze tests). Biochemical changes in monoamines, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, glutamate, acetyl cholinesterase and oxidative parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the brain, were also evaluated for all groups. Results: Mn significantly increased MDA and nitrite content as well as caspase-3, GSK-3B, PGE2 and glutamate levels while significantly decreased TAC and SOD as well as cholinesterase in the striatum. It also decreased DA, NE and 5-HT levels in the striatum and frontal cortex. BPA together with Mn enhanced oxidative stress generation induced by Mn while increased monoamine content that was decreased by Mn in rat striatum. BPA abolished neuronal degeneration induced by Mn in the hippocampus but not in the substantia nigra, striatum and cerebral cortex. Behavioral examinations showed that caffeine and EGCG co-administration had more pronounced protective effect against Mn-induced neurotoxicity than each one alone. EGCG alone or in combination with caffeine prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by Mn while caffeine alone prevented neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra and striatum but still showed some nuclear pyknosis in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The marked protection of caffeine and EGCG co-administration also confirmed by the significant increase in TAC, SOD, ACHE, DA, NE and 5-HT as well as the decrease in MDA, nitrite, caspase-3, PGE2, GSK-3B, the glutamic acid in the striatum. Conclusion: Neuronal degeneration induced by Mn showed some inhibition with BPA exposure despite the enhancement in oxidative stress generation. Co-administration of EGCG and caffeine can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by Mn and improve behavioral deficits associated with its neurotoxicity. The protective effect of EGCG was more pronounced than that of caffeine even with BPA co-exposure.

Keywords: manganese, bisphenol a, caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, neurotoxicity, behavioral tests, rats

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14 Impact of Stress and Protein Malnutrition on the Potential Role of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Providing Protection from Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona G. Khalil, Hemat A. Elariny, Shereen S. El Shaer


Background: Aluminium (Al) is very abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It is a constituent of cooking utensils, medicines, cosmetics, some foods and food additives. Salts of Al are widely used in the treatment of drinking water for purification purposes. Excessive and prolonged exposure to Al causes oxidative stress and impairment of many physiological functions. Its accumulation in liver and kidney causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Social isolation (SI) or Protein malnutrition (PM) also increases oxidative stress and may enhance the toxicity of Al as well as the degeneration in liver and kidney. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities and can protect against oxidative stress-induced degenerations. Objective: To study the influence of stress or PM on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats, as well as on the potential role of EGCG in providing protection. Methods: Rats received daily AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for three weeks (Al-toxicity groups) except one normal control group received saline. Al-toxicity groups were divided into four treated and four untreated groups; treated rats received EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) together with AlCl3. One group of both treated and untreated rats served as control for each of them, and the others were subjected to either stress (mild using isolation or high using electric shock) or to PM (10% casein diet). Specimens of liver and kidney were used for assessment of levels of inflammatory mediators as TNF-α, IL6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), Caspase-3 and for DNA fragmentation as well as for histopathological examinations. Biochemical changes were also measured in the serum as total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea as well as the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate deshydrogenase (LDH). Results: Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by Al were enhanced in rats exposed to stress and to PM. The influence of stress was more pronounced than PM. Al-toxicity was indicated by the increase in liver and kidney MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels, together with the decrease in total proteins, SOD, TAC. EGCG provided protection against hazards of Al as indicated by the decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as well as in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver and kidney, together with the increase in total proteins, SOD, TAC and confirmed by histopathological examinations. It provided more pronounced protection in high stressful conditions than in mild one than in PM. Conclusion: Stress have a bad impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity more than PM. Thus it can clarify and maximize the role of EGCG in providing protection. Consequently, administration of EGCG is advised with excessive Al-exposure to avoid nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity especially in populations more subjected to stress or PM.

Keywords: aluminum, stress, protein malnutrition, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, rats

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13 Influence of Protein Malnutrition and Different Stressful Conditions on Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Focus on the Possible Protection Using Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Asmaa Abdelaty, Mona G. Khalil, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh


