Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: piperine

6 In vitro Studies on Antimycobacterial and Efflux Pump Inhibition of C. roseus and P. nigrum against Clinical Isolates of Ofloxacin Resistant M. tuberculosis

Authors: Raja Arunprasath, P. Gajalakshmi


Antimycobacterial activity of C. roseus rosea and piperine was evaluated against ofloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis. Among the 68 suspected sputum samples, 32 were AFB positive belongs to age group of 40-50years. Susceptibility of M. tuberculosis was evaluated against ofloxacin and streptomycin by colorimetric assay. Of these 32 positive samples, 20 isolates were resistant to ofloxacin, 12 were resistant to Streptomycin and none of them were found to be multidrug resistant. The sensitivity pattern of ofloxacin resistant M. tuberculosis against two tested plant extracts showed potent tubercular activity. Antimycobacterial activity of C. roseus was 22 + 2.21mm and piperine was found to be 20 + 1.08 mm. The percentage of relative inhibitory zone of C. roseus was 133 % and piperine was found to be 111 %. The MIC of C. roseus and piperine was found at 50 µg/ml. Based on the FICI value 0.37 confirms that both the tested phytochemicals were synergistically active against M. tuberculosis. The MIC of ofloxacin was reduced from 8 mg to 2 mg/l in the presence of piperine but not by C. roseus. This is the first report on Synergistic bioactivity of C. roseus rosea and piperine fractionation leads development of novel antimycobacterial prophylaxis in future.

Keywords: C. roseus, ofloxacin, piperine, synergistic

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5 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal


The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

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4 In vitro P-Glycoprotein Modulation: Combinatorial Approach Using Natural Products

Authors: Jagdish S. Patel, Piyush Chudasama


Context: Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays critical role in absorption of many drug candidates which results into lower bioavailability of the drug. P-glycoprotein also over expresses in many pathological conditions like diabetes, affecting the drug therapy. Modulation of P-gp expression using inhibitors can help in designing novel formulation enhancing the bioavailability of the drug in question. Objectives: The main focus of the study was to develop advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced P-gp over expression in Caco-2 cells. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate were used to evaluate their P-gp inhibitory action using combinatorial approach. Materials and methods: Methylglyoxal (MG) induced P-gp over expression was checked in Caco-2 cells using real time PCR. P-gp inhibitory effects of the phytochemicals were measured after induction with MG alone and in combination of any two compounds. Cytotoxicity of each of the phytochemical was evaluated using MTT assay. Results: Induction with MG (100mM) significantly induced the over expression of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells after 24 hr. Curcumin, piperine and epigallocatechin gallate alone significantly reduced the level of P-gp within 6 hr of treatment period monitored by real time PCR. The combination of any two phytochemical also down regulated the expression of P-gp in cells. Combinations of Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have shown significant down regulation when compared with other two combinations. Conclusions: Combinatorial approach for down regulating the expression of P-gp, in pathological conditions like diabetes, has demonstrated promising approach for therapeutic purpose.

Keywords: p-glycoprotein, curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, p-gp inhibition

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3 The Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma Longa Rhizomes Alone and with Two Pepper Adjuvants in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: J. O. Ezekwesili-Ofili, L. I. Okorafor, S. C. Nsofor


