Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: propolis

21 Impact of Propolis on Cryopreservation of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Sperm

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy, E. Brannas


Cryopreservation of sperm causes damages and adversely affected sperm motility and viability resulting in lower hatching rates. The aim of this study is to determine whether propolis has potential protective effect on cryopreservation and fertilization ability of spermatozoa of Salvelinusalpinus. The extenders were prepared by using simple glucose solution (0.3 M glucose) to which 10% Me2SO added with different levels of propolis (0.4, 0.8 and 1 mg/ ml) and 10% egg yolk (as a control without propolis). The pooled semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:3 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of motility and fertilization tests of cryopreserved sperm samples have been done immediately after thawing and compared with control and fresh semen. The extenders containing propolis showed higher percentage motility and motility duration than control group (P < 0.05). Especially the group II (0.8 mg/ ml propolis) and the group III (1 mg/ ml propolis) showed significant positive effects on both post thaw motility and hatching ability. In conclusion, this study confirms that the propolis is an appropriate cryoptrotective agent in fish semen and it maintained the integrity of the spermatozoa during the cryopreservation process.

Keywords: propolis, arctic charr, semen, cryopreservation

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20 Producing TPU/Propolis Nanofibrous Membrane as Wound Dressing

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç


Wound dressings have strategically and economic importance considering increase of chronic wounds in the world. In this study, TPU nanofibrous membranes containing propolis as wound dressing are produced by two different methods. Firstly, TPU solution and propolis extract were mixed and this solution was electrospun. The other method is that TPU/propolis blend was centrifugally spun. Properties of nanofibrous membranes obtained by these methods were compared. While realizing the experiments, both systems were optimized to produce nanofibers with nearly same average fiber diameter.

Keywords: nanofiber, wound dressing, electrospinning, centrifugal spinning

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19 Physiochemical and Antibacterial Assessment of Iranian Propolis Gathering in Qazvin Province

Authors: Nematollah Gheibi, Nader Divan Khosroshahi, Mahdi Mohammadi Ghanbarlou


Introduction: Nowadays, the phenomenon of bacterial resistance is one of the most important challenge of the health community in the world. Propolis is most important production of bee colonies that collected from of various plants. So far, a lot of investigations carried out about its antibacterial effects. Material and methods: Thirty gram of propolis prepared as ethanolic extract and after different process of purification, 7.5 gr of its pure form were obtained. Propolis compounds identification was performed by TLC and VLC methods. The HPLC spectrum obtaining from propolis ethanolic extract was compared with some purified standard phenolic and flavonoid substances. Antibacterial effects of ethanol extract of purified propolis were evaluated on two strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their MIC was determined by the microdillution assay. Results: Ethanolic propolis extraction analyzed by TLC were resulted to confirm several phenolic and flavonoid compounds in this extract and some of the confirmed by HPLC technique. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for standard Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853) strains were obtained 2.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively. Conclusion: Bee Propolis is a mix organic compound that has a lot of beneficial effects such as anti-bacterial that emphasized in this investigation. It is proposed as a rich source of natural phenolic and flavonoids compounds in designing of new biological resources for hygienic and medical applications.

Keywords: propolis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibacterial

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18 Effects of Propolis on Immunomodulatory and Antibody Production in Broilers

Authors: Yu-Hsiang Yu


The immunomodulatory effect of propolis has been widely investigated in the past decade. However, the beneficial effects in broilers are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propolis added in drinking water on immunomodulatory and antibody production in broiler. Total of 48 chicks were randomly allocated into four groups with 12 broilers per group. All birds were intranasal inoculated with Newcastle Disease vaccine at 4 and 14 days old of age. Four groups, including control without any treatment, groups of A, B and F [3 days of anterior (A), 3 days of posterior (P) and 6 days of full (F)] were supplied the propolis at 300 ppm in drinking water when vaccination was performed, respectively. Our results showed that no significant difference was found in growth performance, antibody production and immune organ index among groups. However, propolis treatments in broilers significantly reduced IL-4 expression in spleen at 14 days-old of age and bursa at 28 days-old of age compared with control group. The expression of IFN-gamma in spleen (A, P and F group) and bursal (F group) were elevated compared with control group at 28 days-old of age. In conclusion, our results indicated that propolis-treated birds could bear the capability for immunomodulatory effects by change Th1 subset cytokine expression in vaccination.

