Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7199

Search results for: family support

7199 The Effect of Family Support on Employee Satisfaction and Perception of Work-Family Conflict: The Case of Oil Sector Employees in Kuwait

Authors: Ali H. Muhammad


This paper investigates both instrumental and emotional family support on employee job satisfaction and perception of work-family conflict. Instrumental family support is manifested in family behavior that contributes to the reduction of employee’s family responsibilities and keeping the physical home environment in a proper shape. Emotional family support includes the encouragement and praise that the employee receives from his family and families for the employee’s work problem and their role in assisting the employees in dealing with these problems. The paper suggests that instrumental and emotional family support increases employee’s job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study proposes that family support decreases employee’s perception of work-family conflict. In addition, this study examines the reliability and validity of the family support index developed by Lynda King and her colleagues in 1995. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the validity of the instrument in an Arab business setting. A paper-pencil questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 70 Kuwaiti employees working in the oil sector. Data were analyzed using factor analysis, reliability tests, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the research hypothesis. Family support had a positive effect on job satisfaction. Furthermore, family support significantly contributed to the reduction of employee perception of work-family conflict.

Keywords: family support, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, Kuwait oil sector

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7198 Relationship between Micro-Level Entrepreneurial Resilience with Job Satisfaction and Family Social Support

Authors: Kristiana Haryanti, Theresia Dwi Hastuti, Agustine Eva Maria Soekesi


Entrepreneurship is an important topic today that is widely discussed in the business world. The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated all businesses in the world, especially businesses at the micro-level. This study tries to prove the relationship between job satisfaction of micro-level business owners and family social support for their resilience. The respondents of this study amounted to 58 entrepreneurs. The results of this study indicate that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and social support with entrepreneurial resilience in continuing the family business.

Keywords: family business, family social support, job satisfaction, resilience

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7197 Informational Support, Anxiety and Satisfaction with Care among Family Caregivers of Patients Admitted in Critical Care Units of B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal

Authors: Rosy Chaudhary, Pushpa Parajuli


Background and Objectives: Informational support to family members has a significant potential for reducing this distress related to hospitalization of their patient into the critical care unit, enabling them to cope better and support the patient. The objective of the study is to assess family members’ perception of informational support, anxiety, satisfaction with care and to reveal the association with selected socio-demographic variables and to investigate the correlation between informational support, anxiety and satisfaction with care. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 39 family caregivers of patients admitted in critical care unit of BPKIHS(B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences). Consecutive sampling technique was used wherein data was collected over duration of one month using interview schedule. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34.97 ± 10.64 and two third (66.70%) were male. Mean score for informational support was 25.72(SD = 5.66; theoretical range of 10 - 40). Mean anxiety was 10.41 (SD = 5.02; theoretical range of 7 - 21). Mean score for satisfaction with care was 40.77 (SD = 6.77; theoretical range of 14 - 64). A moderate positive correlation was found between informational support and satisfaction with care (r = 0.551, p < .001) and a moderate negative correlation was found between anxiety and satisfaction with care (r = -0.590; p = 0.000). No relationship was noted between informational support and anxiety. Conclusion: The informational support and satisfaction of the family caregivers with the care provided to their patients was satisfactory. More than three fourth of the family caregivers had anxiety; the factors associated being educational status of the caregivers, the family income and duration of visiting hours. There was positive correlation between informational support and satisfaction with care provided justifying the need for comprehensive information to the family caregivers by the health personnel. There was negative correlation between anxiety and satisfaction with care.

Keywords: anxiety, caregivers, critical care unit, informational support, family

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7196 Exploring Long-Term Care Support Networks and Social Capital for Family Caregivers

Authors: Liu Yi-Hui, Chiu Fan-Yun, Lin Yu Fang, Jhang Yu Cih, He You Jing


The demand for care support has been rising with the aging of society and the advancement of medical science and technology. To meet rising demand, the Taiwanese government promoted the “Long Term Care Ten-Year Plan 2.0” in 2017. However, this policy and its related services failed to be fully implemented because of the ignorance of the public, and their lack of desire, fear, or discomfort in using them, which is a major obstacle to the promotion of long-term care services. Given the above context, this research objectives included the following: (1) to understand the current situation and predicament of family caregivers; (2) to reveal the actual use and assistance of government’s long-term care resources for family caregivers; and (3) to explore the support and impact of social capital on family caregivers. A semi-structured in-depth interview with five family caregivers to understand long-term care networks and social capital for family caregivers.

Keywords: family caregivers, long-term care, social capital

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7195 Effects of Training on Self-Efficacy, Competence, and Target Complaints of Dementia Family Support Program Facilitators

Authors: Myonghwa Park, Eun Jeong Choi


Persons with dementia living at home have complex caregiving demands, which can be significant sources of stress for the family caregivers. Thus, the dementia family support program facilitators struggle to provide various health and social services, facing diverse challenges. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of training program for the dementia family support program facilitators on self-efficacy, competence, and target complaints concerning operating their program. We created a training program with systematic contents, which was composed of 10 sessions and we provided the program for the facilitators. The participants were 32 people at 28 community dementia support centers who manage dementia family support programs and they completed quantitative and qualitative self-report questionnaire before and after participating in the training program. For analyzing the data, descriptive statistics were used and with a paired t-test, pretest and posttest scores of self-efficacy, competence, and target complaints were analyzed. We used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistics (Version 21) to analyze the data. The average age of the participants was 39.6 years old and the 84.4% of participants were nurses. There were statistically meaningful increases in facilitators’ self-efficacy scores (t = -4.45, p < .001) and competence scores (t = -2.133, p = 0.041) after participating in training program and operating their own dementia family support program. Also, the facilitators’ difficulties in conducting their dementia family support program were decreased which was assessed with target complaints. Especially, the facilitators’ lack of dementia expertise and experience was decreased statistically significantly (t = 3.520, p = 0.002). Findings provided evidence of the benefits of the training program for facilitators to enhance managing dementia family support program by improving the facilitators’ self-efficacy and competence and decreasing their difficulties regarding operating their program.

