Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: tannins

115 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels

Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang

Abstract:

The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.

Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panels

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114 Screening of Potential Sources of Tannin and Its Therapeutic Application

Authors: Mamta Kumari, Shashi Jain

Abstract:

Tannins are a unique category of plant phytochemicals especially in terms of their vast potential health-benefiting properties. Researchers have described the capacity of tannins to enhance glucose uptake and inhibit adipogenesis, thus being potential drugs for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Thus, the present research was conducted to find out tannin content of food products. The percentage of tannin in various analyzed sources ranged from 0.0 to 108.53%; highest in kathaa and lowest in ker and mango bark. The percentage of tannins present in the plants, however, varies. Numerous studies have confirmed that the naturally occurring polyphenols are key factor for the beneficial effects of the herbal medicines. Isolation and identification of active constituents from plants, preparation of standardized dose & dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycaemic action.

Keywords: tannins, diabetes, polyphenols, antioxidant, hypoglycemia

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113 Study of the in vivo and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Roots of the Barks of Zizyphus lotus

Authors: Djemai Zoughlache Soumia, Yahia Mouloud, Lekbir Adel, Meslem Meriem, Maouchi Madiha, Bahi Ahlem, Benbia Souhila

Abstract:

Natural extracts is known for their contents of biologically active molecules. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract prepared from the bark of the roots of Zizyphus lotus. The quantitative analysis based on the dosage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins provided following values: 0.39 ± 0.007 ug EAG/mg of extract for phenolic compounds, 0.05 ± 0.02ug EQ/mg extract for flavonoids and 0.0025 ± 7.071 E-4 ECT ug/mg extract for tannins. The study of the antioxidant activity by the DPPH test in vitro showed a powerful antiradical power with an IC50 = 8,8 ug/ml. For the DPPH test in vivo we used two rats lots, one lot with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the methanol extract and a control lot. We found a significant difference in antiradical activity with p < 0.05.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, antioxidant activity, DPPH, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins

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112 Assessment of Hemostatic Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.: A Mediterranean Lamiaceae Algeria

Authors: Nabil Ghedadba, Abdessemed Samira, Leila Hambaba, Sidi Mohamed Ould Mokhtar, Nassima Fercha, Houas Bousselsela

Abstract:

The overall objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the hemostatic activity of secondary metabolites (polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins) of Marrubium vulgare leaves, aromatic plant widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, cough, diabetes (by its effect on the pancreas to secrete insulin), heart disease, fever has a high efficiency as against inflammation. Qualitative analysis of the aqueous extract (AQE) by thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of quercetin, kaempferol and rutin. Quantification of total phenols by Folin Ciocalteu method and flavonoids by AlCl3 method gave high values with AQE: 175±0.80 mg GAE per 100g of the dry matter, 23.86±0.36 mg QE per 100g of dry matter. Moreover, the assay of condensed tannins by the vanillin method showed that AQE contains the highest value: 16.55±0.03 mg e-catechin per 100 g of dry matter. Assessment of hemostatic activity by the plasma recalcification method (time of Howell) has allowed us to discover the surprising dose dependent anticoagulant effect of AQE lyophilized from leaves of M. vulgare. A positive linear correlation between the two parameters studied: the content of condensed tannins and hemostatic activity (r=0.96) were used to highlight a possible role of these compounds that are potent vasoconstrictor activity in hemostatic. From these results we can see that Marrubium vulgre could be used for the treatment of health.

Keywords: Marrubium vulgare L., aqueous extract, phenolic compounds dosing, hemostatic activity, condensed tannins

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
111 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

Abstract:

Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50, oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals and stem bark

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110 Phytochemical Screening and Toxicological Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia papyrifera (DEL) in Albino Rats

Authors: Y. Abdulmumin, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Wudil, A. J. Alhassan, A. A. Imam

Abstract:

Phytochemical analysis of Boswellia papryfera confirms the presence of various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and cardiac glycosides in its aqueous stem bark extract at different concentration, with tannins being the highest (0.611 ± 0.002 g %). Acute toxicity test (LD50,oral, rat) of the extract showed no mortality at up to 5000 mg/kg and the animals were found active and healthy. The extract was declared as practically non-toxic, this suggest the safety of the extract in traditional medicine.