Keywords: propolis, broiler, immunomodulatory, vaccination

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17 Chemical and Biological Examination of De-Oiled Indian Propolis

Authors: Harshada Vaidya-Kannur, Dattatraya Naik


Propolis, one of the beehive products also referred as bee-glue is sticky dark coloured complex mixture of compounds. The volatile oil can be isolated from the propolis by hydrodistillation. The mark that is left behind after the removal of volatile oil is referred as the de-oiled propolis. Antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties of total ethanolic extract of de-oiled propolis (TEEDP) was investigated. Another lot of deoiled propolis was successively exacted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Activities of these fractions were also determined. Antioxidant activity was determined by studying ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging. Determination of anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by topical TPA induced mouse ear oedema model. It is noteworthy that ethyl acetate fraction of deoiled propolis (EAFDP) exhibited 49.45 % TEAC activity at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml which is equivalent to the activity of trolox at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml. Its DPPH scavenging activity (72.56%) was closely comparable to that of trolox (75%). However its NO scavenging activity was comparatively low. From IC50 values it could be concluded that the efficiency of scavenging ABTS radicals by the de-oiled propolis was more pronounced as compared to scavenging of other radicals. Studies by TPA induced mouse ear inflammation model indicated that the de-oiled propolis of Indian origin had significant topical anti-inflammatory activity. The EAFDP was found to be the most active fraction for this activity also. The purification of EAFP yielded six pure crystalline compounds. These compounds were identified by their physical data and spectral data.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant activity, column chromatography, de-oiled propolis

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16 Effects of Raw Bee Propolis and Water or Ethanol Extract of Propolis on Performance, Immune System and Some Blood Parameters on Broiler Bredeers

Authors: Hasan Alp Sahin, Ergin Ozturk


The effects of raw bee propolis (RP) and water (WEP) or ethanol (EEP) extract of propolis on growth performance, selected immune parameters (IgA, IgY and IgM) and some blood parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, trygliceride, total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status were determined. The study was conducted between 15th and 20th weeks (6 weeks) and used a total of 48 broiler breeder pullets (Ross-308). The broiler breeder in control group was fed diet without propolis whereas the birds in RP, WEP and EEP groups were fed diets with RP, WEP and EEP at the level of 1200, 400 and 400 ppm, respectively. All pullets were fed mash form diet with 15% crude protein and 2800 ME kcal/kg. All propolis forms had not a beneficial effect on any studied parameters compared to control group (P > 0.05). The results of the study indicated that both the level of the active matters supplied from the bee propolis has no enough beneficial effect on performance, some immune and blood parameters on broiler breeders or they did not have such a level that would cause a beneficial effect on these variables.

Keywords: antioxidant, bee product , poultry breeders, growth performance, immune parameters, blood chemistry

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15 Performance and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens to Diets Supplemented with Propolis in Breeding, to in Ovo Propolis Feeding or to Propolis Supplementation of Diets for Their Chicks

Authors: Kalbiye Konanc, Ergin Ozturk


To examine the effects of an ethanol liquid extract obtained from raw bee propolis (PE) on fattening performance and physiology such as vaccine-antibody relationship, microbial profile, immune status and some blood parameters of broiler chickens were used a total of 600 broiler (Ross 308) chicks, obtained from eggs of 288, 38-weeks-old broiler breeding. There were 6 groups: CC (Parent-Control and Offspring-Control, CP (Parent-Control and Offspring-propolis extract, Cip (Parent-Control and Offspring-in-ovo propolis extract), Cis (Parent-Control and Chickens-in-ovo saline), PeC (Parent-propolis extract and Offspring-Control), PeP (Parent-Propolis extract and Offspring-Propolis extract). Each group was consisted of 10 replications with 10 broiler offspring, and the experiment was lasted for 6 weeks with ethanol-extracted propolis concentration is 400 ppm/kg diet. While the highest feed consumptions at 0-21 days and 0-42 days were found in PeC, the best feed conversion ratio at 0-42 days was found in CP group. The live weight gains were found not to be different among the groups. The highest alanine aminotransferase activities were found in CC and CP and aspartate aminotransferase activities in PeP and PeC groups. The highest triglyceride and total antioxidant levels were found highest in CC and the highest total oxidant level in Cip group. IgA level in hatched eggs and IgM value after slaughtering were highest in Cip group. The best immune response was obtained for 21st day Newcastle Disease vaccine in CC and Cis groups and for 28th day Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine in CP group. The highest total aerobic microorganism and the lowest total fungi count were found in PeP group. In conclusion, it was determined that in-ovo propolis ethanol extract (Cip) increased the maternal antibody levels, that had not consistent effects on blood biochemical parameters except for triglyceride, that led to decrease in E. coli counts and that it can provide strong immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease.

