Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: quinoa

8 Quinoa Choux Cream Gluten Free

Authors: Autumporn Buranapongphan, Ketsirin Meethong, Phukan Pahaphom

Abstract:

The objectives of this research is aim to study the standard formula of choux cream recipe. Formulation of choux cream were used gluten free as a replacer with flour in choux dough, quinoa milk in cream and shelf life on product. The results showed the acceptance test using 30 target consumers revealed that liking of choux dough with water 34%, egg 30% flour 19% butter 16% baking powder 1% and cream with milk 68% sugar 13% butter 6.8% egg 4.5% and vanilla 0.9%. The gluten free exhibited the formulation of dough is rice flour 12% potato starch 26% tapioca 7.7% and quinoa flour 4.3%. The ratio of corn flour at 40% had significant effects on liking of viscosity for quinoa cream. During storage by Total viable count (TVA) were kept in room temperature for 8 hours and chilled for 18 hours.

Keywords: choux cream, gluten free, quinoa, dough

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7 Assessing the Impact of Quinoa Cultivation Adopted to Produce a Secure Food Crop and Poverty Reduction by Farmers in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Ejaz Ashraf, Raheel Babar, Muhammad Yaseen, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Nosheen Fatima

Abstract:

Main purpose of this study was to assess adoption level of farmers for quinoa cultivation after they had been taught through training and visit extension approach. At this time of the 21st century, population structure, climate change, food requirements and eating habits of people are changing rapidly. In this scenario, farmers must play their key role in sustainable crop development and production through adoption of new crops that may also be helpful to overcome the issue of food insecurity as well as reducing poverty in rural areas. Its cultivation in Pakistan is at the early stages and there is a need to raise awareness among farmers to grow quinoa crops. In the middle of the 2015, a training and visit extension approach was used to raise awareness and convince farmers to grow quinoa in the area. During training and visit extension program, 80 farmers were randomly selected for the training of quinoa cultivation. Later on, these farmers trained 60 more farmers living into their neighborhood. After six months, a survey was conducted with all 140 farmers to assess the impact of the training and visit program on adoption level of respondents for the quinoa crop. The survey instrument was developed with the help of literature review and other experts of the crop. Validity and reliability of the instrument were checked before complete data collection. The data were analyzed by using SPSS. Multiple regression analysis was used for interpretation of the results from the survey, which indicated that factors like information/ training, change in agronomic and plant protection practices play a key role in the adoption of quinoa cultivation by respondents. In addition, the model explains more than 50% of variation in the adoption level of respondents. It is concluded that farmers need timely information for improved knowledge of agronomic and plant protection practices to adopt cultivation of the quinoa crop in the area.

Keywords: farmers, quinoa, adoption, contact, training and visit

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6 Determination of Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Seed Extracts

Authors: Nilgün Öztürk, Hakan Sabahtin Ali, Hülya Tuba Kıyan

Abstract:

The genus Chenopodium belongs to Amaranthaceae, is represented by approximately 250 species in the world and 15 species and three subspecies in Turkey. Chenopodium species are traditionally used to treat chest and abdominal pain, shortness of breath, cough and neurological disorders. Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is native to Andes region of South America (especially Peru and Bolivia) and cultivated in many countries include also Turkey in the world nowadays. The seeds of quinoa are rich in protein, and the phytochemical composition consists of antioxidant substances such as polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, and minerals; anticancer and neuroprotective compounds such as tocotrienols; anti-inflammatory compounds such as carotenoids and anthocyanins and also saponins and starch. Food products of quinoa such as quinoa cereal bar, pasta and cornflakes are used in the diet made during many disorders like obesity, cardiovascular disorder, hypertension and Celiac disease. Also quinoa seems to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol-lowering properties because of its bioactive compounds. In this present study, the aqueous ethanolic extracts of the seeds of three different coloured genotypes of quinoa were investigated for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating effect, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation decolorization assays and total phenolic contents using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Among the three genotypes of quinoa; the aqueous ethanolic extract of the red genotype had the highest total phenolic content (83.54 ± 2.12 mg gallic acid/100 g extract) whereas the extract of the white genotype had the lowest total phenolic content (70.66 ± 0.25 mg gallic acid/100 g). According to the antioxidant activity results; the extracts showed moderate reducing power effect whereas weak ABTS radical cation decolorization and ferrous ion-chelating effect and also too weak DPPH radical scavenging activity when compared to the positive standards.

