Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: choux cream

53 Quinoa Choux Cream Gluten Free

Authors: Autumporn Buranapongphan, Ketsirin Meethong, Phukan Pahaphom

Abstract:

The objectives of this research is aim to study the standard formula of choux cream recipe. Formulation of choux cream were used gluten free as a replacer with flour in choux dough, quinoa milk in cream and shelf life on product. The results showed the acceptance test using 30 target consumers revealed that liking of choux dough with water 34%, egg 30% flour 19% butter 16% baking powder 1% and cream with milk 68% sugar 13% butter 6.8% egg 4.5% and vanilla 0.9%. The gluten free exhibited the formulation of dough is rice flour 12% potato starch 26% tapioca 7.7% and quinoa flour 4.3%. The ratio of corn flour at 40% had significant effects on liking of viscosity for quinoa cream. During storage by Total viable count (TVA) were kept in room temperature for 8 hours and chilled for 18 hours.

Keywords: choux cream, gluten free, quinoa, dough

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52 Use of Green Coconut Pulp as Cream, Milk, Stabilizer and Emulsifier Replacer in Germinated Brown Rice Ice Cream

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul, Supitcha Boonchai, Nawapat Pengpengpit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine physicochemical and sensory properties of germinated brown rice ice cream as affected by replacement of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with green coconut pulp. Five different formulations of ice cream were performed. Regular formulation of ice cream consisted of GBR juice, milk cream, milk powder, stabilizer, emulsifier, sucrose and salt. Replacing of cream, milk, stabilizer, and emulsifier with coconut pulp resulted in an increase in viscosity and overrun, but a decrease in hardness, melting rate, lightness (l*) and redness (a*). However, there was no significant difference among all formulations on any sensory attributes. The results also showed that the ice cream with replacement of coconut pulp contained less fat and protein than those of the regular ice cream. The findings suggested that green coconut pulp can be used as alternative ingredient to replace fat, milk stabilizer and emulsifier even in a high carbohydrate ice cream formulation.

Keywords: ice cream, germinated brown rice, coconut pulp, milk, cream

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51 The Effect of Incorporation of Inulin as a Fat Replacer on the Quality of Milk Products Vis-À-Vis Ice Cream

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

The influence of different levels of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of ice cream was investigated. The physicochemical, rheological and textural properties of control ice cream and ice cream prepared with inulin in different proportions were determined and correlated to the different parameters using Pearson correlation and Principle Component Analysis (PCA). Based on the overall acepectability, ice cream with 4% inulin was found best and was selected for preparation of ice cream with inulin:SPI in different proportions. Compared with control ice cream, Inulin:SPI showed different rheological properties, resulting in significantly higher apparent viscosities, consistency coefficient and greater deviations from Newtonian flow. In addition, both hardness and melting resistance significantly increased with increase in the SPI content in ice cream prepared with inulin: SPI. Also hardness value increased for inulin based ice cream compared to control ice cream but it melted significantly faster than the latter. Colour value significantly decreased in both the cases compared to the control sample. The deliberation shall focus on the effect of incorporation of inulin on the quality of ice-cream.

Keywords: fat replacer, inulin, ice cream, viscosity, principal component analysis

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50 The Application of Karonda Friuts (Carissa carandas Linn.) for Ice Cream-Making

Authors: A. Pornpitakdumrong

Abstract:

The aim of this research study was to develop recipe of Karanda ice cream as healthy promoting ice cream by high protein, low fat and naturally raw material, which found in local area. The results were found that appropriate condition for Karanda ice cream including incubation period, temperature and frozen time, which were 8-12 hours, -20 to -25 °C and 2-4 hours, respectively. Small fruit variety Karanda should selected only ripe fruits for Karanda ice cream made. Because of unripe fruits were contained resin and need to be air dried for reducing level of resin. Therefore, large fruit variety Karanda can be use both ripe and unripe fruits for Karanda ice cream made by without any astringent and bitter taste. However, small fruit variety Karanda was proper to made ice cream for trade, because occurring of industry to select the ripe fruits and commercially frozen, which be providing for the whole year compared with large variety fruits were rarely, low harvesting amount and short shelf life. Karanda ice cream produced from flesh part was attractive but was not accepted by consumers. It may due to resin contained with Karanda pulp, which led to be rough texture of ice cream. We were choose only Karanda juice, which was more appropriated and used Karanda juice with water by 1:1 ratio, because undiluted juice was sour taste. Most acceptance recipe of karanda ice cream product was sixth recipe by 91% of consumers, which was contained soy protein to made ice cream was delicate and swell, milk powder (little amount) to made ice cream was greasy, corn powder as stabilizer and undiluted coconut milk (little amount) to improve ice cream odor and similar to apricot odor.

Keywords: karonda fruits, Carissa carandas Linn, ice cream, healthy ice cream

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49 Biochemical Characteristics and Microstructure of Ice Cream Prepared from Fresh Cream

Authors: S. Baississe, S. Godbane, A. Lekbir

Abstract:

The objective of our work is to develop an ice cream from a fermented cream, skim milk and other ingredients and follow the evolution of its physicochemical properties, biochemical and microstructure of the products obtained. Our cream is aerated with the manufacturing steps start with a homogenizing follow different ingredients by heating to 40°C emulsion, the preparation is then subjected to a heat treatment at 65°C for 30 min, before being stored in the cold at 4°C for a few hours. This conservation promotes crystallization of the material during the globular stage of maturation of the cream. The emulsifying agent moves gradually absorbed on the surface of fat globules homogeneous, which results in reduced protein stability. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilizing fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. During the expansion, the collusion of destabilized fat globules in the aqueous phase favours their coalescence. The stabilizing agent increases the viscosity of the aqueous phase and the drainage limit interaction with the proteins of the aqueous phase and the protein absorbed on fat globules. The cutting improved organoleptic property of our cream is made by the use of three dyes and aromas. The products obtained undergo physicochemical analyses (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, % dry matter and fat in %), and finally in the microscopic observation of the microstructure and the results obtained by analysis of the image processing software. The results show a remarkable evolution of physicochemical properties (pH, conductivity and acidity), biochemical (moisture, fat and non-fat) and microstructure of the products developed in relation to the raw material (skim milk) and the intermediate product (fermented cream).