Keywords: bee propolis, in-ovo feeding, immune parameters, poultry, maternal antibody, microorganisms

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14 University of Sciences and Technology of Oran Mohamed Boudiaf (USTO-MB)

Authors: Patricia Mikchaela D. L. Feliciano, Ciela Kadeshka A. Fuentes, Bea Trixia B. Gales, Ethel Princess A. Gepulango, Martin R. Hernandez, Elina Andrea S. Lantion, Jhoe Cynder P. Legaspi, Peter F. Quilala, Gina C. Castro


Propolis is a resin-like material used by bees to fill large gap holes in the beehive. It has been found to possess anti-inflammatory property, which stimulates hair growth in rats by inducing hair keratinocytes proliferation, causing water retention and preventing damage caused by heat, ultraviolet rays, and other microorganisms without abnormalities in hair follicles. The present study aimed to formulate 10% and 30% Propolis Hair Cream for use in enhancing hair properties. Raw propolis sample was tested for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; zinc and chromium were found to be present. Likewise, propolis was extracted in a percolator using 70% ethanol and concentrated under vacuum using a rotary evaporator. The propolis extract was analyzed for total flavonoid content. Compatibility of the propolis extract with excipients was evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). No significant changes in organoleptic properties, pH and viscosity of the formulated creams were noted after four weeks of storage at 2-8°C, 30°C, and 40°C. The formulated creams were found to be non-irritating based on the Modified Draize Rabbit Test. In vivo efficacy was evaluated based on thickness and tensile strength of hair grown on previously shaved rat skin. Results show that the formulated 30% propolis-based cream had greater hair enhancing properties than the 10% propolis cream, which had a comparable effect with minoxidil.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), modified draize rabbit test, propolis

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13 Nanoemulsion Formulation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis and Its Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Irda Fidrianny


Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that 70% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity. Since EEP has very small solubility in water, the extract was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). Nanoemulsion is chosen as cosmetic dosage forms according to its properties namely to decrease the risk of skin’s irritation, increase penetration, prolong its time to remain in our skin, and improve stability. Propolis was extracted using reflux methods and concentrated using rotavapor. EEP was characterized with several tests such as phytochemical screening, density, and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Optimation of total surfactant, co-surfactant, oil, and amount of EEP that can be included in NE were required to get the best NE formulation. The evaluations included to organoleptic observation, globul size, polydispersity index, morphology using TEM, viscosity, pH, centrifuge, stability, Freeze and Thaw test, radical scavenging activity using DPPH method, and primary irritation test. The yield extracts was 11.12% from raw propolis contained of steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin based on phytochemical screening. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparant, had globul size of 21.9 nm; polydispersity index of 0.338; and pH of 5.67. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25oC, centrifuged for 30 mins at 13.000 rpm, and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE Propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0. The best formulation for NE propolis contained of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP with globul size of 21.9 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. NE propolis was stable and had antioxidant activity similar to EEP.

Keywords: propolis, antioxidant, nanoemulsion, irritation test

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12 Cytotoxic Effect of Biologically Transformed Propolis on HCT-116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

Authors: N. Selvi Gunel, L. M. Oktay, H. Memmedov, B. Durmaz, H. Kalkan Yildirim, E. Yildirim Sozmen