Keywords: amaranthaceae, antioxidant activity, Chenopodium quinoa willd., total phenolic content

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5 Potential Application of Selected Halotolerant PSB Isolated from Rhizospheric Soil of Chenopodium quinoa in Plant Growth Promotion

Authors: Ismail Mahdi, Nidal Fahsi, Mohamed Hafidi, Abdelmounaim Allaoui, Latefa Biskri

Abstract:

To meet the worldwide demand for food, smart management of arable lands is needed. This could be achieved through sustainable approaches such as the use of plant growth-promoting microorganisms including bacteria. Phosphate (P) solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by associated bacteria. In the present study, we isolated and screened 14 strains from the rhizosphere of Chenopodium quinoa wild grown in the experimental farm of UM6P and assessed their plant growth promoting properties. Next, they were identified by using 16S rRNA and Cpn60 genes sequencing as Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacter. These strains showed dispersed capacities to solubilize P (up to 346 mg L−1) following five days of incubation in NBRIP broth. We also assessed their abilities for indole acetic acid (IAA) production (up to 795,3 µg ml−1) and in vitro salt tolerance. Three Bacillus strains QA1, QA2, and S8 tolerated high salt stress induced by NaCl with a maximum tolerable concentration of 8%. Three performant isolates, QA1, S6 and QF11, were further selected for seed germination assay because of their pronounced abilities in terms of P solubilization, IAA production and salt tolerance. The early plant growth potential of tested strains showed that inoculated quinoa seeds displayed greater germination rate and higher seedlings growth under bacterial treatments. The positive effect on seed germination traits strongly suggests that the tested strains are growth promoting, halotolerant and P solubilizing bacteria which could be exploited as biofertilizers.

Keywords: phosphate solubilizing bacteria, IAA, Seed germination, salt tolerance, quinoa

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4 Growth and Yield Potential of Quinoa genotypes on Salt Affected Soils

Authors: Shahzad M. A. Basra, Shahid Iqbal, Irfan Afzal, Hafeez-ur-Rehman

Abstract:

Quinoa a facultative halophyte crop plant is a new introduction in Pakistan due to its superior nutritional profile and its abiotic stress tolerance, especially against salinity. Present study was conducted to explore halophytic behavior of quinoa. Four quinoa genotypes (A1, A2, A7 and A9) were evaluated against high salinity (control, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mM). Evaluation was made on the basis of ionic analysis (Na+, K+ and K+: Na+ ratio in shoot) and root- shoot fresh and dry weight at four leaf stage. Seedling growth i.e. fresh and dry weight of shoot and root increased by 100 mM salinity and then growth decreased gradually with increasing salinity level in all geno types. Mineral analysis indicated that A2 and A7 have more tolerant behavior having low Na+ and high K+ ¬concentration as compared to A1 and A9. Same geno types as above were also evaluated against high salinity (control, 10, 20, 30, and 40 dS m-1) in pot culture during 2012-13. It was found that increase in salinity up to 10 dS m-1 the plant height, stem diameter and yield related traits increased but decreased with further increase in salinity. Same trend was observed in ionic contents. Maximum grain yield was achieved by A7 (100 g plant-1) followed by A2 (82 g plant-1) at salinity level 10 dS m-1. Next phase was carried out through field settings by using salt tolerant geno types (A2 and A7) at Crop Physiology Research Area Farm (non saline soil as control)/ Proka Farm (salt affected with EC up to 15 dS m-1), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhtiaan (SSRI) Farm (one normal as control and two salt affected fields with EC values up to 15 and 30 dS m-1) during 2013-14. Genotype A7 showed maximum growth and gave maximum yield (3200 kg ha-1) at Proka Farm which was statistically at par to the values of yield obtained on normal soils of Faisalabad. Geno type A7 also gave maximum yield 2800 kg ha-1 on normal field of Pindi bhtiaan followed by as obtained (2340) on salt problem field (15 dS m-1) of same location.