Background: Aluminium (Al) is known as a neurotoxin environmental pollutant that can cause certain diseases as Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinsonism. It is widely used in antacid drugs as well as in food additives and toothpaste. Stresses have been linked to cognitive impairment; Social isolation (SI) may exacerbate memory deficits while protein malnutrition (PM) increases oxidative damage in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The risk of cognitive decline may be lower by maintaining social connections. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects as well as health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To study the influence of different stressful conditions as social isolation, electric shock (EC) and inadequate Nutritional condition as PM on neurotoxicity induced by Al in rats as well as to investigate the possible protective effect of EGCG in these stressful and PM conditions. Methods: Rats were divided into two major groups; protected group which was daily treated during three weeks of the experiment by EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) or non-treated. Protected and non-protected groups included five subgroups as following: One normal control received saline and four Al toxicity groups injected daily for three weeks by ALCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP). One of them served as Al toxicity model, two groups subjected to different stresses either by isolation as mild stressful condition (SI-associated Al toxicity model) or by electric shock as high stressful condition (EC- associated Al toxicity model). The last was maintained on 10% casein diet (PM -associated Al toxicity model). Isolated rats were housed individually in cages covered with black plastic. Biochemical changes in the brain as acetyl cholinesterase (ACHE), Aβ, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β), oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC) were estimated for all groups. Histopathological changes in different brain regions were also evaluated. Results: Rats exposed to Al for three weeks showed brain neurotoxicity and neuronal degenerations. Both mild (SI) and high (EC) stressful conditions as well as inadequate nutrition (PM) enhanced Al-induced neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations; the enhancement induced by stresses especially in its higher conditions (ES) was more pronounced than that of inadequate nutritional conditions (PM) as indicated by the significant increase in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the significant decrease in SOD, TAC, BDNF. On the other hand, EGCG showed more pronounced protection against hazards of Al in both stressful conditions (SI and EC) rather than in PM .The protective effects of EGCG were indicated by the significant decrease in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the increase in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by brain histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations induced by Al were more severe with stresses than with PM. EGCG can protect against Al-induced brain neuronal degenerations in all conditions. Consequently, administration of EGCG together with socialization as well as adequate protein nutrition is advised especially on excessive Al-exposure to avoid the severity of its neuronal toxicity.

Keywords: environmental pollution, aluminum, social isolation, protein malnutrition, neuronal degeneration, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, rats

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12 Biomimetic Systems to Reveal the Action Mode of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Lipid Membrane

Authors: F. Pires, V. Geraldo, O. N. Oliveira Jr., M. Raposo


Catechins are powerful antioxidants which have attractive properties useful for tumor therapy. Considering their antioxidant activity, these molecules can act as a scavenger of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), alleviating the damage of cell membrane induced by oxidative stress. The complexity and dynamic nature of the cell membrane compromise the analysis of the biophysical interactions between drug and cell membrane and restricts the transport or uptake of the drug by intracellular targets. To avoid the cell membrane complexity, we used biomimetic systems as liposomes and Langmuir monolayers to study the interaction between catechin and membranes at the molecular level. Liposomes were formed after the dispersion of anionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)(sodium salt) (DPPG) phospholipids in an aqueous solution, which mimic the arrangement of lipids in natural cell membranes and allows the entrapment of catechins. Langmuir monolayers were formed after dropping amphiphilic molecules, DPPG phospholipids, dissolved in an organic solvent onto the water surface. In this work, we mixed epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with DPPG liposomes and exposed them to ultra-violet radiation in order to evaluate the antioxidant potential of these molecules against oxidative stress induced by radiation. The presence of EGCG in the mixture decreased the rate of lipid peroxidation, proving that EGCG protects membranes through the quenching of the reactive oxygen species. Considering the high amount of hydroxyl groups (OH groups) on structure of EGCG, a possible mechanism to these molecules interact with membrane is through hydrogen bonding. We also investigated the effect of EGCG at various concentrations on DPPG Langmuir monolayers. The surface pressure isotherms and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) results corroborate with absorbance results preformed on liposome-model, showing that EGCG interacts with polar heads of the monolayers. This study elucidates the physiological action of EGCG which can be incorporated in lipid membrane. These results are also relevant for the improvement of the current protocols used to incorporate catechins in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: catechins, lipid membrane, anticancer agent, molecular interactions

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11 A Literature Review: The Anti-Obesity Effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extraction as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Management Obesity

Authors: Nunuy Nuraeni, Vera Amalia Lestari, Atri Laranova, Viena Nissa Mien Fadhillah, Mutia, Muhammad Ikhlas Abdian Putra


Introduction: Obesity is a common disease with high prevalence especially in developing countries including Indonesia. The obesitygenic lifestyle such as excessive intake of food, sedentary lifestyle is the major environmental etiologies of obesity. Obesity is also as one of burden disease with high morbidity due to its complication, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The objective of this literature review is to know how the Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis effect as anti-obesity agent and reduce the complication of obesity. Material and Methods: This study based on the secondary data analysis complemented by primary data collection from several journal and textbook. We identified the effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis as adjuvant therapy for management obesity and to prevent the complications of obesity. Results: Based on the result, Green tea or Camellia sinensis contain Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate (EGCG) that has anti-obesity effect such as induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis, increasing lipolytic activity, increasing fat oxidation and thermogenesis. Discussion: EGCG are naturally distributed in green tea, that contains a biological activity that has a potential effect to treat obesity. Conclusion: EGCG are capable to treat obesity. By consuming EGCG can prevent obesity in normal health person and prevent complication in patient with obesity.