Object: Propolis which consists of compounds that are accepted as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, immune-modulator and cytotoxic, is frequently used in current therapeutic applications. However, some of them result in allergic side effects, causing consumption to be restricted. Previously our group has succeeded in producing a new biotechnological product which was less allergenic. In this study, we purpose to optimize production conditions of this biologically-transformed propolis and determine the cytotoxic effects of obtained new products on colon cancer cell line (HCT-116). Method: Firstly, solid propolis samples were dissolved in water after weighing, grinding and sizing (sieve-35mesh) and applied 40 kHz/10 min ultrasonication. Samples were prepared according to inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum in two different proportions (2.5% and 3.5%). Chromatographic analyzes of propolis were performed by UPLC-MS/MS (Waters, Milford, MA) system. Results were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS system MassLynx™ 4.1 software. HCT-116 cells were treated with propolis examples at 25-1000 µg/ml concentrations and cytotoxicity were measured by using WST-8 assay at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Samples with biological transformation were compared with the non-transformed control group samples. Our experiment groups were formed as follows: untreated (group 1), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min (group 2), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min and inoculated 2.5% L. plantarum L1 strain (group 3), propolis dissolved in water ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10 min and inoculated 3.5% L. plantarum L3 strain (group 4). Obtained data were calculated with Graphpad Software V5 and analyzed by two-way ANOVA test followed by Bonferroni test. Result: As a result of our study, the cytotoxic effect of propolis samples on HCT-116 cells was evaluated. There was a 7.21 fold increase in group 3 compared to group 2 in the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, and it was a 6.66 fold increase in group 3 compared to group 1 at the end of 24 hours. At the end of 48 hours, in the concentration of 500 µg/ml, it was determined 4.7 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 3. At the same time, in the concentration of 750 µg/ml it was determined 2.01 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 3 and in the same concentration, it was determined 3.1 fold increase in group 4 compared to group 2. Also, at the 72 hours, in the concentration of 750 µg/ml, it was determined 2.42 fold increase in group 3 according to group 2 and in the same time, in the concentration of 1000 µg/ml, it was determined 2.13 fold increase in group 4 according to group 2. According to cytotoxicity results, the group which were ultrasonicated at 40 kHz/10min and inoculated 3.5% L. plantarum L3-strain had a higher cytotoxic effect. Conclusion: It is known that bioavailability of propolis is halved in six months. The data obtained from our results indicated that biologically-transformed propolis had more cytotoxic effect than non-transformed group on colon cancer cells. Consequently, we suggested that L. plantarum-transformation provides both reduction of allergenicity and extension of bioavailability period by enhancing healthful polyphenols.

Keywords: bio-transformation, propolis, colon cancer, cytotoxicity

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11 The Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Brown Iranian Propolis Extracts on Ruminal Nitrogen Ammonia Concentration in in Vitro

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Shahab Ehtesham, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Mahdi Paktinat


The goal of this study is to determine the chemical compounds of brown Iranian propolis(BIP) extracts and to show flavonoids and phenol effects on nitrogen ammonia (NH3-N) in in vitro. Experimental samples were including two diets with different concentrate: forage ratio (80:20 and 60:40) with eight treatments (1:Control diet 60:40 without BIP,2: 60:40 diet with 25% BIP, 3:60:40 diet with 50% BIP, 4: 60:40 diet with 75% BIP,5: Control diet 80:20 without BIP,6: 80:20 diet with 25% BIP,7: 80:20 diet with 50% BIP and 8: 80:20 diet with 75% BIP) and eight repeats. The trial was analyzed considering a completely randomized design by the GLM procedure of SAS 9.1. Means among treatment were compared by Tukey test. The results of this study showed that in food with 80:20 (concentrate: forage), adding BIP 25% did not statistically change NH3-N (p > 0.05) compared to the control treatment but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the effect of BIP 50% on NH3-N compared to the BIP 25% and the control. In diet with 60:40 (concentrate: forage), there was no significant difference between the effect of BIP 25% on NH3-N and the control, nor was there a significant difference between the effect of BIP 50% and 75%, while a significant difference (p < 0.05) between BIP 50% and 75% and the rest was observed. The propolis extract makes nitrogen ammonia decrease. This may help the nitrogen retain longer in ruminants.