Keywords: competence, dementia, facilitator, family, self-efficacy, training

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7194 Role of Social Support in Drug Cessation among Male Addicts in the West of Iran

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Fazel Zinat Motlagh


Social support is an important benchmark of health for people in avoidance conditions. The main goal of this study was to determine the three kinds of social support (family, friend and other significant) to drug cessation among male addicts, in Kermanshah, the west of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 addicts, randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Data were collected from conduct interviews based on standard questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS-18 at 95% significance level. The majority of addicts were young (Mean: 30.4 years), and with little education. Opium (36.4%), Crack (21.2%), and Methamphetamine (12.9%) were the predominant drugs. Inabilities to reject the offer and having addict friends are the most often reasons for drug usage. Almost, 18.9% reported history of drug injection. 43.2% of the participants already did drug cessation at least once. Logistic regression showed the family support (OR = 1.110), age (OR = 1.106) and drug use initiation age (OR = 0.918) was predicting drug cessation. Our result showed; family support is a more important effect among types of social support in drug cessation. It seems that providing educational program to addict’s families for more support of patients at drug cessation can be beneficial.

Keywords: drug cessation, family support, drug use, initiation age

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7193 Comparing the Effects of Systemic Family Intervention on End Stage Renal Disease: Families of Different Modalities

Authors: Fenni Sim


Background: The application of systemic family therapy approaches to community health cases have not gathered traction. In National Kidney Foundation, Singapore, the belief is that community support has great potential in helping End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) patients manage the demands of their treatment regime, whether Hemodialysis (HD) or Peritoneal Dialysis(PD) and sustain them on the treatment. However, the current community support does not include family interventions and is largely nursing based. Although nursing support is well provided to patients, and their family members in issues related to treatment and compliance, complex family issues and dynamics arising from caregiver strain or pre-dialysis relationship strain might deter efforts in managing the challenges of the treatment. Objective: The objective of the study is to understand the potential scope of work provided by a social worker who is trained in systemic family therapy and the effects of these interventions. Methodology: 3 families on HD and 3 families on PD who have been receiving family intervention for the past 6 months would be chosen for the study. A qualitative interview would be conducted to review the effectiveness for the family. Scales such as SCORE-15, PHQ-9, and Zarit Burden were used to measure family functioning, depression, and caregiver’s burden for the families. Results: The research is still in preliminary phase. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of family intervention for families with multiple stressors on different treatment modalities who might have different needs and challenges. Nursing support needs to be complemented with family-based support to manage complex family issues in order to achieve better health outcomes and improved family coping.

Keywords: complementing nursing support, end stage renal failure, healthcare, systemic approaches

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7192 The Associations of Family Support with Sexual Behaviour and Repeat Induced Abortion among Chinese Adolescents

Authors: Jiashu Shen


Background: The abortion rate has increased significantly, which is harmful especially to adolescents, making repeat induced abortion (RIA) among adolescents a social problem. This study aims to investigate the associations of family support with sexual behavior and repeat induced abortion among Chinese adolescents Methods: This study based on a national hospital-based sample with 945 girls aged 15-19 who underwent induced abortion in 43 hospitals. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimated odds ratio for the risk factors. Results: Adolescences living with parents were less inclined to undergo RIA, especially if they were rural (adjusted odds ratio=0.48 95%CI 0.31-0.72) and local (adjusted odds ratio =0.39 95%=0.23-0.66). Those with parental financial support were likely to have less sexual partnersand take contraceptives more regularly. Those with higher self-perceived importance in family were more likely to take contraceptives during the first sexual intercourse in higher age, and with higher first abortion age and less sexual partners. Conclusion: In mainland China, living with parents, parental financial support, high self-perceived importance in family and adequate family sexuality communications may contribute to lower incidence of RIA.

Keywords: Chinese adolescent, family support, repeat induced abortion, sexual behavior

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7191 Early Help Family Group Conferences: An Analysis of Family Plans