Keywords: adjuvant therapy, anti-obesity effect, complication, epigallocathecin-3-gallate, obesity

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10 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu


Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

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9 Interaction of Phytochemicals Present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon to Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor

Authors: Chinmayee Choudhury


Human Melanocortin 4 Receptor (HMC4R) is one of the most potential drug targets for the treatment of obesity which controls the appetite. A deletion of the residues 88-92 in HMC4R is sometimes the cause of severe obesity in the humans. In this study, two homology models are constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs and some phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey and Cinnamon have been docked to them to study their differential binding to the normal and mutated HMC4R as compared to the natural agonist α- MSH. Two homology models have been constructed for the normal as well as mutated HMC4Rs using the Modeller9v7. Some of the phytochemicals present in Green Tea, Honey, and Cinnamon, which have appetite suppressant activities are constructed, minimized and docked to these normal and mutated HMC4R models using ArgusLab 4.0.1. The mode of binding of the phytochemicals with the Normal and Mutated HMC4Rs have been compared. Further, the mode of binding of these phytochemicals with that of the natural agonist α- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone(α-MSH) to both normal and mutated HMC4Rs have also been studied. It is observed that the phytochemicals Kaempherol, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) present in Green Tea and Honey, Isorhamnetin, Chlorogenic acid, Chrysin, Galangin, Pinocambrin present in Honey, Cinnamaldehyde, Cinnamyl acetate and Cinnamyl alcohol present in Cinnamon have capacity to form more stable complexes with the Mutated HMC4R as compared to α- MSH. So they may be potential agonists of HMC4R to suppress the appetite.

Keywords: HMC4R, α-MSH, docking, photochemical, appetite suppressant, homology modelling

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8 Phenolic Composition of Wines from Cultivar Carménère during Aging with Inserts to Barrels

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, P. Osorio-Umaña, G. Vidal-Acevedo, A. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí


Sensory and nutraceutical characteristics of a wine are determined by different chemical compounds, such as organic acids, sugars, alcohols, polysaccharides, aromas, and polyphenols. The polyphenols correspond to secondary metabolites that are associated with the prevention of several pathologies, and those are responsible for color, aroma, bitterness, and astringency in wines. These compounds come from grapes and wood during aging in barrels, which correspond to the format of wood most widely used in wine production. However, the barrels is a high-cost input with a limited useful life (3-4 years). For this reason, some oenological products have been developed in order to renew the barrels and increase their useful life in some years. These formats are being used slowly because limited information exists about the effect on the wine chemical characteristics. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different laubarrel renewal systems (staves and zigzag) on the polyphenolic characteristics of a Carménère wine (Vitis vinifera), an emblematic cultivar of Chile. For this, a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and three replicates per treatment was used. The treatments were: new barrels (T0), used barrels during 4 years (T1), scraped used barrels (T2), used barrels with staves (T3) and used barrels with zigzag (T4). The study was performed for 12 months, and different spectrophotometric parameters (phenols, anthocyanins, and total tannins) and HPLC-DAD (low molecular weight phenols) were evaluated. The wood inputs were donated by Toneleria Nacional and corresponded to products from the same production batch. The total phenols content increased significantly after 40 days, while the total tannin concentration decreased gradually during the study. The anthocyanin concentration increased after 120 days of the assay in all treatments. Comparatively, it was observed that the wine of T2 presented the lowest values of these polyphenols, while the T0 and T4 presented the highest total phenol contents. Also, T1 presented the highest values of total tannins in relation to the rest of the treatments in some samples. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD were 7 flavonoids (epigallocatechin, catechin, procyanidin gallate, epicatechin, quercetin, rutin and myricetin) and 14 non-flavonoids (gallic, protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, trans-cutaric, vanillinic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and ellagic acids; tyrosol, vanillin, syringaldehyde, trans-resveratrol and cis-resveratrol). Tyrosol was the most abundant compound, whereas ellagic acid was the lowest in the samples. Comparatively, it was observed that the wines of T2 showed the lowest concentrations of flavonoid and non-flavonoid phenols during the study. In contrast, wines of T1, T3, and T4 presented the highest contents of non-flavonoid polyphenols. In summary, the use of barrel renovators (zig zag and staves) is an interesting alternative which would emulate the contribution of polyphenols from the barrels to the wine.