Diabetes mellitus is a carbohydrate metabolism disorder due to an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin secretion, action or both. Many known hypoglycaemic drugs are known to produce serious side effects. However, the search for safer and more effective agents has shifted to plant products, including foods and spices. One of such is the rhizome of Curcuma longa or turmeric, which is a spice with high medicinal value. A drawback in the use of C. longa is the poor bioavailability of curcumin, the active ingredient. It has been reported that piperine, an alkaloid present in peppers increases the bioavailability of curcumin. This work therefore investigated the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of C. longa rhizomes, alone and with two pepper adjuvants in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A total of 48 rats were divided into 6 groups of 8 rats each. Groups A–E were induced with diabetes using 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate, while group F was normoglycaemic: Group A: Diabetic; fed with 400 mg/g body weight of turmeric extract; group B: Diabetic, fed with 400 mg/kg b. w. and 200mg/kg b. w of ethanolic extract of seeds of Piper guinensee; group C: Diabetic, fed with 400 mg/kg b. w. and 200 mg /kg b. w. of ethanolic extract of seeds of Capsicum annum var cameroun, group D: Diabetic, treated with standard drug, glibenclamide (0.3mg/kg body weight), group E: Diabetic; no treatment i.e. Positive control and group F: non diabetic, no treatment i.e. Negative control. Blood glucose levels were monitored for 14 days using a glucometer. The levels of the antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were also assayed in serum. The ethanolic extracts of C. longa rhizomes at the dose given (400 mg/kg b. w) significantly reduced the blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats (p<0.05) comparable to the standard drug. Co administration of extract of the peppers did not significantly increase the efficiency of the extract, although C. annum var cameroun showed greater effect, though not significantly. The antioxidant effect of the extract was significant in diabetic rats. The use of piperine-containing peppers enhanced the antioxidant effect. Phytochemical analyses of the ethanolic extract of C. longa showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. longa had antidiabetic with antioxidant effects and could thus be of benefit in the treatment and management of diabetes as well as ameliorate pro-oxidant effects that may lead to diabetic complications. However, while the addition of piperine did not affect the antidiabetic effect of C. longa, the antioxidant effect was greatly enhanced.

Keywords: antioxidant, Curcuma longa rhizome, hypoglycaemic, pepper adjuvants, piperine

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2 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit


Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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1 Hierarchical Zeolites as Potential Carriers of Curcumin

Authors: Ewelina Musielak, Agnieszka Feliczak-Guzik, Izabela Nowak


Based on the latest data, it is expected that the substances of therapeutic interest used will be as natural as possible. Therefore, active substances with the highest possible efficacy and low toxicity are sought. Among natural substances with therapeutic effects, those of plant origin stand out. Curcumin isolated from the Curcuma longa plant has proven to be particularly important from a medical point of view. Due to its ability to regulate many important transcription factors, cytokines, and protein kinases, curcumin has found use as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and anticancer agent. The unfavorable properties of curcumin, such as low solubility, poor bioavailability, and rapid degradation under neutral or alkaline pH conditions, limit its clinical application. These problems can be solved by combining curcumin with suitable carriers such as hierarchical zeolites. This is a new class of materials that exhibit several advantages. Hierarchical zeolites used as drug carriers enable delayed release of the active ingredient and promote drug transport to the desired tissues and organs. In addition, hierarchical zeolites play an important role in regulating micronutrient levels in the body and have been used successfully in cancer diagnosis and therapy. To apply curcumin to hierarchical zeolites synthesized from commercial FAU zeolite, solutions containing curcumin, carrier and acetone were prepared. The prepared mixtures were then stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 24 h at room temperature. The curcumin-filled hierarchical zeolites were drained into a glass funnel, where they were washed three times with acetone and distilled water, after which the obtained material was air-dried until completely dry. In addition, the effect of piperine addition to zeolite carrier containing a sufficient amount of curcumin was studied. The resulting products were weighed and the percentage of pure curcumin in the hierarchical zeolite was calculated. All the synthesized materials were characterized by several techniques: elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), N2 adsorption, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The aim of the presented study was to improve the biological activity of curcumin by applying it to hierarchical zeolites based on FAU zeolite. The results showed that the loading efficiency of curcumin into hierarchical zeolites based on commercial FAU-type zeolite is enhanced by modifying the zeolite carrier itself. The hierarchical zeolites proved to be very good and efficient carriers of plant-derived active ingredients such as curcumin.

Keywords: carriers of active substances, curcumin, hierarchical zeolites, incorporation

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