Authors: Kate Parkinson


A Family Group Conference (FGC) is a family-led decision-making process through which a family/kinship group, rather than the professionals involved, is asked to develop a plan for the care or the protection of children in the family. In England and Wales, FGCs are used in 76% of local authorities and in recent years, have tended to be used in cases where the local authority are considering the court process to remove children from their immediate family, to explore kinship alternatives to local authority care. Some local authorities offer the service much earlier, when families first come to the attention of children's social care, in line with research that suggests the earlier an FGC is held, the more likely they are to be successful. Family plans that result from FGCs are different from professional plans in that they are unique to a family and, as a result, reflect the diversity of families. Despite the fact that FGCs are arguable the most researched area of social work globally, there is a dearth of research that examines the nature of family plans and their substance. This paper presents the findings of a documentary analysis of 42 Early Help FGC plans from local authorities in England, with the aim of exploring the level and type of support that family members offer at a FGC. A thematic analysis identified 5 broad areas of support: Practical Support, Building Relationships, Child-care Support, Emotional Support and Social Support. In the majority of cases, family members did not want or ask for any formal support from the local authority or other agencies. Rather, the families came together to agree a plan of support, which was within the parameters of the resources that they as a family could provide. Perhaps then the role of the Early Help professional should be one of a facilitating and enabling role, to support families to develop plans that address their own specific difficulties, rather than the current default option, which is to either close the case because the family do not meet service thresholds or refer to formal support if they do, which may offer very specific support, have rigid referral criteria, long waiting lists and may not reflect the diverse and unique nature of families. FGCs are argued to be culturally appropriate social work practices in that they are appropriate for families from a range of cultural backgrounds and can be adapted to meet particular cultural needs. Furthermore, research on the efficacy of FGCs at an Early Help Level has demonstrated that Early Help FGCs have the potential to address difficulties in family life and prevent the need for formal support services, which are potentially stigmatising and do not reflect the uniqueness and diversity of families. The paper concludes with a recommendation for the use of FGCs across Early Help Services in England and Wales.

Keywords: family group conferences, family led decision making, early help, prevention

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7190 Diagnose of the Future of Family Businesses Based on the Study of Spanish Family Businesses Founders

Authors: Fernando Doral


Family businesses are a key phenomenon within the business landscape. Nevertheless, it involves two terms (“family” and “business”) which are nowadays rapidly evolving. Consequently, it isn't easy to diagnose if a family business will be a growing or decreasing phenomenon, which is the objective of this study. For that purpose, a sample of 50 Spanish-established companies from various sectors was taken. Different factors were identified for each enterprise, related to the profile of the founders, such as age, the number of sons and daughters, or support received from the family at the moment to start it up. That information was taken as an input for a clustering method to identify groups, which could help define the founders' profiles. That characterization was carried as a base to identify three factors whose evolution should be analyzed: family structures, business landscape and entrepreneurs' motivations. The analysis of the evolution of these three factors seems to indicate a negative tendency of family businesses. Therefore the consequent diagnosis of this study is to consider family businesses as a declining phenomenon.

Keywords: business diagnose, business trends, family business, family business founders

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7189 Determinants of Pupils' Performance in the National Achievement Test in Public Elementary Schools of Cavite City

Authors: Florenda B. Cardinoza


This study was conducted to determine the determinants of Grade III and grade VI pupils’ performance in the National Achievement Test in the Division of Cavite City, School Year 2011-2012. Specifically, the research aimed to: (1) describe the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, birth order, family size, family income, and occupation of parents; (2) determine the level of attitude towards NAT; and (3) describe the degree of relationship between the following variables: school support, teachers’ support, and lastly family support for the pupils’ performance in 2012 NAT. The study used the descriptive-correlation research method to investigate the determinants of pupils’ performance in the National Achievement Test of Public Elementary Schools in the Division of Cavite City. The instrument used in data gathering was a self-structured survey. The NAT result for SY 2011-2012 provided by NETRC and DepEd Cavite City was also utilized. The statistical tools used to process and analyze the data were frequency distribution, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Kruskall Wallis, Mann-Whitney, t-test for independent samples, One-way ANOVA, and Spearman Rank Correlational Coefficient. Results revealed that there were more female students than males in the Division of Cavite City; out of 659 respondents, 345 were 11 years old and above; 390 were females; 283 were categorized as first child in the family; 371 of the respondents were from small family; 327 had Php5000 and below family income; 450 of the fathers’ respondents were non professionals; and 431 of the mothers respondents had no occupation. The attitude towards NAT, with a mean of 1.65 and SD of .485, shows that respondents considered NAT important. The school support towards NAT, with a mean of 1.89 and SD of .520, shows that respondents received school support. The pupils had a very high attitude towards teachers’ support in NAT with a mean of 1.60 and SD of .572. Family support, with t-test of 16.201 with a p-value of 0.006, shows significant at 5 percent level. Thus, the determinants of pupils’ performance in NAT in terms of family support for NAT preparation is not significant according to their family income. The grade level, with the t-test is 4.420 and a p-value of 0.000, is significant at 5 percent level. Therefore, the determinants of pupils’ performance in NAT in terms of grade level for NAT preparation vary according to their grade level. For the determinants of pupils’ performance of NAT sample test for attitude towards NAT, school support, teachers’ support, and family support were noted highly significant with a p value of 0.000.

Keywords: achievement, determinants, national, performance, public, pupils', test

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7188 Family Functionality in Mexican Children with Congenital and Non-Congenital Deafness

Authors: D. Estrella, A. Silva, R. Zapata, H. Rubio


A total of 100 primary caregivers (mothers, fathers, grandparents) with at least one child or grandchild with a diagnosis of congenital bilateral profound deafness were assessed in order to evaluate the functionality of families with a deaf member, who was evaluated by specialists in audiology, molecular biology, genetics and psychology. After confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, DNA from the patients and parents were analyzed in search of the 35delG deletion of the GJB2 gene to determine who possessed the mutation. All primary caregivers were provided psychological support, regardless of whether or not they had the mutation, and prior and subsequent, the family APGAR test was applied. All parents, grandparents were informed of the results of the genetic analysis during the psychological intervention. The family APGAR, after psychological and genetic counseling, showed that 14% perceived their families as functional, 62% moderately functional and 24% dysfunctional. This shows the importance of psychological support in family functionality that has a direct impact on the quality of life of these families.