Keywords: barrels, oak wood aging, polyphenols, red wine

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7 Nutritional Genomics Profile Based Personalized Sport Nutrition

Authors: Eszter Repasi, Akos Koller


Our genetic information determines our look, physiology, sports performance and all our features. Maximizing the performances of athletes have adopted a science-based approach to the nutritional support. Nowadays genetics studies have blended with nutritional sciences, and a dynamically evolving, new research field have appeared. Nutritional genomics is needed to be used by nutritional experts. This is a recent field of nutritional science, which can provide a solution to reach the best sport performance using correlations between the athlete’s genome, nutritions, molecules, included human microbiome (links between food, microbiome and epigenetics), nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Nutritional genomics has a tremendous potential to change the future of dietary guidelines and personal recommendations. Experts need to use new technology to get information about the athletes, like nutritional genomics profile (included the determination of the oral and gut microbiome and DNA coded reaction for food components), which can modify the preparation term and sports performance. The influence of nutrients on the genes expression is called Nutrigenomics. The heterogeneous response of gene variants to nutrients, dietary components is called Nutrigenetics. The human microbiome plays a critical role in the state of health and well-being, and there are more links between food or nutrition and the human microbiome composition, which can develop diseases and epigenetic changes as well. A nutritional genomics-based profile of athletes can be the best technic for a dietitian to make a unique sports nutrition diet plan. Using functional food and the right food components can be effected on health state, thus sports performance. Scientists need to determine the best response, due to the effect of nutrients on health, through altering genome promote metabolites and result changes in physiology. Nutritional biochemistry explains why polymorphisms in genes for the absorption, circulation, or metabolism of essential nutrients (such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or epigallocatechin-3-gallate), would affect the efficacy of that nutrient. Controlled nutritional deficiencies and failures, prevented the change of health state or a newly discovered food intolerance are observed by a proper medical team, can support better sports performance. It is important that the dietetics profession informed on gene-diet interactions, that may be leading to optimal health, reduced risk of injury or disease. A special medical application for documentation and monitoring of data of health state and risk factors can uphold and warn the medical team for an early action and help to be able to do a proper health service in time. This model can set up a personalized nutrition advice from the status control, through the recovery, to the monitoring. But more studies are needed to understand the mechanisms and to be able to change the composition of the microbiome, environmental and genetic risk factors in cases of athletes.

Keywords: gene-diet interaction, multidisciplinary team, microbiome, diet plan

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6 Evaluation of Differential Interaction between Flavanols and Saliva Proteins by Diffusion and Precipitation Assays on Cellulose Membranes

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, V. Contreras-Cortez, R. López-Solís


Astringency is a drying, roughing, and sometimes puckering sensation that is experienced on the various oral surfaces during or immediately after tasting foods. This sensation has been closely related to the interaction and precipitation between salivary proteins and polyphenols, specifically flavanols or proanthocyanidins. In addition, the type and concentration of proanthocyanidin influences significantly the intensity of the astringency and consequently the protein/proanthocyanidin interaction. However, most of the studies are based on the interaction between saliva and highly complex polyphenols, without considering the effect of monomeric proanthoancyanidins present in different foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different monomeric proanthocyanidins on the diffusion and precipitation of salivary proteins. Thus, solutions of catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin (0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10 mg/mL) were mixed with human saliva (1: 1 v/v). After incubation for 5 min at room temperature, 15 µL aliquots of each mix were dotted on a cellulose membrane and allowed to dry spontaneously at room temperature. The membrane was fixed, rinsed and stained for proteins with Coomassie blue. After exhaustive washing in 7% acetic acid, the membrane was rinsed once in distilled water and dried under a heat lamp. Both diffusion area and stain intensity of the protein spots were semiqualitative estimates for protein-tannin interaction (diffusion test). The rest of the whole saliva-phenol solution mixtures of the diffusion assay were centrifuged, and 15-μL aliquots from each of the supernatants were dotted on a cellulose membrane. The membrane was processed for protein staining as indicated above. The blue-stained area of protein distribution corresponding to each of the extract dilution-saliva mixtures was quantified by Image J 1.45 software. Each of the assays was performed at least three times. Initially, salivary proteins display a biphasic distribution on cellulose membranes, that is, when aliquots of saliva are placed on absorbing cellulose membranes, and free diffusion of saliva is allowed to occur, a non-diffusible protein fraction becomes surrounded by highly diffusible salivary proteins. In effect, once diffusion has ended, a protein-binding dye shows an intense blue-stained roughly circular area close to the spotting site (non-diffusible fraction) (NDF) which becomes surrounded by a weaker blue-stained outer band (diffusible fraction) (DF). Likewise, the diffusion test showed that epicatechin caused the complete disappearance of DF from saliva with 2 mg/mL. Also, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin caused a similar effect with 4 mg/mL, while catechin generated the same effect at 8 mg/mL. In the precipitation test, the use of epicatechin and gallocatechin generated evident precipitates at the bottom of the Eppendorf tubes. In summary, the flavanol type differentially affects the diffusion and precipitation of saliva, which would affect the sensation of astringency perceived by consumers.