Keywords: quinoa, salinity, halophyte, genotype

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3 Identification of Viruses Infecting Garlic Plants in Colombia

Authors: Diana M. Torres, Anngie K. Hernandez, Andrea Villareal, Magda R. Gomez, Sadao Kobayashi

Abstract:

Colombian Garlic crops exhibited mild mosaic, yellow stripes, and deformation. This group of symptoms suggested a viral infection. Several viruses belonging to the genera Potyvirus, Carlavirus and Allexivirus are known to infect garlic and lower their yield worldwide, but in Colombia, there are no studies of viral infections in this crop, only leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV) has been reported to our best knowledge. In Colombia, there are no management strategies for viral diseases in garlic because of the lack of information about viral infections on this crop, which is reflected in (i) high prevalence of viral related symptoms in garlic fields and (ii) high dispersal rate. For these reasons, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the viral status of garlic in Colombia, which can represent a major threat on garlic yield and quality for this country 55 symptomatic leaf samples were collected for virus detection by RT-PCR and mechanical inoculation. Total RNA isolated from infected samples were subjected to RT-PCR with primers 1-OYDV-G/2-OYDV-G for Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) (expected size 774pb), 1LYSV/2LYSV for LYSV (expected size 1000pb), SLV 7044/SLV 8004 for Shallot latent virus (SLV) (expected size 960pb), GCL-N30/GCL-C40 for Garlic common latent virus (GCLV) (expected size 481pb) and EF1F/EF1R for internal control (expected size 358pb). GCLV, SLV, and LYSV were detected in infected samples; in 95.6% of the analyzed samples was detected at least one of the viruses. GCLV and SLV were detected in single infection with low prevalence (9.3% and 7.4%, respectively). Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses. Four viral complexes were identified: three double infection (64% of analyzed samples) and one triple infection (15%). The most frequent viral complex was SLV + GCLV infecting 48.1% of the samples. The other double complexes identified had a prevalence of 7% (GCLV + LYSV and SLV + LYSV) and 5.6% of the samples were free from these viruses. Mechanical transmission experiments were set up using leaf tissues of collected samples from infected fields, different test plants were assessed to know the host range, but it was restricted to C. quinoa, confirming the presence of detected viruses which have limited host range and were detected in C. quinoa by RT-PCR. The results of molecular and biological tests confirm the presence of SLV, LYSV, and GCLV; this is the first report of SLV and LYSV in garlic plants in Colombia, which can represent a serious threat for this crop in this country.

Keywords: SLV, GCLV, LYSV, leek yellow stripe virus, Allium sativum

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2 Combined Effect of Gluten-Free Superfoods and by-Products from Ecuador to Evaluate the Functional and Sensory Properties of Breadmaking

Authors: Andrea Vasquez, Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado

Abstract:

In general, 'gluten-free' foods like breadmaking products provide functional or nutraceutical benefits for the consumer's health and increased their demand on the market. In Ecuador, there is an overproduction of superfoods, and the food by-products are undervalued. For the first time, to the author's best knowledge, gluten-free bread mixtures from quinoa and banana flour, cassava starch, lupine flour (LF), or whey protein (WP) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and transglutaminase (TG) were evaluated on their functional and sensory properties. Free amino groups and thiols, rheology, and electrophoresis SDS PAGE were performed to analyze the crosslinking of TG at different concentrations with HC or PL proteins. Dough characterization, pasting properties were evaluated, respectively, by a MIXOLAB and a rheometer with a pasting cell. The texture, porosity, and loaf volume were characterized using a texturometer, ImageJ software, and breadmaking ability, respectively. Finally, a breadmaking aptitude and sensorial bread acceptability were performed. A significant decrease in the content of free amino groups (0.16 to 0.11 and 0.46 to 0.36 mM/mg of protein) and free thiol groups (0.37 to 0.21 and 1.79 to 1.32 mM/mg protein) was observed when 1.0% and 0.5% TG were added to LF and WP, respectively. In apparent viscosity analysis, the action of TG on HC proteins changes their viscosity, while the viscosity of LF is not modified by TG. Results of electrophoresis in PL showed bands of higher molecular weight of different fragments of proteins with 1% TG. Formulation with 59.8, 39.9, 160.8, 6.0, 1.0, and 1.5% of, respectively, QF, BF, CS, LF or WP, TG, and HPMC had the best properties in dough parameters, pasting parameters (lower pasting temperature and higher peak viscosity), best crumb structure, lower crumb hardness and higher loaf volume (2.24 and 2.28 mL/g). All the loaves of bread were acceptable in baking aptitude and general acceptability.