Keywords: deafness, psychological support, family, adaptation to disability

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7187 Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Support and Wellbeing in People with Vitiligo

Authors: Rafia Rafique, Mutmina Zainab


The present study investigated the relationship between fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social support and well-being in people with Vitiligo. It was hypothesized that low level of FNE and greater social support is likely to predict well-being. It was also hypothesized that social support is likely to moderate the relationship between FNE and well-being. Correlational research design was used for the present study. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect a sample (N=122) of people with Vitiligo. Hierarchical Moderated Regression analysis was used to test prediction and moderation. Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Mental Health Continuum-Short form (MHC-SF) were used to evaluate the study variables. Fear of negative evaluation negatively predicted well-being (emotional and psychological). Social support from significant others and friends predicted social well-being. Social Support from family predicted emotional and psychological well-being. It was found that social support from significant others moderated the relationship between FNE and emotional well-being and social support from family moderated the relationship between FNE and social well-being. Dermatologists treating people with Vitiligo need to educate them and their families about the buffering role of social support (family and significant others). Future studies need to focus on other important mediating factors that can possibly explain the relationship between fear of negative evaluation and wellbeing.

Keywords: fear of negative evaluation, hierarchical moderated regression, vitiligo, well-being

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7186 Effect of Family-Based DOTS Support Program on Adherence to Health Behaviors among Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Bandung, Indonesia

Authors: D. I. Yani, S. Isaramalai, C. Kritpracha


Adherence to health behaviors is essential to achieve successful TB treatment. This study aimed to examine the effect of a family-based DOTS support program on adherence to health behaviors in patients with pulmonary TB. Sixty TB patients and their families were selected using cluster randomization of community health centers. The subjects were assigned into a control group, who received the routine care, and an experimental group, who received both routine care and care from the family-based DOTS support program. Paired t-test and the independent t-test were applied. The total score of adherence to health behaviors in the experimental group was significantly higher after receiving care from the family-based DOTS support program than the pretest score (t = -10.34, p < .001). Suggestions were made to expand the application of this program in various contexts and to extend knowledge for nursing practices and research.

Keywords: self-care deficit nursing theory, family-based DOTS program, pulmonary tuberculosis, adherence, health behaviors

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7185 Stress and Social Support as Predictors of Quality of Life: A Case among Flood Victims in Malaysia

Authors: Najib Ahmad Marzuki, Che Su Mustaffa, Johana Johari, Nur Haffiza Rahaman


The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects and relationship of stress and social support towards the quality of life among flood victims in Malaysia. A total of 764 respondents took part in the survey via random sampling. The depression, anxiety, and stress scales were utilized to measure stress while The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure the quality of life. The findings of this study indicate that there were significant correlations between variables in the study. The findings show a significant negative relation between stress and quality of life, and significant positive correlations between support from family as well as support from friends with the quality of life. Stress and support from family were found to be significant predictors and influences the quality of life among flood victims.

Keywords: stress, social support, quality of life, flood victims

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7184 The Role of Family Support and Work Life Balance of Women Entrepreneurs in Jaffna District

Authors: Thevaranchany Sivaskaran


Women entrepreneurs are the key players in the society and their contributions is highly highlighted to enhance economic stability in the country. In Sri Lanka, especially in North and East provinces people badly affected by war. Most of them are widows and women headed families. Due to this changing environment, Educational opportunities, and the support of NGO’s Most of the women have started their business and become entrepreneurs. Even though existing family setup and social setup entrepreneurial women are overburdened and difficult to balance their business and family roles. The research has been conducted on the experiences of women entrepreneurs with the family role support and work-life balance within the small and micro- enterprise sector in Jaffna, Srilanka. This study aims to identify that what extent the role of family support will be the tool to balancing work and life effectively and, secondly, the main challenges they face in achieving work-life balance. This is done by drawing on literatures including those on work-life balance, small-and micro enterprises, and entrepreneurship theories. To find out this objective, the data were collected from 50 entrepreneurs among the members of Jaffna women chamber in each GS division basis (cluster random sampling). A qualitative methodological technique and semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data for the case study on these entrepreneurs. The results indicate that the majority of entrepreneurs do not enjoy a sense of work-life balance because most of them are women headed family and they need to work hard to generate financial profit for the benefit of family. The motivation for them to work in this way is to provide basic needs. Results confirmed for others that support of husbands is very important. Mostly, emotional support (belief and empowerment) is exposed; however, getting financial contribution seems to be highly appreciated. More responsibilities which spouses were ready to take over regarding the home responsibilities (that is, childcare) should also not be neglected in the system of support to their entrepreneurial wives. Although, more important for all, women with children appreciated other members and spouses help and assistance to a higher extent. Results showed that majority of women who started their own business feel that in the first year of ope-ration the emotional support of family members was more important.