Keywords: ice cream, sour cream, physicochemical, biochemical, microstructure

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48 Efficacy of Chia Seed Oil Supplemented Ice-Cream against Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Naureen Naeem, M. S. Aslam

Abstract:

Chia seeds found to be a rich source of dietary fiber contain oil which is high in omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and helpful in the control of cardiovascular diseases. Owing to its spectacular significance, present research had been designed to explore its effect on cholesterol level of the individuals after consumption of chia seed oil supplemented ice cream. The project was designed in such a manner that fat of ice cream was replaced with chia seed oil in different proportions i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. After physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of ice cream, best treatment was selected and used for efficacy trials. After baseline line study and thorough inclusion criteria 10 individuals were selected and divided into two groups. One group treated as control and the other was given chia seed oil supplemented l(50%) ice cream. Significant decrease in cholesterol level was observed in the treated group. 18% decrease in cholesterol level was observed at 40th day followed by 8% at 20th day. Similarly 20% decrease in LDL cholesterol with 14% increase in HDL cholesterol. It was recommended that further trials be conducted with sophisticated techniques to completely replace saturated fat in ice cream with unsaturated fats and to study its effect in hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

Keywords: hypercholesterolemia, chia seed oil, HDL, triglycerides

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47 The Survival of Bifidobacterium longum in Frozen Yoghurt Ice Cream and Its Properties Affected by Prebiotics (Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides) and Fat Content

Authors: S. Thaiudom, W. Toommuangpak

Abstract:

Yoghurt ice cream (YIC) containing prebiotics and probiotics seems to be much more recognized among consumers who concern for their health. Not only can it be a benefit on consumers’ health but also its taste and freshness provide people easily accept. However, the survival of such probiotic especially Bifidobacterium longum, found in human gastrointestinal tract and to be benefit to human gut, was still needed to study in the severe condition as whipping and freezing in ice cream process. Low and full-fat yoghurt ice cream containing 2 and 10% (w/w) fat content (LYIC and FYIC), respectively was produced by mixing 20% yoghurt containing B. longum into milk ice cream mix. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) at 0, 1, and 2% (w/w) were separately used as prebiotic in order to improve the survival of B. longum. Survival of this bacteria as a function of ice cream storage time and ice cream properties were investigated. The results showed that prebiotic; especially FOS could improve viable count of B. longum. The more concentration of prebiotic used, the more is the survival of B. Longum. These prebiotics could prolong the survival of B. longum up to 60 days, and the amount of survival number was still in the recommended level (106 cfu per gram). Fat content and prebiotic did not significantly affect the total acidity and the overrun of all samples, but an increase of fat content significantly increased the fat particle size which might be because of partial coalescence found in FYIC rather than in LYIC. However, addition of GOS or FOS could reduce the fat particle size, especially in FYIC. GOS seemed to reduce the hardness of YIC rather than FOS. High fat content (10% fat) significantly influenced on lowering the melting rate of YIC better than 2% fat content due to the 3-dimension networks of fat partial coalescence theoretically occurring more in FYIC than in LYIC. However, FOS seemed to retard the melting rate of ice cream better than GOS. In conclusion, GOS and FOS in YIC with different fat content can enhance the survival of B. longum and affect physical and chemical properties of such yoghurt ice cream.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium longum, prebiotic, survival, yoghurt ice cream

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46 Formulation of Sun Screen Cream and Sun Protecting Factor Activity from Standardized–Partition Compound of Mahkota Dewa Leaf (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.)

Authors: Abdul Karim Zulkarnain, Marchaban, Subagus Wahyono, Ratna Asmah Susidarti

Abstract:

Mahkota Dewa contains phalerin which has activity as sun screen. In this study, 13 formulations of cream oil in water (o/w) were prepared and tested for their physical characteristics. The physical characteristics were then used for determining the optimum formula. This study aimed to explore the physical stability of optimized formulation of cream, its sun protecting factor (SPF) values using in vitro and in vivo tests. The optimum formula of o/w cream were prepared based on Simplex Lattice Design (LSD) method using software Design Expert®. The formulation of o/w cream were varied based on the proportion of cetyl alcohol, mineral oil and tween 80. The difference of physical characteristic of optimum and predicted formula was tested using t-test with significant level of 95%. The optimum formula of o/w cream was the formula which consists of cetyl alcohol 9.71%, mineral oil, 29%, and tween 80 3.29. Based on t-test, there was no significant difference of physical characteristics of optimum and predicted formulation. Viscosity, spread power, adhesive power, and separation volume ratio of o/w at week 0-4 were relatively stable. The o/w creams were relatively stable at extreme temperature. The o/w creams from mahkota dewa, phalerin, and benzophenone have SPF values of 21.32, 33.12, and 42.49, respectively. The formulas did not irritate the skin based on in vivo test.

Keywords: cream, stability, In vitro, In vivo

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45 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

Abstract:

Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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44 Effect of Farsi gum (Amygdalus Scoparia Spach) in Combination with Sodium Caseinate on Textural, Stability, Sensory Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Whipped Cream

Authors: Samaneh Mashayekhi

Abstract:

Cream (whipped cream) is one of the dairy products that can be used in desserts, pastries, cakes, and ice creams. In this product, some parameters such as taste and flavor, quality stability, whipping ability, and stability of foam after whipping are very important. The objective of this study is applicable of Farsi gum and sodium caseinate in 3 biopolymer ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1) and 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 %wt. concentrations in whipped cream formulation. Sample without hydrocolloids was considered as a control. Before whipping, viscosity of all creams was increased continuously with increasing shear rate. In addition, the viscosity was increased with the increasing hydrocolloids addition (in constant shear rate). Microscopic observations showed that polydispersity of systems before whipping. Overrun of F, FC11, and FC21 samples were increased (with increasing total hydrocollid concentration 0.15 to 0.30 % wt.); then decreased this parameter with increasing to 0.45 % wt. concentration. However, mean comparison of FC12 samples overrun showed that this value was increased with increasing total hydrocolloids concentration. 0.45FC21 sample had significantly (P<0.05) highest overrun (118.44±9.11). Synersis of whipped cream samples are reduced with hydrocolloid addition. B sample had significantly (P<0.05) highest serum separation (16.66±0.80%), and 0.45FC12 had a low one (5.94±0.19%) in compered with others synersis. Mean comparison of hardness and adhesiveness of whipped cream revealed that Farsi gum addition alone and in combination with sodium caseinate increased the previous textural characteristics. Results exhibited that 0.4FG12 had significantly (P<0.05) highest hardness (267.00±18.38 g).Mean comparison of droplet size of cream sample before whipping displaced that hydrocolloid addition had no significant effect (P>0.05), and mean droplet size of the samples ranged between 1.93-2.16 µm. Generally, the mean droplet size of whipped cream increased after whipping with increasing hydrocolloid concentration (0.15-0.45 % wt.). Color parameter analysis showed that Farsi gum addition alone and in combination with sodium caseinate had no significant effect (P>0.05) on these parameters (Lightness, Redness, and Yellowness). Based on sensory evaluation results, appearance, color, flavor, and taste of whipped creams not influenced by hydrocolloids addition; but 0.45FC12 sample had higher value. Based on the above results, Farsi gum had suggested to potential application in a whipped cream formulation; however, further research need to foundingof their functionality.

Keywords: whipped cream, farsi gum, sodium caseinate, overrun, droplet size, texture analysis, sensory evaluation

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43 The Effects of Topically-Applied Skin Moisturizer on Striae Gravidarum in East Indian Women

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

Abstract:

Background: Striae result from rapid expansion of the underlying tissue, e.g. during puberty, pregnancy or rapid weight gain. Prior data indicate that the incidence of stretch marks in Indian women is 77%.The hormonal and genetic factors are associated with their appearance. Recently that has been found skin extensibility, elasticity and rupture were strongly influenced by the water content of dermis and epidermis cells. Objective: The objectives were to assess the effects of topical treatments applied during pregnancy on the later development of stretch marks. Materials and methods: An open, prospective, randomized study was done on 120 pregnant women in whom skin elasticity and hydration as well as striae presence or apparition were measured at baseline and periodically until delivery. Patients were randomly assigned to application in wet skin cream, or in dry skin conditions. Results: The average basal hydration was 42 ±13 IU and the final was 46 ± 6 IU (P = 0.0325; 95% CI: -7.66 to -0.34), which difference was statistically significant. By measuring the moisture in the control region (forearm) a basal reading of 40 ± 9 IU and end of study of 38 ± 6; (p = 0.1547; 95% CI: -0.77 to 4.77) and this difference was considered to be not statistically significant. It was observed that at the end of the study, 55% women without ridges; mild ridges 5%; 36% moderate, and 4%, severe ridges. The proportion of women without grooves was 54% when the cream was applied studied wet skin and 45% when the cream was applied on dry skin. Conclusion: It was shown that cream under study increased hydration and elasticity of abdominal skin consequently in all subjects. This effect is more significant (54%) when the cream is applied to damp skin.

Keywords: striae gravidarum, skin moisturizer, skin hydration, skin elasticity

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42 Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Determination of Sericin Cream and Niosomal Gel

Authors: Farzad Doostishoar, Abbas Pardakhty, Abdolreza Hassanzadeh, Sudeh salarpour, Elham Sharif

Abstract:

Background: Sericin is a protein extracted from silk and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, wound healing and moisturizing properties. Different cosmetic formulation of sericin is available in different countries such as Japan and the other south-eastern Asian countries. We formulated and evaluated the sunscreen properties of topical formulations of sericin by an in vitro method. Method: Niosomes composed of sorbitan palmitate (Span 40), polysorbate 40 (Tween 40) and cholesterol (300 µmol, 3.5:3.5:3 molar ratio) were prepared by film hydration technique. Sericin was dissolved in normal saline and the lipid hydration was carried out at 60°C and the niosomes were incorporated in a Carbomer gel base. A W/O cream was also prepared and the release of sericin was evaluated by using Franz diffusion cell. Particle size analysis, sericin encapsulation efficiency measurement, morphological studies and stability evaluation were done in niosomal formulations. SPF was calculated by using Transpore tape in vitro method for both formulations. Results: Niosomes had high stability during 6 months storage at 4-8°C. The mean volume diameter of niosomes was less than 7 µm which is ideal for sustained release of drugs in topical formulations. The SPF of niosomal gel was 25 and higher than sericin cream with a diffusion based release pattern of active material. Conclusion: Sericin can be successfully entrapped in niosomes with sustained release pattern and relatively high SPF.

Keywords: sericin, niosomes, sun protection factor, cream, gel

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41 Efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics and Diclofenac Spray in Attenuating Intravenous Cannulation Pain- Paeallel Randomized Trial

Authors: Anju Rani, Geeta, Sudha Rani, Choudhary, Puhal

Abstract:

Method- A total of 300 patients were studied, with 100 patients in each group. Patients aged 16-60 years, ASA grade I and II undergoing elective general surgical, urology and orthopedic procedures were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to any of the three groups by Using Sealed envelopes. 1. Group A: EMLA (eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine with 2.5% prilocaine) - Patients receiving eutectic Lidocaine/ Prilocaine cream (2gm/10cm2) of Prilox cream), for 60- 70 min under occlusive dressing. 2. Group B - Patients receiving topical diclofenac 4 % spray gel for 60- 70 min, covering an absorption area of 50 cm2 3. Group C: control – Direct cannulation was done without any intervention. Results - Group B showed significantly least number of patients complaining pain on IV cannulation in comparison to group A and group C. The Mean VAS scores were found to be maximum in GROUP C: control-8.76 ± 4.14, then in GROUP A: EMLA- 2.54 ± 4.21.and least in GROUP B: Diclofenac 4% spray-1.13 ± 3.05. Erythema, induration and edema were significantly reported to be higher for the control group. Also group A patients reported adverse skin reactions more than patients in group B. Conclusion - It can be concluded that diclofenac spray 4 % and EMLA cream are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of venous cannulation pain as compared to the control group. However, a higher incidence of skin blanching, erythema, and oedema associated with EMLA cream and a lower incidence of these adverse effects favours the use of diclofenac spray 4%. They are promising agents for the treatment of venous cannulation pain.