Keywords: brown Iranian propolis, in vitro, nitrogen ammonia, ruminant

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10 Spray Drying and Physico-Chemical Microbiological Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


The propolis are substances obtained from the beehive have an action against pathogens, prooxidant substances and free radicals because of its polyphenols content, this has motivated the use of these compounds in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to their organoleptic properties and their ability to react with other compounds, their application has been limited; therefore, the objective of this research was to propose a mechanism to protect propolis and mitigate side effects granted by its components. To achieve the stated purpose ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) from three samples from Santander were obtained and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were evaluated in order to choose the extract with the biggest potential. Subsequently mixtures of the extract with maltodextrin were prepared by spray drying varying concentration and temperature, finally the yield, the physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of the products were measured. It was concluded that Socorro propolis was the best for the production of microencapsulated due to their activity against pathogenic strains, for its large percentage of DPPH radical inactivation and for its high phenolic content. In spray drying, the concentration of bioactive had a greater impact than temperature and the conditions set allowed a good performance and the production of particles with high antioxidant potential and little chance of proliferation of microorganisms. Also, it was concluded that the best conditions that allowed us to obtain the best particles were obtained after drying a mixture 1:2 ( EEP: Maltodextrin), besides the concentration is the most important variable in the spray drying process, at the end we obtained particles of different sizes and shape and the uniformity of the surface depend on the temperature. After watching the previously mentioned microparticles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it was concluded that most of the particles produced during the spray dry process had a spherical shape and presented agglomerations due to the moisture content of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP), the morphology of the microparticles contributed to the stability of the final product and reduce the loss of total phenolic content.

Keywords: spray drying, propolis, maltodextrin, encapsulation, scanning electron microscopy

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9 Propolis as Antioxidant Formulated in Nanoemulsion

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Irda Fidrianny, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Okti Alifiana


Natural products such as propolis, green tea and corncob are containing several compounds called antioxidant. Antioxidant can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that the extract of propolis that has the highest antioxidant activity was ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). It is important to make a dosage form that could keep the stability and could protect the effectiveness of antioxidant activity of the extracts. In this research, nanoemulsion (NE) was chosen to formulate those natural products. NE is a dispersion system between oil phase and water phase that formed by mechanical force with a lot amount of surfactants and has globule size below 100 nm. In pharmaceutical industries, NE was preferable for its stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, its ease to be absorbed and eliminated, and for its use as carrier for lipophilic drugs. First, all of the natural products were extracted using reflux methods. Green tea and corncob were extracted using 96% ethanol while propolis using 70% ethanol. Then, the extracts were concentrated using rotavapor to obtain viscous extracts. The yield of EEP was 11.12%; green tea extract (GTE) was 23.37%; and corncob extract (CCE) was 17.23%. EEP contained steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid and saponin. GTE contained flavonoid, tannin, and quinone while CCE contained flavonoid, phenol and tannin. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were then measured using DPPH scavenging capacity methods. The values of DPPH scavenging capacity were 61.14% for EEP; 97.16% for GTE; and 78.28% for CCE. The value of IC50 for EEP was 0.41629 ppm. After the extracts were evaluated, NE was prepared. Several surfactants and co-surfactants were used in many combinations and ratios in order to form a NE. Tween 80 and Kolliphor RH40 were used as surfactants while glycerin and propylene glycol were used as co-surfactants. The best NE consists of 26.25% of Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% of glycerin; 5% of rice bran oil; 3% of extracts; and 57% of water. EEP NE had globule size around 23.72 nm; polydispersity index below 0.5; and did not cause any irritation on rabbits. EEP NE was proven to be stable after passing stability test within 63 days at room temperature and 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. Based on TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) test, EEP NE had spherical structure with most of its size below 50 nm. The antioxidant activity of EEP NE was monitored for 6 weeks and showed no significant difference. The value of DPPH scavenging capacity for EEP NE was around 58%; for GTE NE was 96.75%; and for CCE NE was 55.69%.

Keywords: propolis, green tea, corncob, antioxidant, nanoemulsion

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8 The Activity of Polish Propolis and Cannabidiol Oil Extracts on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Justyna Moskwa, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Konrad Mielcarek, Patryk Nowakowski, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska


Glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) is a rapidly progressive brain tumor with very high morbidity and mortality. The vast malignant gliomas are not curable despite the therapy (surgical, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) and patients seek alternative or complementary treatments. Patients often use cannabidiol (CBD) oil as an alternative therapy of glioblastoma. CBD is one of the cannabinoids, an active component of Cannabis sativa. THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) can be addictive, and in many countries CBD oil without THC ( < 0,2%) is available. Propolis produced by bees from the resin collected from trees has antiglioma properties in vitro and can be used as a supplement in complementary therapy of gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of extract from CBD oil in combination with propolis extract on two glioblastoma cell lines. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test was used to determine the influence of CBD oil extract and polish propolis extract (PPE) on the viability of glioblastoma cell lines – U87MG and LN18. The cells were incubated (24, 48 and 72 h) with CBD oil extract and PPE. CBD extract was used in concentration 1, 1.5 and 3 µM and PPE in 30 µg/mL. The data were presented compared to the control. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. CBD oil extract in concentrations 1, 1.5 and 3 µM did not inhibit the viability of U87MG and LN18 cells (viability more than 90% cells compared to the control). There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. PPE in the concentration of 30 µg/mL time-dependently inhibited the viability of U87MG and LN18 cell line (after 48 h the viability as a percent of the control was 59,7±6% and 57,8±7%, respectively). In a combination of CBD with PPE, the viability of the treated cells was similar to PPE used alone (58,2±7% and 56,5±9%, respectively). CBD oil extract did not show anti-glioma activity and in combination with PPE did not change the activity of PPE.

Keywords: anticancer, cannabidiol, cell line, glioblastoma

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7 Brazilian Brown Propolis as a Natural Source against Leishmania amazonensis

Authors: Victor Pena Ribeiro, Caroline Arruda, Jennyfer Andrea Aldana Mejia, Jairo Kenupp Bastos


Leishmaniasis is a serious health problem around the world. The treatment of infected individuals with pentavalent antimonial drugs is the main therapeutic strategy. However, they present high toxicity and persistence side effects. Therefore, the discovery of new and safe natural-derived therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis is important. Propolis is a resin of viscous consistency produced by Apis mellifera bees from parts of plants. The main types of Brazilian propolis are green, red, yellow and brown. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the chemical composition and leishmanicidal properties of a brown propolis (BP). For this purpose, the hydroalcoholic crude extract of BP was obtained and was fractionated by liquid-liquid chromatography. The chemical profile of the extract and its fractions were obtained by HPLC-UV-DAD. The fractions were submitted to preparative HPLC chromatography for isolation of the major compounds of each fraction. They were analyzed by NMR for structural determination. The volatile compounds were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified by GC/MS. Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were cultivated in M199 medium and then 2×106 parasites.mL-1 were incubated in 96-well microtiter plates with the samples. The BP was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted into the medium, to give final concentrations of 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg.mL⁻¹. The plates were incubated at 25ºC for 24 h, and the lysis percentage was determined by using a Neubauer chamber. The bioassays were performed in triplicate, using a medium with 0.5% DMSO as a negative control and amphotericin B as a positive control. The leishimnicidal effect against promastigote forms was also evaluated at the same concentrations. Cytotoxicity experiments also were performed in 96-well plates against normal (CHO-k1) and tumor cell lines (AGP01 and HeLa) using XTT colorimetric method. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and terpenoids were identified in brown propolis. The major compounds were identified as follows: p-coumaric acid (24.6%) for a methanolic fraction, Artepelin-C (29.2%) for ethyl acetate fraction and the compounds of hexane fraction are in the process of structural elucidation. The major volatile compounds identified were β-caryophyllene (10.9%), germacrene D (9.7%), nerolidol (10.8%) and spathulenol (8.5%). The propolis did not show cytotoxicity against normal cell lines (CHO) with IC₅₀ > 100 μg.mL⁻¹, whereas the IC₅₀ < 10 μg.mL⁻¹ showed a potential against the AGP01 cell line, propolis did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines IC₅₀ > 100 μg.mL⁻¹. In the determination of the leishmanicidal activity, the highest (50 μg.mL⁻¹) and lowest (1.56 μg.mL⁻¹) concentrations of the crude extract caused the lysis of 76% and 45% of promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, respectively. To the amastigote form, the highest (50 μg.mL⁻¹) and lowest (1.56 μg.mL⁻¹) concentrations caused the mortality of 89% and 75% of L. amazonensis, respectively. The IC₅₀ was 2.8 μg.mL⁻¹ to amastigote form and 3.9 μg.mL⁻¹ to promastigote form, showing a promising activity against Leishmania amazonensis.