Keywords: family support, work life balance, women entrepreneurs, Jaffna District, Sri Lanka

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7183 Use of Social Support for Fathers with Developmental Disabilities in Japan

Authors: Shiori Ishida, Hiromi Okuno, Hisato Igarashi, Akemi Yamazaki, Hiroko Takahashi


The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences and similarities regarding the social support of fathers and mothers towards considering increased assistance for the paternity of children with developmental disabilities. Written questionnaires were completed by fathers (n=85) and mothers (n=101) of children using rehabilitation facilities between infancy and 5 years of age. The survey contained multiple-choice questions on four categories: information support (6 items), emotional support (7 items), evaluation support (3 items), and daily living support (3 items). Regarding information support, fathers answered ‘spouse’ as the provider in over 50% of cases for all 6 items, which was significantly different compared with mothers (all p < 0.001). For emotional support, fathers were significantly more likely to get support from the workplace (p < 0.001) and from spouse (p < 0.001). The ‘evaluation support’ did not have significant differences for fathers in all the items, but the most frequent support providers were ‘spouses’. ‘Daily living support’ was significantly different from fathers in the workplace (p < 0.000) in terms of make allowances for work and duties. Thus, it appeared that fathers had fewer social support sources as compared with mothers and limited non-spouse support. The understanding of developmental disabilities, acquisition of methods of rehabilitation, and sources of support might have been inadequately addressed among fathers, which could be a hindrance to the involvement of fathers in the rearing of children with developmental disabilities. On the other hand, we also observed that some fathers were involved in the care of developmentally troubled children while providing mental support for their spouse, cooperating with housework, and adjusting their work life. However, the results on the external and social backgrounds of fathers indicated a necessity for greater empowerment and peer support to improve the paternal care of children with developmental disabilities in the family survey.

Keywords: children with developmental disabilities, family support, father, social support

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7182 Examining the Relationship between Family Functioning and Perceived Self-Efficacy

Authors: Fenni Sim


Objectives: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between family functioning and level of self-efficacy: how family functioning can potentially affect self-efficacy which will eventually lead to better clinical outcomes. The hypothesis was ‘Patients on haemodialysis with perceived higher family functioning are more likely to have higher perceived level of self-efficacy’. Methods: The study was conducted with a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative data collection of survey and semi-structured interview respectively. The General Self-Efficacy scale and SCORE-15 were self-administered by participants. The data will be analysed with correlation analysis method using Microsoft Excel. 79 patients were recruited for the study through random sampling. 6 participants whose results did not reflect the hypothesis were then recruited for the qualitative study. Interpretive phemenological analysis was then used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings: The hypothesis was accepted that higher family functioning leads to higher perceived self-efficacy. The correlation coefficient of -0.21 suggested a mild correlation between the two variables. However, only 4.6% of the variation in perceived self-efficacy is accounted by the variation in family functioning. The qualitative study extrapolated three themes that might explain the variations in the outliers: (1) level of physical functioning affects perceived self-efficacy, (2) instrumental support from family influenced perceived level of family functioning, and self-efficacy, (3) acceptance of illness reflects higher level of self-efficacy. Conclusion: While family functioning does have an impact on perceived self-efficacy, there are many intrapersonal and physical factors that may affect self-efficacy. The concepts of family functioning and self-efficacy are more appropriately seen as complementing each other to help a patient in managing his illness. Healthcare social workers can look at how family functioning is supporting the individual needs of patients with different trajectory of ESRD and the support we can provide to improve one’s self-efficacy.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, coping of illness, family functioning, self efficacy

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7181 Strengthening Factors of Family Living with Disabilities

Authors: Supranee Sittikan, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Rutja Phuphaibul


Thai’s families with disabilities are diverse, poor economy, low education disproportionately characterized their living that includes stress and suffering. This article reports a preliminary study using a qualitative case study with six disabilities (five physical and one mental problem) Their six family caregivers who perceived they were managing well with their conditions as well. Data were collected by in-depth interviews during November-December 2017 in North-East of Thailand. Preliminary results were found factors of moving in comprised of three themes as followings Karma: the families believe that the disability happened because of bad-karma which attached to them. From the reason, the members of families have to deserve and accept it. Family attachment: the families believe in the importance of being the family so they have to take good care in one another whether happy or suffering Community support: the families can get more to received helping hands from local health care providers and community health volunteers. These activities are very important to be representative in taking the families through health accessibility, which help them face with disabling problems. Nevertheless, the study needs further exploring on other families’ and health care team's perspective in larger scales leading to develop an appropriate health care service system which can support and promote the well-being of the families living with disabilities in the future.

Keywords: families with disabilities, Karma, family attachment, community support

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7180 Skills for Family Support Workforce: A Systematic Review