Keywords: acute toxicity, aqueous extract, boswellia papryfera, phytochemicals, stem bark extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
109 Analysis of Tannins from Padus asiatica

Authors: Telmen Dashdondov, Selenge Erdenechimeg

Abstract:

Padus asiatica contains large quantities of polyphenolic compounds, and it is one of the most consumed fruits throughout the country. These compounds have the biological activity of the fruit and have long been used in traditional Mongolian medicine for diarrhea, coughs, pneumonia, and gastritis. In this study, we studied the solvents that can be used to make extracts from dried raw fruits; in order to determine the amount of tannin in Padus asiatica, we selected three solvents: distilled water, 20% ethanol, and 40% ethanol, and determined the amount of tannin. As a result, the amount of extract (distilled water) was 11.8%, the amount of extract (20% ethanol) was 15.7%, and the amount of extract (40% ethanol) was 8.2%. Therefore, it was found that tannins are extracted better in 20% ethanol solution.

Keywords: Padus asiatica, tannin, diarrhea, Mongolian medicinal plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
108 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
107 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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106 In vitro and invivo Antioxidant Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N.Ukwuani, A. K. Abdulfatah

Abstract:

G. crenata is used locally for the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts of the leaves of G. crenata were assessed. The phytochemical analysis shows the presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An in vitro quantitative analysis of phenols, flavonoids and tannins respectively were (164±1.20, 199±0.88 and 88.67±0.88 mg/100g FW). In vivo studies of hydromethanolic extract demonstrated a dose dependent increase in hepatic superoxide dismutase (1.14±0.14, 2.13±0.11, 2.55±0.11 U/mg Protein) with improvement in hepatic glutathione (6.98±0.42, 8.91±0.37, 11.07±0.46 µM/mg Protein) and Catalase (4.47±0.05, 6.24±0.02, 7.17±0.04 U/mg Protein) and Total protein (6.18±0.08, 6.69±0.18, 7.27±0.16 mg/ml) respectively at 100-300mg/kg body weight Grewia crenata leaves when compared to the control and standard drug. It can be concluded from the present findings of that G. crenata leaves possess antioxidant potential.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, antioxidant, hydromethanolic extract, in vivo, in vitro

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105 Evaluation of Bioactive Phenols in Blueberries from Different Cultivars

Authors: Christophe Gonçalves, Raquel P. F. Guiné, Daniela Teixeira, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Blueberries are widely valued for their high content in phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, and hence beneficial for the human health. In this way, a study was done to determine the phenolic composition (total phenols, anthocyanins and tannins) and antioxidant activity of blueberries from three cultivars (Duke, Bluecrop, and Ozarblue) grown in two different Portuguese farms. Initially two successive extractions were done with methanol followed by two extractions with aqueous acetone solutions. These extracts obtained were then used to evaluate the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity. The total phenols were observed to vary from 4.9 to 8.2 mg GAE/g fresh weight, with anthocyanin’s contents in the range 1.5-2.8 mg EMv3G/g and tannins contents in the range 1.5- 3.8 mg/g. The results for antioxidant activity ranged from 9.3 to 23.2 mol TE/g, and from 24.7 to 53.4 mol TE/g, when measured, respectively, by DPPH and ABTS methods. In conclusion it was observed that, in general, the cultivar had a visible effect on the phenols present, and furthermore, the geographical origin showed relevance either in the phenols contents or the antioxidant activity.