Keywords: amastigote, brown propolis, cytotoxicity, promastigote

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6 Elaboration and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Edible Films Made from Chitosan and Spray Dried Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


It was necessary to establish which formulation is suitable for the preservation of aquaculture products, that why edible films were made. These were to a characterization in order to meet their morphology physicochemical and mechanical properties, optical. Six Formulations of chitosan and propolis ethanolic extract encapsulated were developed because of their activity against pathogens and due to their properties, which allows the creation waterproof polymer networks against gasses, vapor, and physical damage. In the six Formulations, the concentration of comparison material (1% w/v, 2% pv) and the bioactive concentrations (0.5% w/v, 1% w/v, 1.5% pv) were changed and the results obtained were compared with statistical and multivariate analysis methods. It was observed that the matrices showed a mayor impermeability and thickness control samples and the samples reported in the literature. Also, these films showed a notorious uniformity of the films and a bigger resistance to the physical damage compared with other edible films made of other biopolymers. However the action of some compounds had a negative effect on the mechanical properties and changed drastically the optical properties, the bioactive has an effect on Polymer Matrix and it was determined that the films with 2% w / v of chitosan and 1.5% w/v encapsulated, exhibited the best properties and suffered to a lesser extent the negative impact of immiscible substances.

Keywords: chitosan, edible films, ethanolic extract of propolis, mechanical properties, optical properties, physical characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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5 Screening of Antiviral Compounds in Medicinal Plants: Non-Volatiles

Authors: Tomas Drevinskas, Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Nicola Tiso, Algirdas Salomskas, Raimundas Lelesius, Agneta Karpovaite, Ona Ragazinskiene, Loreta Kubiliene


Antiviral effect of substances accumulated by plants and natural products is known to ethno-pharmacy and modern day medicine. Antiviral properties are usually assigned to volatile compounds and polyphenols. This research work is divided into several parts and the task of this part was to investigate potential plants, potential substances and potential preparation conditions that can be used for the preparation of antiviral agents. Sixteen different medicinal plants, their parts and two types of propolis were selected for screening. Firstly, extraction conditions of non-volatile compounds were investigated: 3 pre-selected plants were extracted with 5 different ethanol – water mixtures (96%, 75%, 60%, 40%, 20 %, vol.) and bidistilled water. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity was determined. The results indicated that optimal extrahent is 40%, vol. of ethanol – water mixture. Further investigations were performed with the extrahent of 40%, vol. ethanol – water mixture. All 16 of selected plants, their parts and two types of propolis were extracted using selected extrahent. Determined total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity indicated that extracts of Origanum Vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Geranium macrorrhizum L., Melissa officinalis L. and Desmodium canadence L. contains highest amount of extractable phenolic compounds (7.31, 5.48, 7.88, 8.02 and 7.16 rutin equivalents (mg/ ml) respectively), flavonoid content (2.14, 2.23, 2.49, 0.79 and 1.51 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively) and radical scavenging activity (11.98, 8.72, 13.47, 13.22 and 12.22 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively). Composition of the extracts is analyzed using HPLC.

Keywords: antiviral effect, plants, propolis, phenols

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4 Impact of Edible Coatings Made of Chitosan and Spray Dried Propolis in the Shell Life of White Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus)

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


There is a need to preserve aquaculture matrices due to their high nutritional value, and its broad consumption, one of those species is the white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), this fish is located in the rivers of eastern Colombia, and the previously mentioned species needs more study. Therefore, in a paper the effects of an alternative method of preservation of shell life were investigated, the method used is the application of an edible coating made from chitosan and ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) encapsulated in maltodextrin. The coating was applied by immersion, and after that, we investigated the post mortem quality changes of the fish performing physicochemical and microbiological analysis. pH, volatile bases, test thiobarbituric acid and peroxide value were tested; finally, we studied the effect of the coating on mesophilic strains, coliforms and other microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. Finally, we concluded that the coating prolongs the shelf life because it acts as a barrier to oxygen and moisture, the bioactive compounds trap free radicals and the coatings changes the metabolism and cause the cell lysis of the microorganisms. It was determined that the concentration of malonaldehyde, the volatile basic nitrogen content and pH are the variables that distinguish more clearly between the samples with the treatment and the control samples.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, lipid oxidation, texture profile analysis (TPA), sensorial analysis, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid assay (TBA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N)