Keywords: astringency, polyphenols, tannins, tannin-protein interaction

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5 Effect of Antioxidants Addition in Combination with Milk Re Pasteurization on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Condensed Yoghurt

Authors: Mahmoud Abu-Ghoush, Murad Al Holy


Our main goal in this project is to study the causes and finding solutions for both the hydrolytic and the oxidative rancidity that can be produced during condensed yoghurt production. The re pasteurization of the pasteurized milk and the addition of different types of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and propyl gallate) were used to achieve this goal. Chemical, physical, microbial and sensory tests were done to evaluate the product. It was found that there were significant differences between the different treatments and the control regarding the peroxide value. This means that the addition of both types of antioxidants have a positive effect in decreasing the rancidity value. However, it was found that there were some samples have hydrolytic rancidity flavour without any type of oxidative rancidity (low peroxide value). To overcome this problem the re pasteurization step was used to destroy all the vegetative form of microbes. It was found that this treatment was very useful in controlling the rancidity flavour according to the sensory evaluation of the condensed yoghurt products for several batches. The best condensed yoghurt which contains 0.25% ascorbic acid exhibited the highest sensory properties values. Also, it has the ability in lowering the oxidative rancidity in the combination with the re pasteurization step of the pasteurized milk. This suggests that a higher quality and stable condensed yoghurt can be obtained upon using this combination. These results may help producers in selecting the best treatment methods to overcome the rancidity flavor in this type of condensed yoghurt.

Keywords: antioxidants, condensed yoghurt, repasturization, condensed milk

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4 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista, Matthieu Tubino


Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, oxidative stability, storage, synthetic antioxidants

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3 Effect of Xenobiotic Bioactive Compounds from Grape Waste on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pigs

Authors: Ionelia Taranu, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Mihai Laurentiu Palade, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Sanda Chedea


In the last decade bioactive compounds from grape waste are investigated as new therapeutic agents for the inhibition of carcinogenesis and other diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize several bioactive compounds (polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of a dried grape pomace (GP) derived from a Romanian winery and further to evaluate their effect on inflammation and oxidative markers in liver of pig used as animal model. The total polyphenol concentration of pomace was 36.2g gallic acid equiv /100g. The pomace was rich in polyphenols from the flavonoids group, the main class being flavanols (epicatechins, catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidins) and antocyanins (Malvidin 3-O-glucoside). The highest concentration was recorded for epicatechin (51.96g/100g) and procyanidin dimer (22.79g/100g). A high concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) especially ω-6 fatty acids (59.82 g/100g fat) was found in grape pomace. 20 crossbred TOPIG hybrid fattening pigs were randomly assigned (n = 10) to two experimental treatments: a normal diet (control group) and a diet included 5% grape pomace (GP group) for 24 days. The GP diet lowered the gene expression and protein concentration of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokines in liver suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of GP diet. Concentration of hepatic TBARS also decreased, but the total antioxidant capacity (liver TEAC) and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) did not differ between the GP and control diet. The results showed that GP diet exerted an anti-inflammatory effect, but the 5% dietary inclusion modulated only partially the oxidative stress.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape waste, immune organs

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2 Tunable Crystallinity of Zinc Gallogermanate Nanoparticles via Organic Ligand-Assisted Biphasic Hydrothermal Synthesis