Keywords: anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, blueberry cultivar, geographical origin, phenolic compounds

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104 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Leaves and Pods of Leucaena Leucocephala, Prosopis Laevigata and Acacia Farnesiana in a Xerophyllous Shrubland

Authors: Miguel Mellado, Cecilia Zapata

Abstract:

Goats can be exploited in harsh environments due to their capacity to adjust to limited quantity and quality forage sources. In these environments, leguminous trees can be used as supplementary feeds as foliage and fruits of these trees can contribute to maintain or improve production efficiency in ruminants. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value of three leguminous trees heavily selected by goats in a xerophyllous shrubland. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of leaves and pods from leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) and huisache (Acacia farnesiana) is presented. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 17.3% for leaves of huisache to 21.9% for leucaena. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content ranged from 39.0 to 40.3 with no difference among fodder threes. Across tree species, mean IVDMD was 61.6% for pods and 52.2% for leaves. IVDMD for leaves was highest (P < 0.01) for leucaena (54.9%) and lowest for huisache (47.3%). Condensed tannins in an acetonic extract were highest for leaves of huisache (45.3 mg CE/g DM) and lowest for mesquite (25.9 mg CE/g DM). Pods and leaves of huisache presented the highest number of secondary metabolites, mainly related to hydrobenzoic acid and flavonols; leucaena and mesquite presented mainly flavonols and anthocyanins. It was concluded that leaves and pods of leucaena, mesquite and huisache constitute valuable forages for ruminant livestock due to its low fiber, high CP levels, moderate in vitro fermentation characteristics and high mineral content. Keywords: Fodder tree; ruminants; secondary metabolites; minerals; tannins

Keywords: fodder tree, ruminants, secondary metabolites, minerals, tannins

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
103 Total Phenols, Total Flavonoids Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Seeds Extracts of Lawsonia alba (henna) from Algeria

Authors: Rekia. Cherbi, Mokhtar. Saidi, Mohamed. Yousfi, Zhor. Rahmani

Abstract:

Lawsonia alba (Henna) is widely used in folkloric medicinal for a treatment of various skin diseases such as Eczema (atopic dermatitis), boils and sores. The aim of the present study is to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins content of extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba grown in Algeria and selected from three different regions (Adrar, Biskra, and Ouargla). Total phenolics content ranged from 68,42 ± 0,54 to 88,31 ± 0,78mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight, the flavonoids content varied from 1,13 ± 0,0035 to 1,367 ± 0,002mg quercetin equivalents (Q)/ g dry weight and condensed tannins (14,47 ± 0,138 to 25,50 ± 0,076 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight). The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that all extracts from the seeds of Lawsonia. alba seem to be good trappers of radicals, the IC50 values of the extracts ranged between 0,00826 and 0,01 g/l.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Lawsonia. alba, phenolic compounds, seeds

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102 The Effect of Season, Fire and Slope Position on Seriphium plumosum L. Forage Quality in South African Grassland Communities