Keywords: diclofenac spray, EMLA, intravenous, pain

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40 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda

Abstract:

Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: blood pressure, inulin, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference

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39 FEDBD Plasma, A Promising Approach for Skin Rejuvenation

Authors: P. Charipoor, M. Khani, H. Mahmoudi, E. Ghasemi, P. Akbartehrani, B. Shokri

Abstract:

Cold air plasma could have a variety of effects on cells and living organisms and also shows good results in medical and cosmetic cases. Herein, plasma floating electrode dielectric barrier discharge (FEDBD) plasma was designed for mouse skin rejuvenation purposes. It is safe and easy to use in clinics, laboratories, and homes. The effects of this device were investigated on mouse skin. Vitamin C ointment in combination with plasma was also used as a new method to improve FEDBD results. In this study, 20 Wistar rats were evaluated in four groups. The first group received high-dose plasma, the second group received moderate-dose plasma (with vitamin C cream), the third group received low-dose plasma (with vitamin C cream) for 6 minutes, and the fourth group received only vitamin C cream. This process was done 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Skin temperature was monitored to evaluate the thermal effect of plasma. The presence of reactive species was also demonstrated using optical spectroscopy. Mechanical assays were performed to evaluate the effect of plasma and vitamin C on the mechanical strength of the tissue, which showed a positive effect of plasma on the treated tissue compared to the control group. Using pathological and biometric skin tests, an increase in collagen levels, epidermal thickness, and an increase in fibroblasts was observed in rat skin, as well as increased skin elasticity. This study showed the positive effect of using the FEDBD plasma device on the effective parameters in skin rejuvenation.

Keywords: plasma, skin rejuvenation, collagen, epidermal thickness

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38 University of Sciences and Technology of Oran Mohamed Boudiaf (USTO-MB)

Authors: Patricia Mikchaela D. L. Feliciano, Ciela Kadeshka A. Fuentes, Bea Trixia B. Gales, Ethel Princess A. Gepulango, Martin R. Hernandez, Elina Andrea S. Lantion, Jhoe Cynder P. Legaspi, Peter F. Quilala, Gina C. Castro

Abstract:

Propolis is a resin-like material used by bees to fill large gap holes in the beehive. It has been found to possess anti-inflammatory property, which stimulates hair growth in rats by inducing hair keratinocytes proliferation, causing water retention and preventing damage caused by heat, ultraviolet rays, and other microorganisms without abnormalities in hair follicles. The present study aimed to formulate 10% and 30% Propolis Hair Cream for use in enhancing hair properties. Raw propolis sample was tested for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; zinc and chromium were found to be present. Likewise, propolis was extracted in a percolator using 70% ethanol and concentrated under vacuum using a rotary evaporator. The propolis extract was analyzed for total flavonoid content. Compatibility of the propolis extract with excipients was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). No significant changes in organoleptic properties, pH and viscosity of the formulated creams were noted after four weeks of storage at 2-8°C, 30°C, and 40°C. The formulated creams were found to be non-irritating based on the Modified Draize Rabbit Test. In vivo efficacy was evaluated based on thickness and tensile strength of hair grown on previously shaved rat skin. Results show that the formulated 30% propolis-based cream had greater hair enhancing properties than the 10% propolis cream, which had a comparable effect with minoxidil.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), modified draize rabbit test, propolis

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37 A Therapeutic Approach for Bromhidrosis with Glycopyrrolate 2% Cream: Clinical Study of 20 Patients

Authors: Vasiliki Markantoni, Eftychia Platsidaki, Georgios Chaidemenos, Georgios Kontochristopoulos

Abstract:

Introduction: Bromhidrosis, also known as osmidrosis, is a common distressing condition with a significant negative effect on patient’s quality of life. Its etiology is multifactorial. It usually affects axilla, genital skin, breasts and soles, areas where apocrine glands are mostly distributed. Therapeutic treatments include topical antibacterial agents, antiperspirants and neuromuscular blocker agents-toxins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and possible complications of topical glycopyrrolate, an anticholinergic agent, for treatment of bromhidrosis. Glycopyrrolate, applied topically as a cream, solution or spray at concentrations between 0,5% and 4%, has been successfully used to treat different forms of focal hyperhidrosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients, six males and fourteen females, meeting the criteria for bromhidrosis were treated with topical glycopyrrolate for two months. The average age was 36. Eleven patients had bromhidrosis located to the axillae, four to the soles, four to both axillae and soles and one to the genital folds. Glycopyrrolate was applied topically as a cream at concentration 2%, formulated in Fitalite. During the first month, patients were using the cream every night and thereafter twice daily. The degree of malodor was assessed subjectively by patients and scaled averagely as ‘none’, ‘mild’, ‘moderate’, and ‘severe’ with corresponding scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The modified Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was used to assess the quality of life. The clinical efficacy was graded by the patient scale of excellent, good, fair and poor. In the end, patients were given the power to evaluate whether they were totally satisfied with, partially satisfied or unsatisfied and possible side effects during the treatment were recorded. Results: All patients were satisfied at the end of the treatment. No patient defined the response as no improvement. The subjectively assessed score level of bromhidrosis was remarkably improved after the first month of treatment and improved slightly more after the second month. DLQI score was also improved to all patients. Adverse effects were reported in 2 patients. In the first case, topical irritation was reported. This was classed as mild (erythema and desquamation), appeared during the second month of treatment and was treated with low-potency topical corticosteroids. In the second case, mydriasis was reported, that recovered without specific treatment, as soon as we insisted to the importance of careful hygiene after cream application so as not to contaminate the periocular skin or ocular surface. Conclusions: Dermatologists often encounter patients with bromhidrosis, therefore should be aware of treatment options. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the use of topical glycopyrrolate as a therapeutic approach for bromhidrosis. Our findings suggest that topical glycopyrrolate has an excellent safety profile and demonstrate encouraging results for the management of this distressful condition.