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3 Behavioral Response of Bee Farmers to Climate Change in South East, Nigeria

Authors: Jude A. Mbanasor, Chigozirim N. Onwusiribe


The enigma climate change is no longer an illusion but a reality. In the recent years, the Nigeria climate has changed and the changes are shown by the changing patterns of rainfall, the sunshine, increasing level carbon and nitrous emission as well as deforestation. This study analyzed the behavioural response of bee keepers to variations in the climate and the adaptation techniques developed in response to the climate variation. Beekeeping is a viable economic activity for the alleviation of poverty as the products include honey, wax, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, venom, queens, bees and their larvae and are all marketable. The study adopted the multistage sampling technique to select 120 beekeepers from the five states of Southeast Nigeria. Well-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were adopted to collect the required data. Statistical tools like the Principal component analysis, data envelopment models, graphs, and charts were used for the data analysis. Changing patterns of rainfall and sunshine with the increasing rate of deforestation had a negative effect on the habitat of the bees. The bee keepers have adopted the Kenya Top bar and Langstroth hives and they establish the bee hives on fallow farmland close to the cultivated communal farms with more flowering crops.

Keywords: climate, farmer, response, smart

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2 Machine Learning Based Smart Beehive Monitoring System Without Internet

Authors: Esra Ece Var


Beekeeping plays essential role both in terms of agricultural yields and agricultural economy; they produce honey, wax, royal jelly, apitoxin, pollen, and propolis. Nowadays, these natural products become more importantly suitable and preferable for nutrition, food supplement, medicine, and industry. However, to produce organic honey, majority of the apiaries are located in remote or distant rural areas where utilities such as electricity and Internet network are not available. Additionally, due to colony failures, world honey production decreases year by year despite the increase in the number of beehives. The objective of this paper is to develop a smart beehive monitoring system for apiaries including those that do not have access to Internet network. In this context, temperature and humidity inside the beehive, and ambient temperature were measured with RFID sensors. Control center, where all sensor data was sent and stored at, has a GSM module used to warn the beekeeper via SMS when an anomaly is detected. Simultaneously, using the collected data, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm is used for detecting anomalies and calibrating the warning system. The results show that the smart beehive monitoring system can detect fatal anomalies up to 4 weeks prior to colony loss.

Keywords: beekeeping, smart systems, machine learning, anomaly detection, apiculture

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1 Physicochemical Investigation of Caffeic Acid and Caffeinates with Chosen Metals (Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ru, Os)

Authors: Włodzimierz Lewandowski, Renata Świsłocka, Aleksandra Golonko, Grzegorz Świderski, Monika Kalinowska


Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic) is distributed in a free form or as ester conjugates in many fruits, vegetables and seasonings including plants used for medical purpose. Caffeic acid is present in propolis – a substance with exceptional healing properties used in natural medicine since ancient times. The antioxidant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of caffeic acid are widely described in the literature. The biological activity of chemical compounds can be modified by the synthesis of their derivatives or metal complexes. The structure of the compounds determines their biological properties. This work is a continuation of the broader topic concerning the investigation of the correlation between the electronic charge distribution and biological (anticancer and antioxidant) activity of the chosen phenolic acids and their metal complexes. In the framework of this study the synthesis of new metal complexes of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron (III) ruthenium (III) and osmium (III) with caffeic acid was performed. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were studied by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, ¹H and ¹³C NMR. The quantum-chemical calculations (at B3LYP/LAN L2DZ level) of caffeic acid and selected complexes were done. Moreover the antioxidant properties of synthesized complexes were studied in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and method of reduction of ABTS). On the basis of the differences in the number, intensity and locations of the bands from the IR, Raman, UV/Vis and NMR spectra of caffeic acid and its metal complexes the effect of metal cations on the electronic system of ligand was discussed. The geometry, theoretical spectra and electronic charge distribution were calculated by the use of Gaussian 09 programme. The geometric aromaticity indices (Aj – normalized function of the variance in bond lengths; BAC - bond alternation coefficient; HOMA – harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity and I₆ – Bird’s index) were calculated and the changes in the aromaticity of caffeic acid and its complexes was discussed. This work was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, under the research project number 2014/13/B/NZ7/02-352.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, caffeic acid, metal complexes, spectroscopic methods

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