Authors: Hosia T. Pule, Julius T. Tjelele, Michelle J. Tedder, Dawood Hattas

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Acceptability of plant material to herbivores is influenced by, among other factors; nutrients, plant secondary metabolites and growth stage of the plants. However, the effect of these factors on Seriphium plumosum L. acceptability to livestock is still not clearly understood, despite its importance in managing its encroachment in grassland communities. The study used 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance to investigate the effect of season (wet and dry), fire, slope position (top and bottom) and their interaction on Seriphium plumosum chemistry. We tested the hypothesis that S. plumosum chemistry varies temporally, spatially and pre- and post-fire treatment. Seriphium plumosum edible material was collected during the wet and dry season from burned and unburned areas on both top and bottom slopes before being analysed for protein (CP) content, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT). Season had a significant effect on S. plumosum protein content, neutral detergent fibre, total phenolics and condensed tannins. Fire had a significant effect on CP. Interaction of season x fire had a significant effect on NDF and CP (p < 0.05). Seriphium plumosum in the wet season (6.69% ± 0.20 (SE)) had significantly higher CP than in the dry season (5.22% ± 0.13). NDF was significantly higher (58.01% ± 0.41) in the dry season than in the wet season (53.17% ± 0.34), while TP were significantly higher in the dry season (14.44 mg/gDw ± 1.03) than in the wet season (11.08 mg/gDw ± 1.07). CT in the wet season were significantly higher (1.56 mg/gDw ± 0.13) than in the dry season (1 mg/gDw ± 0.03). CP was significantly higher in burned (6. 31 % ± 0.22) than in unburned S. plumosum edible material (5.60 % ± 0.15). Seriphium plumosum CP was significantly higher in wet season x burned (7.34 % ± 0.31) than wet season x unburned (6.08 % ± 0.20) material and dry season x burned (5.34 % ± 0.18) and unburned (5.09 % ± 0.18) material were similar. NDF was similar in dry season x burned (58.31% ± 0.54) and dry season x unburned (57.69 % ± 0.62) material and significantly higher than similar wet season x burned (52.43% ± 0.45) and wet season x post-unburned (53.88% ± 0.47) material. This study suggests integrating fire, browsers, and supplements as encroacher S. plumosum control agents, especially in the wet season, following fire due to high S. plumosum CP content.

Keywords: acceptability, chemistry, edible material, encroachment, phenolics, tannins

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101 Antioxidant Activity of Aristolochia longa L. Extracts

Authors: Merouani Nawel, Belhattab Rachid

Abstract:

Aristolochia longa L. (Aristolochiacea) is a native plant of Algeria used in traditional medicine. This study was devoted to the determination of polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents of Aristolochia longa L. after their extraction by using various solvents with different polarities (methanol, acetone and distilled water). These extracts were prepared from stem, leaves, fruits and rhizome. The antioxidant activity was determined using three in vitro assays methods: scavenging effect on DPPH, the reducing power assay and ẞ-carotene bleaching inhibition (CBI). The results obtained indicate that the acetone extracts from the aerial parts presented the highest contents of polyphenols. The results of The antioxidant activity showed that all extracts of Aristolochia longa L., prepared using different solvent, have diverse antioxidant capacities. However, the aerial parts methanol extract exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity of DPPH and reducing power (Respectively 55,04ug/ml±1,29 and 0,2 mg/ml±0,019 ). Nevertheless, the aerial parts acetone extract showed the highest antioxidant capacity in the test of ẞ-carotene bleaching inhibition with 57%. These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their bioactive substances could be exploited for therapeutic purposes such as antioxidant and antimicrobial.

Keywords: aristolochia longa l., polyphenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins, antioxidant activity

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100 Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Carménère Wines during Aging with Oak Wood (Staves, Chips and Barrels)

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, J. Laqui-Estaña, A. Peña-Neira, M. Medel-Marabolí

Abstract:

Wine is an important source of polyphenols. Red wines show important concentrations of nonflavonoid (gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid) and flavonoid compounds [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin]. However, a significant variability in the quantitative and qualitative distribution of chemical constituents in wine has to be expected depending on an array of important factors, such as the varietal differences of Vitis vinifera and cultural practices. It has observed that Carménère grapes present a differential composition and evolution of phenolic compounds when compared to other varieties and specifically with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Likewise, among the cultural practices, the aging in contact with oak wood is a high relevance factor. Then, the extraction of different polyphenolic compounds from oak wood into wine during its ageing process produces both qualitative and quantitative changes. Recently, many new techniques have been introduced in winemaking. One of these involves putting new pieces of wood (oak chips or inner staves) into inert containers. It offers some distinct and previously unavailable flavour advantages, as well as new options in wine handling. To our best knowledge, there is not information about the behaviour of Carménère wines (Chilean emblematic cultivar) in contact with oak wood. In addition, the effect of aging time and wood product (barrels, chips or staves) on the phenolic composition in Carménère wines has not been studied. This study aims at characterizing the condensed and hydrolyzable tannins from Carménère wines during the aging with staves, chips and barrels from French oak wood. The experimental design was completely randomized with two independent assays: aging time (0-12 month) and different formats of wood (barrel, chips and staves). The wines were characterized by spectrophotometric (total tannins and fractionation of proanthocyanidins into monomers, oligomers and polymers) and HPLC-DAD (ellagitannins) analysis. The wines in contact with different products of oak wood showed a similar content of total tannins during the study, while the control wine (without oak wood) presented a lower content of these compounds. In addition, it was observed that the polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction was the most abundant, while the monomeric fraction was the less abundant fraction in all treatments in two sample. However, significative differences in each fractions were observed between wines in contact from barrel, chips, and staves in two sample dates. Finally, the wine from barrels presented the highest content of the ellagitannins from the fourth to the last sample date. In conclusion, the use of alternative formats of oak wood affects the chemical composition of wines during aging, and these enological products are an interesting alternative to contribute with tannins to wine.