Keywords: Bromhidrosis, glycopyrrolate, topical treatment, osmidrosis

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36 Changes in Chromatographically Assessed Fatty Acid Profile during Technology of Dairy Products

Authors: Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Mindaugas Malakauskas, Loreta Serniene

Abstract:

Dairy product manufacturers constantly are looking for new markets for their production. And in most cases, the problem of product compliance with the composition requirements of foreign products is highlighted. This is especially true of the composition of milk fat in dairy products. It is well known that there are many factors such as feeding ratio, season, cow breed, stage of lactation that affect the fatty acid composition in milk. However, there is less evidence on the impact of the technological process on the composition of fatty acids in raw milk and products made from it. In this study the influence of the technological process on fat composition in 82% fat butter, 15% fat curd, 3.6% fat yogurt and 2.5% fat UHT milk was determined. The samples were collected at each stage of production, starting with raw milk and ending with the final product in the Lithuanian milk-processing company. Fatty acids methyl esters were quantified using a GC (Clarus 680, Perkin Elmer) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) and a capillary column SP-2560, 100 m x 0.25 mm id x 0.20 µm. Fatty acids peaks were identified using Supelco® 37 Component FAME Mix. The concentration of each fatty acid was expressed in percent of the total fatty acid amount. In the case of UHT milk production, it was compared raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and UHT milk but significant differences were not estimated between these stages. Analyzing stages of the yogurt production (raw milk, pasteurized milk, and milk with a starter culture and yogurt), no significant changes were detected between stages as well. A slight difference was observed with C4:0 - a percentage of this fatty acid was less (p=0.053) in the final stage than in milk with the starter culture. During butter production, the composition of fatty acids in raw cream, buttermilk, and butter did not change significantly. Only C14:0 decreased in the butter then compared to buttermilk. The curd fatty acid analysis showed the increase of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C11:0, C12:0 C14:0 and C17:0 at the final stage when compared to raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and whey. Meantime the increase of C18:1n9c (in comparison with milk mixture and curd) and C18:2n6c (in comparison with raw milk, milk mixture, and curd) was estimated in cream. The results of this study suggest that the technological process did not affect the composition of fatty acids in UHT milk, yogurt, butter, and curd but had the impact on the concentration of individual fatty acids. In general, all of the fatty acids from the raw milk were converted into the final product, only some of them slightly changed the concentration. Therefore, in order to ensure an appropriate composition of certain fatty acids in the final product, producers must carefully choose the raw milk. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture (No. MT-17-13).

Keywords: dairy products, fat composition, fatty acids, technological process

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35 Yield Performance of Two Locally Adapted and Two Introductions of Common Cowpea in Response to Amended In-Row-Spaces and Planting Dates

Authors: Ayman M. A. Rashwan, Mohamed F. Mohamed, Mohamed M. A. Abdalla

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A field experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, at El-Ghoraieb, Assiut to study dry seed yield performance of two locally adapted cultivars (‘Azmerly’ and ‘Cream 7’) and two line introductions (IT81D-1032 and IT82D-812) of common cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown at three different within-row spaces (20, 30 and 40 cm) and two planting dates in the summer (April 15th and 30th) and in the fall season (Aug. 12th and 27th) of two successive seasons. The data showed that total dry-seed yield produced by plants grown at 20 cm was greater than at 30 cm in all cvs/lines in both years. Increases in 1000-seed weight were detected in cv ‘Azmerly’ and line IT82D-812 when they were grown at 30 cm as compared with 20 cm in the summer season. However, in the fall season such increases were found in all cvs/lines. Planting at 40 cm produced seeds of greater weight than planting at 30 cm for all cvs/lines in the fall season and also in cv. Cream 7 and line IT82D-812 in the summer season. Planting on April 15th in the summer and also planting on Aug. 12th in the fall had plants which showed increases in 1000-seed weight and total dry-seed yield. The greatest 1000-seed weight was found in the line IT81D-1032 in the summer season and in the line IT82D-812 in the fall season. The sum up results revealed that ‘Azmerly’ produced greater dry-seed yield than ‘Cream 7’ and both of them were superior to the line IT82D-812 and IT81D-1032 in the summer season. In the fall, however, the line IT82D-812 produced greater dry-seed yield than the other cultivars/lines.

Keywords: Cowpea, Assiut, fall, planting dates, El-Ghoraieb, dry-seed yield

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34 Static Headspace GC Method for Aldehydes Determination in Different Food Matrices

Authors: A. Mandić, M. Sakač, A. Mišan, B. Šojić, L. Petrović, I. Lončarević, B. Pajin, I. Sedej

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Aldehydes as secondary lipid oxidation products are highly specific to the oxidative degradation of particular polyunsaturated fatty acids present in foods. Gas chromatographic analysis of those volatile compounds has been widely used for monitoring of the deterioration of food products. Developed static headspace gas chromatography method using flame ionization detector (SHS GC FID) was applied to monitor the aldehydes present in processed foods such as bakery, meat and confectionary products. Five selected aldehydes were determined in samples without any sample preparation, except grinding for bakery and meat products. SHS–GC analysis allows the separation of propanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and octanal, within 15min. Aldehydes were quantified in fresh and stored samples, and the obtained range of aldehydes in crackers was 1.62±0.05-9.95±0.05mg/kg, in sausages 6.62±0.46-39.16±0.39mg/kg; and in cocoa spread cream 0.48±0.01-1.13±0.02mg/kg. Referring to the obtained results, the following can be concluded, proposed method is suitable for different types of samples, content of aldehydes varies depending on the type of a sample, and differs in fresh and stored samples of the same type.