Authors: Anita Burgund Isakov, Cristina Nunes, Nevenka Zegarac, Ana Antunes


Contemporary societies are facing a noticeable shift in family realities, urging to need for the development of new policies, service, and practice orientation that has application across different sectors who serves families with children across the world. A challenge for the field of family support is diversity in conceptual assumptions and epistemological frameworks. Since many disciplines and professionals are working in the family support field, there is a need to map and gain a deeper insight into the skills for the workforce in this field. Under the umbrella of the COST action 'The Pan-European Family Support Research Network: A bottom-up, evidence-based and multidisciplinary approach', a review of the current state of knowledge published from the European studies on family support workforce skills standards is performed. Contributing to the aim of mapping and catalogization of skills standards, key stages of literature review were identified in order to extract and systematize the data. We have considered inclusion and exclusion criteria for this literature review. Inclusion criteria were: a) families living with their children and families using family support services; different methodological approaches were included: qualitative, quantitative, mix method, literature review and theoretical reflections various topic appeared in journals like working with families that are facing difficulties or culturally sensitive practice and relationship-based approaches; b) the dates ranged from 1995 to February 2020. Articles published prior to 1995 were excluded due to modernization of family support services across world; c) the sources and languages included peer-reviewed articles published in scientific journals in English. Six databases were searched and once we have extracted all the relevant papers (n=29), we searched the list of reference in each and we found 11 additional papers. In total 40 papers have been extracted from six data basis. Findings could be summarized in: 1) only five countries emerged with production in the specific topic, that is, workforce skills to family support (UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and Spain), 2) studies revealed that diverse skills support family topics were investigated, namely the professional support skills to help families of neglected/abused children or in care; the professional support skills to help families with children who suffer from behavioral problems and families with children with disabilities; and the professional support skills to help minority ethnic parents, 3) social workers were the main targeted professionals' studies albeit other child protection workers were studied too, 4) the workforce skills to family support were grouped in three topics: the qualities of the professionals (attitudes and attributes); technical skills, and specific knowledge. The framework of analyses, literature strategy and findings with study limitations will be further discussed. As an implication, this study contributes and advocates for the structuring of a common base for cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary qualification standards for the family support workforce.

Keywords: family support, skill standards, systemic review, workforce

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7179 Family Health in Families with Children with Autism

Authors: Teresa Isabel Lozano Pérez, Sandra Soca Lozano


In Cuba, the childcare is one of the programs prioritized by the Ministry of Public Health and the birth of a child becomes a desired and rewarding event for the family, which is prepared for the reception of a healthy child. When this does not happen and after the first months of the child's birth begin to appear developmental deviations that indicate the presence of a disorder, the event becomes a live event potentially negative and generates disruptions in the family health. A quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional research methodology was conducted to describe the impact on family health of diagnosis of autism in a sample of 25 families of children diagnosed with infantile autism at the University Pediatric Hospital Juan Manuel Marquez Havana, Cuba; in the period between January 2014 and May 2015. The sample was non probabilistic and intentional from the inclusion criteria selected. As instruments, we used a survey to identify the structure of the family, life events inventory and an instrument to assess the relative impact, adaptive resources of family and social support perceived (IRFA) to identify the diagnosis of autism as life event. The main results indicated that the majority of families studied were nuclear, small and medium and in the formation stage. All households surveyed identified the diagnosis of autism in a child as an event of great importance and negative significance for the family, taking in most of the families studied a high impact on the four areas of family health and impact enhancer of involvement in family health. All the studied families do not have sufficient adaptive resources to face this situation, sensing that they received social support frequently, mainly in information and emotional areas. We conclude that the diagnosis of autism one of the members of the families studied is valued as a life event highly significant with unfavorably way causing an enhancer impact of involvement in family health especially in the areas ‘health’ and ‘socio-psychological’. Among the social support networks health institutions, partners and friends are highlighted. We recommend developing intervention strategies in families of these children to support them in the process of adapting the diagnosis.

Keywords: family, family health, infantile autism, life event

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7178 The Experiences and Needs of Mothers’ of Children With Cancer in Coping With the Child's Disease

Authors: Maarja Karbus, Elsbet Lippmaa, Kadri Kööp, Mare Tupits


Aim: The aim is to describe the experiences and needs of mothers of children with cancer in coping with the child's illness. Background: Cancer affects different life areas. Especially if it is a child, in this case the whole family is involved. Loved ones are mentally affected, there are limitations, and life changes need to be made to make the whole treatment regimen and recovery as comfortable as possible. Also, the whole process is expensive and time consuming. The research is part of a larger project that covers the experiences and needs of parents of children with chronic illness and coping strategies related to the child's illness. Design: Qualitative, empirical, descriptive research. Method: Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and inductive content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2020, 5 respondents participated in the research. Results and Conclusions: The research revealed that the mothers' experiences of coping with a child's disease included health-related experiences, material aspects, changes in lifestyle, support systems and contact with professionals. Regarding the organizational and material aspects of life, the subjects presented experiences with economic problems, adaptation of changes in lifestyle, access to information and changes in the treatment process. With regard to health, the respondents identified experiences with the mother's physical and mental health and experiences with the health of an ill child. The experience of different support systems was related to the support of family, friends, acquaintances, various organizations and specialists. Experiences with specialist support included experiences with family relationships and positive and negatiive experiences with staff. The mothers' needs in dealing with the child's disease included the mother's emotional needs, the support of other family members, and the need for various support systems and services. The needs of coping with the child were the need for understanding, support, confidence, the need to be strong and courageous, the need to ignore one's own needs, and the need for personal time and rest. The needs of other family members included the needs of an ill child and the need to pay attention to other children in the family. The needs of different supporters and services were related to different helpers and different services.