Keywords: enological inputs, oak wood aging, polyphenols, red wine

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99 Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Potential, and Mineral Composition of Dried Abelmoschus esculentus L. Fruits Consume in Gada Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, I. M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid

Abstract:

Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is very common especially in northern part of Nigeria, but people are ignorant of its medicinal and pharmacological benefits. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant potential and mineral composition of the dried form of this fruit were determined. The Phytochemical screening was conducted using standard methods. Antioxidant potential screening was carried out using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) method, while, the mineral compositions were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer by wet digest method. The result of the qualitative phytochemical screening revealed that the fruits contain saponins, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and terpenoids, while, anthraquinone, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, and phlobatannins were not detected. The quantitative analysis revealed that the fruits contain saponnins (380 ± 0.020 mg/g), flavonoids (240±0.01 mg/g), and tannins (21.71 ± 0.66 mg/ml). The antioxidant potential was determined to be 54.1 ± 0.19%. The mineral composition revealed that 100 g of the fruits contains 97.52 ± 1.04 mg of magnesium (Mg), 94.53 ± 3.21 mg of calcium (Ca), 77.10 ± 0.79 mg of iron (Fe), 47.14 ± 0.41 mg of zinc (Zn), 43.96 ± 1.49 mg of potassium (K), 42.02 ± 1.09 mg of sodium (Na), 0.47 ± 0.08 mg of copper (Cu) and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg of lead (Pb). These results showed that the Abelmoschus esculentus L. fruit is a good source of antioxidants, and contains an appreciable amount of phytochemicals, therefore, it has some pharmacological attributes. On the other side, the fruit can serve as a nutritional supplement for Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, K, and Na, but a poor source of Cu, and contains no significant amount of Pb.

Keywords: Abelmoschus esculentus Fruits, antioxidant potential, mineral composition, phytochemical screening

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98 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, phytochemistry, antimicrobial activity, Algeria

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97 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella Sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F.Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Algeria, antimicrobial activity, Nigella sativa, phytochemistry

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96 Comparative Antibacterial Property of Matured Trunk and Stem Bark Extract of Tamarindus indica L., Preformulation, Development and Quality Control of Cream

Authors: A. M. T. Jacinto, M.O. Osi

Abstract:

Tamarind has various medicinal properties among which is its antibacterial property. Its bark contains saponins, alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and tannins. It is rich in phlobapenes which is responsible for antibacterial property. The objective of the study was to determine which bark will produce the highest antibacterial property, develop it into a topical cream and evaluate its quality and characteristics. Powdered barks of Tamarind were extracted by soxhlet method using 70% acetone. Stem bark produced a higher yield than trunk bark (5.85 g vs. 4.73 g). It was found that the trunk bark was more sensitive than stem bark to microorganisms namely Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium minutissimum, and Streptococcus spp. Sensitivity of trunk bark can be attributed to a more developed phytoconstituents. Dermal sensitization test on both sexes of rabbits using the following concentrations: 100%, 40% and 20% of extract showed that Tamarind has no irritating property and therefore safe for formulation into an antibacterial cream. Excipients used for formulation such as methyl paraben, propyl paraben, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum were compatible with the Tamarind acetone extract through Differential Scanning Calorimetry except sodium lauryl sulfate that exhibited crystallization when subjected at 200˚C. The method of manufacture used in cream is fusion, therefore strict compliance of processing temperature should be observed to prevent polymorphism. Quality control tests of formulated cream based on USP 30 and Philippine Pharmacopeia were satisfactory.