Keywords: lipid oxidation, aldehydes, crackers, sausage, cocoa cream spread

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33 Biotechnology Approach: A Tool of Enhancement of Sticky Mucilage of Pulicaria Incisa (Medicinal Plant) for Wounds Treatment

Authors: Djamila Chabane, Asma Rouane, Karim Arab

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Depending of the chemical substances responsible for the pharmacological effects, a future therapeutic drug might be produced by extraction from whole plants or by callus initiated from some parts. The optimized callus culture protocols now offer the possibility to use cell culture techniques for vegetative propagation and open minds for further studies on secondary metabolites and drug establishment. In Algerian traditional medicine, Pulicaria incisa (Asteraceae) is used in the treatment of daily troubles (stomachache, headhache., cold, sore throat and rheumatic arthralgia). Field findings revealed that many healers use some fresh parts (leaves, flowers) of this plant to treat skin wounds. This study aims to evaluate the healing efficiency of artisanal cream prepared from sticky mucilage isolated from calluses on dermal wounds of animal models. Callus cultures were initiated from reproductive explants (young inflorescences) excised from adult plants and transferred to a MS basal medium supplemented with growth regulators and maintained under dark for for months. Many calluses types were obtained with various color and aspect (friable, compact). Several subcultures of calli were performed to enhance the mucilage accumulation. After extraction, the mucilage extracts were tested on animal models as follows. The wound healing potential was studied by causing dermal wounds (1 cm diameter) at the dorsolumbar part of Rattus norvegicus; different samples of the cream were applied after hair removal on three rats each, including two controls (one treated by Vaseline and one without any treatment), two experimental groups (experimental group 1, treated with a reference ointment "Madecassol® and experimental group 2 treated by callus mucilage cream for a period of seventeen days. The evolution of the healing activity was estimated by calculating the percentage reduction of the area wounds treated by all compounds tested compared to the controls by using AutoCAD software. The percentage of healing effect of the cream prepared from callus mucilage was (99.79%) compared to that of Madecassol® (99.76%). For the treatment time, the significant healing activity was observed after 17 days compared to that of the reference pharmaceutical products without any wound infection. The healing effect of Madecassol® is more effective because it stimulates and regulates the production of collagen, a fibrous matrix essential for wound healing. Mucilage extracts also showed a high capacity to heal the skin without any infection. According to this pharmacological activity, we suggest to use calluses produced by in vitro culture to producing new compounds for the skin care and treatment.

Keywords: calluses, Pulicaria incisa, mucilage, Wounds

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32 Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (Zea mays L.) in Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Authors: Fitri Ayu, Nadia, Tanti, Putri, Fatkhan, Pasid Harlisa, Suparmi

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Acne is a skin abnormal conditions experienced by many teens, this is caused by various factors such as the climate is hot, humid and excessive sun exposure can aggravate acne because it will lead to excess oil production. Flavonoids form complex compounds against extracellular proteins that disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane in a way denature bacterial cell proteins and bacterial cell membrane damage. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of corn silk extract with a concentration of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % in vitro by measuring the inhibition of the growth of bacteria Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis then compared with the standard antibiotic clindamycin. Extracts tested by Disk Diffusion Method, in which the blank disc soaked with their respective corn silk extract concentration for 15-30 minutes and then the medium of bacteria that have been planted with Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis in the given disk that already contains extracts with various concentration. Incubated for 24 hours and then measured the growth inhibition zone Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn silk contains flavonoids, is shown by the test of flavonoids in corn silk extract by using a tube heating and without heating. Flavonoid in corn silk potentially as anti acne by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause acne. Corn silk extract concentration which has the highest antibacterial activity is then performed in a cream formulation and evaluation test of physical and chemical properties of the resulting cream preparation.

Keywords: antibacterial, flavonoid, corn silk, acne

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31 Application of Microparticulated Whey Proteins in Reduced-Fat Yogurt through Hot-Extrusion: Influence on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties

Authors: M. K. Hossain, J. Keidel, O. Hensel, M. Diakite

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Fat reduced dairy products are holding a potential market due to health reason. Due to less creamy, and pleasantness, reduced and/or low-fat dairy products are getting less consumer acceptance whereas the fat molecule provides smooth, creamy and a pleasant mouthfeel in dairy products especially yogurt & ice cream. This study was aimed to investigate whether the application of microparticulated whey proteins (MWPs) processed by extrusion cooking, the reduced fat yogurt can achieve similar or higher creaminess compared to whole milk (3.8% fat) and skimmed milk (0.5% fat) yogurt. Full cream and skimmed milk were used to prepare natural stirred yogurt, as well as the dry matter content, also adjusted up to 16% with skimmed milk powder. Whey protein concentrates (WPC80) were used to produce MWPs in particle size of d50 > 5 µm, d50 3<5 µm and d50 < 3 µm through the hot-extrusion process with a screw speed of 400, 600 and 1000 rpm respectively. Furthermore, the commercially available microparticulated whey protein called Simplesse® was also applied in order to compare with extruded MWPs. The rheological and sensory properties of yogurt were assessed, and data were analyzed statistically. The applications of extruded MWPs with 600 and 1000 rpm were achieved significantly (p < 0.05) higher creaminess and preference compared to the whole and skimmed milk yogurt whereas, 400 rpm got lower preference. On the other hand, Simplesse® obtained the lowest creaminess and preference compared to other yogurts, although the contribution of dry matter in yogurt was same as extruded MWPs. The creaminess and viscosities were strongly (r = 0.62) correlated, furthermore, the viscosity from sensory evaluation and the dynamic viscosity of yogurt was also significantly (r = 0.72) correlated which clarifies that the performance of sensory panelists as well as the quality of the products.