Keywords: cancer, mother, coping, child, need, experience, illness

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7177 Psychological Wellbeing of Caregivers: Findings from a Large Cohort of Thai Adults

Authors: Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Sam-ang Seubsman


As Thais live longer, caregivers will become even more important to social and healthcare systems. Commonly reported in many low and middle‐income countries in Asia, formal social welfare services to support caregivers are lacking and informal family support will be required for all levels of care. In 2005, 87,151 open‐university adults were recruited to the Thai Cohort Study, with the majority aged between 25 and 39 years, and residing nationwide. At the 4‐year follow up in 2009 (n=60569) and the 8‐year follow‐up in 2013 (n=42785), prospective cohort participants were asked if they provide care for chronically ill, disabled, or frail family members. Among Thai cohort members reporting between 2009 and 2013, approximately 56% were not caregivers in either year, 24.5% reported providing care in 2009 only, 8.6% in 2013 only, and 10.6% reported providing care at both time points. Caregivers in the cohort reported providing financial support, help with shopping, emotional support, and assist with daily activities. Kessler 6 psychological distress scale, measured in both 2009 and 2013, was used as the primary outcome of a relationship between caregiving status and mental health. Using multivariate logistic regression, our 4‐year longitudinal findings revealed that cohort members who reported providing care at both time points were 1.4 to 1.6 times more likely to report high psychological distress than non‐caregivers, after accounting for potential covariates. With increasing needs for informal care provided by family members, the future health and social welfare system will need to provide adequate support to caregivers (e.g., respite care, clinical support and information for the family, and awareness of mental health among caregivers).

Keywords: family caregivers, psychological distress, prospective cohort, longitudinal study, Thailand

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7176 Migration and Provision of Support to Left-Behind Parents in Rural Cambodia

Authors: Benjamas Penboon, Zachary Zimmer, Aree Jampaklay


Cambodia is a country where labor migration has been consistently high. Coupled with advancing labor opportunities in urban areas, a function partly of globalization, this is resulting in massive migration out of rural areas. This is particularly true in Cambodia where there are high migration and a very large proportion of adult children living some distant from their parents. This paper explores characteristics associated with migrant providing support to parents in rural Cambodia. With reference to perspectives of family altruism and solidarity, this analysis particularly focusses on how a series of variables representing family integration and residential location associates with intergenerational monetary and instrumental support from migrants. The study hypothesizes that migrants are more likely to provide support when parents are in need, and there are no alternative means of support. Data come from The Rural Household Survey (N=3,713), part of the 2011 Cambodian Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP). Multilevel multinomial models indicate international migrants are likely to give money, while internal migrants are likely to provide both money and instrumental support, especially when migrants have no sibling and their parent in poor health status. In addition, employed migrants are two times providing monetary compared to those unemployed. Findings elucidate the decision to which and why support occurs more often when no other source of support exists and also depends on the ability to provide of migrants themselves.

Keywords: migration, left-behind parent, intergenerational relations, support, rural, Cambodia

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7175 Older Adult Grandparents' Voices as a Principle Care Giver in a Skipped-Generation Family

Authors: Kerdsiri Hongthai, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Rutja Phuphaibul


In Thailand, many adults in rural areas migrate to seek employ¬ment resulting in skipped-generation family where grandparents care for grandchildren with no other adults present. This is a preliminary study using qualitative case study methods, aimed to explore the situations of older adult grandparents' experiences in skipped-generation family in North-East of Thailand. Data were collected by in-depth inter¬views with 6 grandparents living in skipped-generation families; 5 females and 1 males grandparents, aged 62-75, some of them have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, during November to December, 2017. The finding themes are: ‘Caught up in the middle’: the older adults were pleased to have grandchildren but, at the same time, acknowledge the burden that this placed on them, especially when the migrant children failed to send enough money back to support the family. ‘Getting bad health’: they reported to be fatigued and stressed due to burden of caring for their grandchildren without support. This situation can aggravate problems of poor health status and be worsening economic status of the grandparents. In some cases of deprivation, the grandparents feel that having to be the sole care providers of their grandchildren can negative adversely affect their mental status. It is important to find out in other sectors similar to Thailand and lead to more in-depth research to answer the research questions about policy and social support in skipped-generation family in the future.

Keywords: older adult grandparents, experiences, principle care giver, skipped-generation family

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7174 Factors Influencing Health-related Quality of Life in Thai AMI Survivors

Authors: K. Masingboon, S. Duangpaeng, N. Chaiwong


Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most common cause of death among Thai with coronary heart disease (CHD). Thai AMI survivors are most likely to have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) due to their lifestyle, functional, and psychological problems. Guided by the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory, this study aimed to explore HRQoL and identify its predictors among Thai AMI survivors. 155 Thai AMI survivors were recruited by stratified random sampling from three hospitals located in eastern region of Thailand. HRQol was measured using the Short Form -12 Health Survey (SF-12). The Center for Epidemiologic studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was utilized to assess the presence of depression, and the Family Support questionnaire was administered to examine family support. Results revealed that 92 percent of Thai AMI survivors reported a generally high level of HRQoL and 80 percent of them reported higher level of HRQoL in physical health and mental health dimension. Depression and family support were significantly predicted HRQoL among Thai AMI survivors and accounted for 28.5 percent of variance (p < .001). Interestingly, depression was the most significant predictors of HRQoL (β = -.65, p < .001) In conclusion, depression is a significant predictor of HRQoL in Thai AMI survivors. Increasing awareness of depression among these survivors is important. Depressive symptoms in should be routinely assessed. In addition, intervention to improve HRQoL among Thai AMI survivors should be addressed through depressive symptom management and family collaboration.