Keywords: antibacterial, differential scanning calorimetry, tannins, dermal sensitization

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95 Activity Anti-Motility Exstract Kedondong Leaf in Balb/C Strain Male Mice Invivo

Authors: Muhammad Abdul Latif, Edijanti Goenarwo , Intan Rahmania Eka

Abstract:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, as well as responsible for the deaths of millions of people each year. Previous research showed that the leaves, bark, and root bark of kedondong contains saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Tannins have anti-diarrheal effects that work as the freeze of protein / astrigen, and may inhibit the secretion of chloride over the tannate bonding between protein in the intestines. Chemical compounds of flavonoids also have an effect as anti-diarrheal block receptors Cl ˉ in intestinal thus reducing the secretion of Cl ˉ to the intestinal lume. This research aims to know the anti-diarrheal activity of extracts kedondong leaf in mice Balb/C strain males in vivo. This research also proves kedondong leaves as an anti-diarrhea through trial efficacy of kedondong leaves as antisekretori and antimotilitas. This research using post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. If the data obtained homogenous then using ANOVA test. This research using ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg BW to prove there is anti-motility became five treatment groups. The result showed dose of ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 800 mg/kg BW have significant value (p < 0.005). The conclusion from this extracts kedondong leaf research 800 mg/kg BW have pharmacological effects as antimotility on Balb/C strain male mice.

Keywords: anti-diarrhea, anti-motility, castrol oil, kedondong leaf

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94 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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93 Phytochemical Analysis of Some Solanaceous Plants of Chandigarh

Authors: Nishtha, Richa, Anju Rao

Abstract:

Plants are the source of herbal medicine and medicinal value of the plants lies in the bioactive phytochemical constituents that produce definite physiological effects on human body. Angiospermic families are known to produce such phytochemical constituents which are termed as secondary plant metabolites. These metabolites include alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and so on. Solanaceae is one of the important families of Angiosperms known for medicinally important alkaloids such as hyoscyamine, scopolamine, solanine, nicotine, capsaicin etc. Medicinally important species of this family mostly belong to the genera of Datura,Atropa,Solanum,Withania and Nicotiana.Six species such as Datura metel, Solanum torvum, Physalis minima, Cestrum nocturnum, Cestrum diurnum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia have been collected from different localities of Chandigarh and adjoining areas.Field and anatomical studies helped to identify the plants and their parts used for the study of secondary plant metabolites. Preliminary phytochemcial studies have been done on various parts of plants such as roots, stem and leaves by making aqueous and alcoholic extracts from their powdered forms which showed the presence of alkaloids in almost all the species followed by steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins etc. HPLC profiles of leaves of Datura metel showed the presence of active compounds such as scopalamine and hyoscyamine and Solanum torvum showed the presence of solanine and solasodine. These alkaloids are important source of drug based medicine used in pharmacognosy. The respective compounds help in treating vomiting, nausea, respiratory disorders, dizziness, asthma and many heart problems.