Keywords: breadmaking, gluten-free, superfoods, by-products, Ecuador

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1 Cultivation of Halophytes: Effect of Salinity on Nutritional and Functional Properties

Authors: Luisa Barreira, Viana Castaneda, Maria J. Rodrigues, Florinda Gama, Tamara Santos, Marta Oliveira, Catarina Pereira, Maribela Pestana, Pedro Correia, Miguel Salazar, Carla Nunes, Luisa Custodio, Joao Varela

Abstract:

In the last century, the world witnessed an exponential demographic increase that has put an enormous pressure on agriculture and food production. Associated also with climate changes, there has been a decrease in the amount of available freshwater and an increased salinization of soils which can affect the production of most food crops. Halophytes, however, are plants able to withstand high salinities while maintaining a good growth productivity. To cope with the excess salt, they produce secondary metabolites (e.g. vitamins and phenolic compounds) which, along with the natural presence of some minerals, makes them not only nutritionally rich but also functional foods. Some halophytes, as quinoa or salicornia, are already used in some countries, mostly as gourmet food. Hydroponic cultivation of halophytes using seawater or diluted seawater for watering can decrease the pressure on freshwater resources while producing a nutritional and functional food. The XtremeGourmet project funded by the EU aims to develop and optimize the production of different halophytes by hydroponics. One of the more specific objectives of this project is the study of halophytes’ productivity and chemical composition under different abiotic conditions, e.g. salt and nutrient concentration and light intensity. Three species of halophytes commonly occurring in saltmarshes of the South of Portugal (Inula chrithmoides, Salicornia ramosissima and Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum) were cultivated using hydroponics under different salinities, ranging from 5 to 45 dS/m. For each condition, several parameters were assessed namely: total and commercial productivity, electrical conductivity, total soluble solids, proximal composition, mineral profile, total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins content and antioxidant activity. Results show that productivity was significantly reduced for all plants with increasing salinity up to salinity 29 dS/m and remained low onwards. Oppositely, the electrical conductivity and the total soluble solids content of the produced plants increased with salinity, reaching a plateau at 29 dS/m. It seems that plants reflect the salt concentration of the water up to some point, being able to regulate their salt content for higher salinities. The same tendency was observed for the ash content of these plants, which is related to the mineral uptake from the cultivating media and the plants’ capacity to both accumulate and regulate ions’ concentration in their tissues. Nonetheless, this comes with a metabolic cost which is observed by a decrease in productivity. The mineral profile of these plants shows high concentrations of sodium but also high amounts of potassium. In what concerns the microelements, these plants appear to be a good source of manganese and iron and the low amounts of toxic metals account for their safe consumption in moderate amounts. Concerning the phenolics composition, plants presented moderate concentrations of phenolics but high amounts of condensed tannins, particularly I. crithmoides which accounts for its characteristic sour and spicy taste. Contrary to some studies in which higher amounts of phenolics were found in plants cultivated under higher salinities, in this study, the highest amount of phenolic compounds were found in plants grown at the lowest or intermediate salinities. Nonetheless, there was a positive correlation between the concentration of these compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the plants’ extracts.

Keywords: functional properties, halophytes, hydroponics, nutritional composition, salinity effect

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