Authors: Sarai Guerrero, Lijia Liu


Zinc gallogermanate (ZGGO) is a persistent phosphor that can emit in the near infrared (NIR) range once dopped with Cr³⁺ enabling its use for in-vivo deep-tissue bio-imaging. Such a property also allows for its application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Given this, work into developing a synthetic procedure that can be done using common laboratory instruments and equipment as well as understanding ZGGO overall, is in demand. However, the ZGGO nanoparticles must have a size compatible for cell intake to occur while still maintaining sufficient photoluminescence. The nanoparticle must also be made biocompatible by functionalizing the surface for hydrophilic solubility and for high particle uniformity in the final product. Additionally, most research is completed on doped ZGGO, leaving a gap in understanding the base form of ZGGO. It also leaves a gap in understanding how doping affects the synthesis of ZGGO. In this work, the first step of optimizing the particle size via the crystalline size of ZGGO was done with undoped ZGGO using the organic acid, oleic acid (OA) for organic ligand-assisted biphasic hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of this synthesis procedure on ZGGO’s crystallinity were evaluated using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD). OA was selected as the capping ligand as experiments have shown it beneficial in synthesizing sub-10 nm zinc gallate (ZGO) nanoparticles as well as palladium nanocrystals and magnetite (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles. Later it is possible to substitute OA with a different ligand allowing for hydrophilic solubility. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to investigate the surface of the nanoparticle to investigate and verify that OA had capped the nanoparticle. PXRD results showed that using this procedure led to improved crystallinity, comparable to the high-purity reagents used on the ZGGO nanoparticles. There was also a change in the crystalline size of the ZGGO nanoparticles. ATR-FTIR showed that once capped ZGGO cannot be annealed as doing so will affect the OA. These results point to this new procedure positively affecting the crystallinity of ZGGO nanoparticles. There are also repeatable implying the procedure is a reliable source of highly crystalline ZGGO nanoparticles. With this completed, the next step will be working on substituting the OA with a hydrophilic ligand. As these ligands effect the solubility of the nanoparticle as well as the pH that the nanoparticles can dissolve in, further research is needed to verify which ligand is best suited for preparing ZGGO for bio-imaging.

Keywords: biphasic hydrothermal synthesis, crystallinity, oleic acid, zinc gallogermanate

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1 Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Carménère Wines during Aging with Oak Wood (Staves, Chips and Barrels)

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, J. Laqui-Estaña, A. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí


Wine is an important source of polyphenols. Red wines show important concentrations of nonflavonoid (gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid) and flavonoid compounds [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin]. However, a significant variability in the quantitative and qualitative distribution of chemical constituents in wine has to be expected depending on an array of important factors, such as the varietal differences of Vitis vinifera and cultural practices. It has observed that Carménère grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to other varieties and specifically with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Likewise, among the cultural practices, the aging in contact with oak wood is a high relevance factor. Then, the extraction of different polyphenolic compounds from oak wood into wine during its ageing process produces both qualitative and quantitative changes. Recently, many new techniques have been introduced in winemaking. One of these involves putting new pieces of wood (oak chips or inner staves) into inert containers. It offers some distinct and previously unavailable flavour advantages, as well as new options in wine handling. To our best knowledge, there is not information about the behaviour of Carménère wines (Chilean emblematic cultivar) in contact with oak wood. In addition, the effect of aging time and wood product (barrels, chips or staves) on the phenolic composition in Carménère wines has not been studied. This study aims at characterizing the condensed and hydrolyzable tannins from Carménère wines during the aging with staves, chips and barrels from French oak wood. The experimental design was completely randomized with two independent assays: aging time (0-12 month) and different formats of wood (barrel, chips and staves). The wines were characterized by spectrophotometric (total tannins and fractionation of proanthocyanidins into monomers, oligomers and polymers) and HPLC-DAD (ellagitannins) analysis. The wines in contact with different products of oak wood showed a similar content of total tannins during the study, while the control wine (without oak wood) presented a lower content of these compounds. In addition, it was observed that the polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction was the most abundant, while the monomeric fraction was the less abundant fraction in all treatments in two sample. However, significative differences in each fractions were observed between wines in contact from barrel, chips, and staves in two sample dates. Finally, the wine from barrels presented the highest content of the ellagitannins from the fourth to the last sample date. In conclusion, the use of alternative formats of oak wood affects the chemical composition of wines during aging, and these enological products are an interesting alternative to contribute with tannins to wine.

Keywords: enological inputs, oak wood aging, polyphenols, red wine

Procedia PDF Downloads 94