Keywords: microparticulation, hot-extrusion, reduced-fat yogurt, whey protein concentrate

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30 Visual Intelligence: Perception, Image and Manipulation in Visual Communication

Authors: Poojitha Vemula

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Understanding how we use image manipulation to communicate through an audience’s perceptions and conceive visual intelligence. With the use of many software and high-end skills, designers have developed a third eye to combine two different visuals and create the desired image by using photoshop and other software skills. The purpose of visual intelligence is to convey a message to the targeted audience. For instance, the images of models are retouched on their skin to make it more convincing and draw attention from the audience. There are many ways of manipulating an image, such as double exposure, retouching photography inks or paint airbrushing and piecing photos together, or enhancing the brightness and contrast. To understand visual intelligence, a questionnaire survey as well as research was conducted on how image manipulation is used by both the audience and the designers. This depends on the message that needs to be conveyed by the brands. For instance, Fair & Lovely, a brightening cream for ladies use a lot of retouching and effects to show the dramatic change the cream takes effect on dark or dusky faces. Thus the designer’s role is to use their third eye to incorporate the message into visuals. The research and questionnaire survey concludes the perceptions and manipulations used in visual communication. However this is all to make an effortless communication between the designer and the audience by using the skills of the designer and the features provided by the software. The objective of visual intelligence is to covet the message of the brands that advertise their products or services by using visuals through softwares. Conveying a message through visual intelligence requires an audiences perceptions and understanding from the visuals created by the artists or designers. Visual intelligence determines how we use our technical skills to retouch and manipulate an image for a better understanding to convey the message to the targeted audience. This also bridges the communication between the brand and the audience.

Keywords: graphic design, visual communication, convey messages, photoshop, image manipulation

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29 Development and Characterization of Topical 5-Fluorouracil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for the Effective Treatment of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, V. R. Sinha

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Background: The topical and systemic toxicity associated with present nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment therapy using 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) make it necessary to develop a novel delivery system having lesser toxicity and better control over drug release. Solid lipid nanoparticles offer many advantages like: controlled and localized release of entrapped actives, nontoxicity, and better tolerance. Aim:-To investigate safety and efficacy of 5-FU loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Method: Topical solid lipid nanoparticles of 5-FU were prepared using Compritol 888 ATO (Glyceryl behenate) as lipid component and pluronic F68 (Poloxamer 188), Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80), Tyloxapol (4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl) phenol polymer with formaldehyde and oxirane) as surfactants. The SLNs were prepared with emulsification method. Different formulation parameters viz. type and ratio of surfactant, ratio of lipid and ratio of surfactant:lipid were investigated on particle size and drug entrapment efficiency. Results: Characterization of SLNs like–Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Differential Scannig calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Particle size determination, Polydispersity index, Entrapment efficiency, Drug loading, ex vivo skin permeation and skin retention studies, skin irritation and histopathology studies were performed. TEM results showed that shape of SLNs was spherical with size range 200-500nm. Higher encapsulation efficiency was obtained for batches having higher concentration of surfactant and lipid. It was found maximum 64.3% for SLN-6 batch with size of 400.1±9.22 nm and PDI 0.221±0.031. Optimized SLN batches and marketed 5-FU cream were compared for flux across rat skin and skin drug retention. The lesser flux and higher skin retention was obtained for SLN formulation in comparison to topical 5-FU cream, which ensures less systemic toxicity and better control of drug release across skin. Chronic skin irritation studies lacks serious erythema or inflammation and histopathology studies showed no significant change in physiology of epidermal layers of rat skin. So, these studies suggest that the optimized SLN formulation is efficient then marketed cream and safer for long term NMSC treatment regimens. Conclusion: Topical and systemic toxicity associated with long-term use of 5-FU, in the treatment of NMSC, can be minimized with its controlled release with significant drug retention with minimal flux across skin. The study may provide a better alternate for effective NMSC treatment.

Keywords: 5-FU, topical formulation, solid lipid nanoparticles, non melanoma skin cancer

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28 Efficacy of Topical Ectoin Therapy for Acute Radiodermatitis Associated with Breast Cancer Radiotherapy: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Nagwa E. Abd Elazim, Maha S. El-naggar, Rania H. Mohamed, Sara M. Awad

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Background: Radiodermatitis is a common side effect of radiation therapy for breast cancer. However, there is no current consensus about effective standard therapy for the prevention and management of radiation dermatitis. Topical ectoine has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis owing to its anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of topical ectoine in comparison to traditional topical dexpanthenol treatment in the management of acute radiodermatitis in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods: Fifty patients were randomized to use either dexpanthenol 0.5% cream (25 patients), or ectoin 7% cream (25 patients), applied twice daily to the irradiated area during the radiation period and continued for 2 weeks after cessation of radiotherapy. Assessment of radiation skin toxicity using Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0, radiation-associated symptoms, and adverse events were undertaken weekly during radiotherapy and 2 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: Topical ectoine showed some clinical benefit over dexpanthenol, as shown by delayed time to onset (at week 3 versus week 2, respectively) and larger number of patients who reached grade 0 at the end of treatment (64% vs. 48%, respectively). The clinical symptoms of pain (p = 0.003) and itching (p = 0.001) attributable to radiation were less pronounced with ectoine than with dexpanthenol. Burning and hyperpigmentation were the most common side effects with ectoine. However, no significant difference between dexpanthenol and ectoine treatments was found in any of the side effects (p = 0.1). Conclusion: Ectoin was overall more effective in improving radiation dermatitis than topical dexpanthenol in breast cancer patients. Ectoin could be proposed as a preventive or curative treatment for patients undergoing postoperative irradiation for breast cancer. Further clinical studies with a larger number of patients are recommended for the confirmation of these preliminary results.

Keywords: breast cancer, dexapanthenol, ectoin, radiation dermatitis

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27 Development and Characterization of Novel Topical Formulation Containing Niacinamide