Keywords: health-related quality of life, AMI survivors, predictors, collaboration

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7173 Non-Family Members as Successors of Choice in South African Family Businesses

Authors: Jonathan Marks, Lauren Katz


Family firms are a vital component of a country’s stability, prosperity and development. Their sustainability, longevity and continuity are critical. Given the premise that family firms wish to continue the business for the benefit of the family, the family founder / owner is faced with an emotionally charged transition option; either to transfer the family business to a family member or to transfer the firm to a non-family member. The rationale employed by family founders to select non-family members as successors/ executives of choice and the concomitant rationale employed by non-family members to select family firms as employers of choice, has been under-researched in the literature of family business succession planning. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to gain access to family firm founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives and industry experts on family business. The findings indicated that the rationale for family members to select non-family successors/ executives was underpinned by the objective to grow the family firm for the benefit of the family. If non-family members were the most suitable candidates to ensure this outcome, family members were comfortable to employ non-family members. Non- family members, despite the knowledge that benefit lay primarily with family members, chose to work for family firms for personal benefits in terms of wealth, security and close connections. A commonly shared value system was a pre-requisite for all respondents. The research study provides insights from family founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives, and industry experts on the subject of succession planning outside the family structure.

Keywords: agency theory, family business, institutional logics, non-family successors, Stewardship Theory

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7172 Investigating Problems and Social Support for Mothers of Poor Households

Authors: Niken Hartati


This study provides a description of the problem and sources of social support that given to 90 mothers from poor households. Data were collected using structured interviews with the three main questions: 1) what kind of problem in mothers daily life, 2) to whom mothers ask for help to overcome it and 3) the form of the assistances that provided. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques were then coded and categorized. The results of the study illustrate the problems experienced by mothers of poor households in the form of: subsistence (37%), child care (27%), management of money and time (20%), housework (5%), bad place of living (5%), the main breadwinner (3%), and extra costs (3%). While the sources of social support that obtained by mothers were; neighbors (10%), extended family (8%), children (8%), husband (7%), parents (7%), and siblings (5%). Unfortunately, more mothers who admitted not getting any social support when having problems (55%). The form of social support that given to mother from poor household were: instrumental support (91%), emotional support (5%) and informational support (2%). Implications for further intervention also discussed in this study.

Keywords: household problems, social support, mothers, poor households

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7171 A Qualitative Study of Unmet Needs of Families of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Bangladesh

Authors: Reshma Parvin Nuri, Heather Michelle Aldersey, Setareh Ghahari


Objectives: Worldwide, it is well known that taking care of children with disabilities (CWD) can have a significant impact on the entire family unit. Over the last few decades, an increased number of studies have been conducted on families of CWD in higher income countries, and much of this research has identified family needs and strategies to meet those needs. However, family needs are incredibly under-studied in developing countries. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (a) explore the needs of families of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Bangladesh; (b) investigate how some of the family needs have been met and (c) identify the sources of supports that might help the families to meet their needs in the future. Methods: A face to face, semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted with 20 family members (12 mothers, 4 fathers, 1 sister, 2 grandmothers, and 1 aunt) who visited the Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Bangladesh between June and August 2016. Constant comparison method of grounded theory approach within the broader spectrum of qualitative study was used to analyze the data. Results: Participants identified five categories of needs: (a) financial needs, (b) access to disability-related services, (c) family and community cohesion, (d) informational needs, and (e) emotional needs. Participants overwhelmingly reported that financial need is their greatest family need. Participants noted that families encountered additional financial expenses for a child with CP, beyond what they would typically pay for their other children. Participants were seeing education as their non-primary need as they had no hope that their children would be physically able to go to school. Some participants also shared their needs for social inclusion and participation and receiving emotional support. Participants further expressed needs to receive information related to the child’s health condition and availability/accessibility of governmental support programs. Besides unmet needs, participants also highlighted that some of their needs have been met through formal and informal support systems. Formal support systems were mainly institution-based and run by non-governmental organizations, whereas participants identified informal support coming from family, friends and community members. Participants overwhelmingly reported that they receive little to no support from the government. However, participants identified the government as the key stakeholder who can play vital role in meeting their unmet needs. Conclusions: In the next phase of this research, the plan is to understand how the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh is working to meet the needs of families of CWD. There is also need for further study on needs of families of children with conditions other than CP and those who live in the community and do not have access to the CRP Services. There is clear need to investigate ways to enable children with CP have better access to education in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, children with cerebral palsy, family needs, support

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7170 Preferences and Experiences in Family-Friendly Workplace Benefits: Gender Variation among Qatari Adults

Authors: Joseph G. Grzywacz, Azza O. Abdelmoneium, Abdallah M. Badahdah


Qatar provides an interesting context for studying family-friendly policies for working adults because it is governed by monarchy and Sharia law provides the foundation for legislation. This study considers gender variation in the perceived importance of and satisfaction with 12 family-friendly benefits (e.g., paid parental leave, flexible work hours, onsite childcare). Data were from a 2017 national sample of native Qatari adults. The perceived importance of family-friendly benefits was comparable for women and men for 7 of 12 benefits. Men rated paid paternity leave higher than women, but women rated telecommuting, dedicated breastfeeding room, onsite childcare, and opportunities to job share higher than men. Women and men reported similar experiences for 9 of 12 family-friendly benefits, but men’s expectations were better met than women’s for flexible work arrangements, telecommuting, and financial support for athletic clubs.

Keywords: culture, family-friendly benefits, gender, work-family

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