Authors: Sevdenur Onger, Ali Asram Sagiroglu

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Hyperpigmentation is a cosmetically unappealing skin problem caused by an overabundance of melanin in the skin. Its pathophysiology is caused by melanocytes being exposed to paracrine melanogenic stimuli, which can upregulate melanogenesis-related enzymes (such as tyrosinase) and cause melanosome formation. Tyrosinase is linked to the development of melanosomes biochemically, and it is the main target of hyperpigmentation treatment. therefore, decreasing tyrosinase activity to reduce melanosomes has become the main target of hyperpigmentation treatment. Niacinamide (NA) is a natural chemical found in a variety of plants that is used as a skin-whitening ingredient in cosmetic formulations. NA decreases melanogenesis in the skin by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to covering keratinocytes. Furthermore, NA protects the skin from reactive oxygen species and acts as a main barrier with the skin, reducing moisture loss by increasing ceramide and fatty acid synthesis. However, it is very difficult for hydrophilic compounds such as NA to penetrate deep into the skin. Furthermore, because of the nicotinic acid in NA, it is an irritant. As a result, we've concentrated on strategies to increase NA skin permeability while avoiding its irritating impacts. Since nanotechnology can affect drug penetration behavior by controlling the release and increasing the period of permanence on the skin, it can be a useful technique in the development of whitening formulations. Liposomes have become increasingly popular in the cosmetics industry in recent years due to benefits such as their lack of toxicity, high penetration ability in living skin layers, ability to increase skin moisture by forming a thin layer on the skin surface, and suitability for large-scale production. Therefore, liposomes containing NA were developed for this study. Different formulations were prepared by varying the amount of phospholipid and cholesterol and examined in terms of particle sizes, polydispersity index (PDI) and pH values. The pH values of the produced formulations were determined to be suitable with the pH value of the skin. Particle sizes were determined to be smaller than 250 nm and the particles were found to be of homogeneous size in the formulation (pdi<0.30). Despite the important advantages of liposomal systems, they have low viscosity and stability for topical use. For these reasons, in this study, liposomal cream formulations have been prepared for easy topical application of liposomal systems. As a result, liposomal cream formulations containing NA have been successfully prepared and characterized. Following the in-vitro release and ex-vivo diffusion studies to be conducted in the continuation of the study, it is planned to test the formulation that gives the most appropriate result on the volunteers after obtaining the approval of the ethics committee.

Keywords: delivery systems, hyperpigmentation, liposome, niacinamide

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26 Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone by Square Wave Voltammetry Using a Zn Layered Hydroxide-Ferulate Modified Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrode

Authors: Mohamad Syahrizal Ahmad, Illyas M. Isa

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In this paper, a multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) paste electrode modified by a Zn layered hydroxide-ferulate (ZLH-F) was used for detection of hydroquinone (HQ). The morphology and characteristic of the ZLH-F/MWCNT were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Under optimal conditions, the SWV response showed linear plot for HQ concentration in the range of 1.0×10⁻⁵ M – 1.0×10⁻³ M. The detection limit was found to be 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and correlation coefficient of 0.9957. The glucose, fructose, sucrose, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, lysine, NO₃⁻, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ did not interfere the HQ response. This modified electrode can be used to determine HQ content in wastewater and cosmetic cream with range of recovery 97.8% - 103.0%.

Keywords: 1, 4-dihydroxybenzene, hydroquinone, multiwall carbon nanotubes, square wave voltammetry

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25 An Analysis of Organoleptic Qualities of a Three-Course Menu from Moringa Leaves in Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria

Authors: Rukaiya Suleiman Umar, Annah Kwadu Medugu

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Moringa oleifera is mainly used as herbal medicine in most homes in Northern Nigeria. The plant is easy to grow and thrives very well regardless the type of soil. Use of moringa leaves in food production can yield attractive varieties on menu. This paper evaluates the acceptability of dishes produced with fresh moringa leaves with a view to promoting it in popular restaurants. A three course menu consisting of cream of moringa soup as the starter, mixed meat moringa sauce with semovita as the main dish and moringa roll as sweet was produced and served to a 60-member taste panel made of three groups of 20 each. Respondents were asked to rate the organoleptic qualities of the samples on a 10-point bipolar scale ranging from 1 (Dislike extremely) – 10 (Like extremely). Data collected were treated to one sample t-test and One Way ANOVA. Results show that the panelists extremely like the moringa products. It is recommended that Moringa oleifera should be incorporated into meals which is more readily acceptable than medicine.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, food production, menu planning, healthy living

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
24 Anti-Infective Potential of Selected Philippine Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Demetrio L. Valle Jr., Juliana Janet M. Puzon, Windell L. Rivera

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From the various medicinal plants available in the Philippines, crude ethanol extracts of twelve (12) Philippine medicinal plants, namely: Senna alata L. Roxb. (akapulko), Psidium guajava L. (bayabas), Piper betle L. (ikmo), Vitex negundo L. (lagundi), Mitrephora lanotan (Blanco) Merr. (Lanotan), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (luya), Curcuma longa L. (Luyang dilaw), Tinospora rumphii Boerl (Makabuhay), Moringga oleifera Lam. (malunggay), Phyllanthus niruri L. (sampa-sampalukan), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (takip kuhol), and Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam (tsaang gubat) were studied. In vitro methods of evaluation against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR), bacteria were performed on the plant extracts. Although five of the plants showed varying antagonistic activities against the test organisms, only Piper betle L. exhibited significant activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria, exhibiting wide zones of growth inhibition in the disk diffusion assay, and with the lowest concentrations of the extract required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, as supported by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Further antibacterial studies of the Piper betle L. leaf, obtained by three extraction methods (ethanol, methanol, supercritical CO2), revealed similar inhibitory activities against a multitude of Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay of the leaf extract revealed a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV-366 nm. TLC- agar overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds showed the compounds with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 having inhibitory activities against Gram-positive MDR bacteria (MRSA and VRE). The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possesses inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria (CRE Klebsiella pneumoniae and MBL Acinetobacter baumannii). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was able to identify six volatile compounds, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include 4-(2-propenyl)phenol and eugenol; and the new four compounds were ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, and 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite. Phytochemical screening and investigation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, possible hemolytic activities, and mechanisms of antibacterial activity were also done. The results showed that the local variant of Piper betle leaf extract possesses significant antioxidant, anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties, attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, particularly of flavonoids (condensed tannin, leucoanthocyanin, gamma benzopyrone), anthraquinones, steroids/triterpenes and 2-deoxysugars. Piper betle L. is also traditionally known to enhance wound healing, which could be primarily due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In vivo studies on mice using 2.5% and 5% of the ethanol leaf extract cream formulations in the excised wound models significantly increased the process of wound healing in the mice subjects, the results and values of which are at par with the current antibacterial cream (Mupirocin). From the results of the series of studies, we have definitely proven the value of Piper betle L. as a source of bioactive compounds that could be developed into therapeutic agents against MDR bacteria.

Keywords: Philippine herbal medicine, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Piper betle, TLC-bioautography

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