Keywords: alkaloids, flavanoids, phytochemical constituents, pharmacognosy, secondary metabolites

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92 Activity Antidiarrheal Extract Kedondong Leaf in Balb/C Strain Male Mice Invivo

Authors: Johanrik, Arini Aprilliani, Fikri Haikal, Diyas Yuca, Muhammad A. Latif, Edijanti Goenarwo, Nurita P. Sari

Abstract:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, as well as responsible for the deaths of millions of people each year. Previous research showed that the leaves, bark, and root bark of kedondong contains saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Tannins have anti-diarrheal effects that work as the freeze of protein / astrigen, and may inhibit the secretion of chloride over the tannate bonding between protein in the intestines. Chemical compounds of flavonoids also have an effect as anti-diarrheal block receptors Cl ˉ in intestinal thus reducing the secretion of Cl ˉ to the intestinal lume. This research aims to know the anti-diarrheal activity of extracts kedondong leaf in mice Balb/C strain males in vivo. This research also proves kedondong leaves as an anti-diarrhea through trial efficacy of kedondong leaves as antisekretori and antimotilitas. This research using post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. If the data obtained homogenous then using ANOVA test. This research using ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 200, 400 and 800 mg/kgBW to prove there is anti-diarrhea it makes into six treatment groups, for anti-secretory it makes into five treatment groups and anti-motility became five treatment groups. The result showed dose of ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 800 mg/kgBW have significant value (p < 0.005). The conclusion from this extracts kedondong leaf research 800 mg/kgBW have pharmacological effects as antidiarrhea on Balb/C strain male mice with a mechanism of action as antisecretory and antimotility.

Keywords: anti-diarrhea, anti-secretory, anti-motility, kedondong leaf

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91 Anti-Diarrheal Activity of Extracts Kedondong Leaf in Mice Balb/C Strain Males in Vivo

Authors: Johanrik, Arini Apriliani, Fikri Haikal, Dias Yuca, Muhammad Abdul Latif, Edijanti Goenarwo, Nurita Pratama Sari

Abstract:

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, as well as responsible for the deaths of millions of people each year. Previous research showed that the leaves, bark, and root bark of kedondong contains saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Tannins have anti-diarrheal effects that work as the freeze of protein/astringent, and may inhibit the secretion of chloride over the tannate bonding between protein in the intestines. Chemical compounds of flavonoids also have an effect as anti-diarrheal block receptors Cl ˉ in intestinal thus reducing the secretion of Cl ˉ to the intestinal lume .This research aims to know the anti-diarrheal activity of extracts kedondong leaf in mice Balb/C strain males in vivo. This research also proves kedondong leaves as an anti-diarrhea through trial efficacy of kedondong leaves as antisekretori and antimotilitas. This research using post-test only controlled group design. Analysis of statistical data normality and homogenity were tested by Kolmogorov Smirnov. If the data obtained homogenous then using ANOVA test. This research using ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 200, 400 and 800 mg/kgBW to prove there is anti-diarrhea it makes into six treatment groups, for anti-secretory it makes into five treatment groups and anti-motility became five treatment groups. The result showed dose of ethanolic extracts kedondong leaf 800 mg/kgBW have significant value (p<0.005). The conclusion from this extracts kedondong leaf research 800 mg/kgBW have pharmacological effects as antidiarrhea on Balb/C strain male mice with a mechanism of action as anti-secretory and anti-motility.

Keywords: anti-diarrhea, anti-secretory, anti-motility, kedondong leaf

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90 Phytochemical and in vitro Antimicrobial Screening of Extract of Sunflower Chrysanthlum indicum

Authors: I. Ibrahim, A. Mann

Abstract:

Phytochemical screening of crude Chrysanthlum Indicum revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkanoids, steroidal nucleus and cardiac glycosides. The extract was evaluated against some pathogenic organisms by agar dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the active extract of Chrysanthlum Indicum shows that its extract could be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: extract, phytochemicals, antimicrobial, antibacterial, Chrysanthlum indicum

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89 Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: Hallal Nouria, Kharoubi Omar

Abstract:

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) is a medicinal and aromatic bitter herb, which has been used as a medicine from ancient times. It has traditionally been used as anthelmintic, choleretic, antiseptic, balsamic, depurative, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue and in treating leukemia and sclerosis. The species was cited to be used externally as cataplasm of crushed leaves for snake and scorpion bites or decoction for wounds and sores applied locally as antiseptic and antifungal. Wormwood extract have high contents of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids indicating that these compounds contribute to antiradical and antioxidative activity. Most of the degenerative diseases are caused by free radicals. Antioxidants are the agents responsible for scavenging free radicals. The aim of present study was to evaluate the phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of Wormwood extract. DPPH assay and reducing power assay were the method adopted to study antioxidant potentials of extracts. Standard methods were used to screen preliminary phytochemistry and quantitative analysis of tannin, phenolics and flavanoids. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were showed good antioxidant effect with IC50 ranges from 62 μg/ml for aqueous and 116μg/ml for alcoholic extracts. Phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids were the major phytochemicals present in both the extracts. Percentage of inhibition increased with the increased concentration of extracts. The aqueous and alcoholic extract yielded 20, 15& 3, 59 mg/g gallic acid equivalent phenolic content 2, 78 & 1,83 mg/g quercetin equivalent flavonoid and 2, 34 & 6, 40 g tannic acid equivalent tannins respectively. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts showed a positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The present study provides evidence that both extracts of Artemisia absinthium is a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Keywords: pharmaceutical industries, medicinal and aromatic plant, antioxidants, phenolic compounds, Artemisia absinthium

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88 Extraction, Isolation and Comparative Phtochemical Study of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis and Fenugreek

Authors: Nitin Rajan, Kashif Shakeel, Shashank Tiwari, Shachan Sagar

Abstract:

Background: - Aegle Marmelos (Bael) leaf extract is taken twice daily to treat ophthalmia, ulcers, and intestinal worms, among other ailments. Poultice made from bael leaf is used in the treatment of eye conditions. The leaf juice has a variety of therapeutic applications, with the most notable being the treatment of diabetes. Fenugreek is used to cure red spots around the eyes, as well as to soften the throat and chest and to give relief from coughing. The use of this plant in the form of infusion, powder, pomade, and decoction has been extremely popular in Iranian traditional medicine. The plant may be used to wash one's vaginal linings. This plant is used as an emollient in the lack of appetite, treatment of pellagra, and gastrointestinal problems, as well as a general tonic. Calendula officinalis leaves are used to treat varicose veins on the outside of the body by infusing them. In Europe, the leaves are diaphoretic and resolvent in nature, while the blooms are employed as an emmenagogue and antispasmodic stimulant in Canada and the United States. The flowers were decocted and served as a posset drink when smallpox and measles were common in England, and the fresh juice was used to treat jaundice. Objective: - This study is done to compare the physicochemical parameter of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek. Materials and Methods: Extraction and Isolation of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, were done. Preliminary phytochemical study for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids of the extract was done individual by using the standard procedure. Result: - The phytochemical screening of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins gum. Conclusion: - In this study, we have found that crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts of Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, and Fenugreek leaves contain some important bioactive compounds and it justifies their use in the traditional medicines for the treatment of different diseases.

Keywords: Aegle Marmelos, Calendula Officinalis, Fenugreek, physiochemical parameter

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87 Phytochemical Screening of Roots of Peltophorum pterocarpum

Authors: Vidyadhar Suram, D. Chamundeeswari, Umamaheswara Rao, Krishna Mohan Chinnala

Abstract:

Peltophorum pterocarpum known as copper pod belongs to the family Fabaceae, native to tropical south-eastern asia and a popularly ornamental tree grown around the world. In traditional medicine it is used as an astringent to cure or relieve intestinal disorders after pain at childbirth, sprains, bruises and swelling or as a lotion for eye troubles, muscular pains and sores. It is also used for gargles and tooth powders. Medcinally; it has proven to possess various pharmacological activities. The powdered root part of Peltophorum pterocarpum (250gr) were extracted exhaustively using different solvents and phytochemical investigations has shown the presence of various secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, proteins, glycosides, steriods, and volatile.

Keywords: antibacterialactivity, fabaceae, peltophorum pterocarpum, isocoumari, alkaloids

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86 Phytochimical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Solenostemma Argel (Asclepiadaceae)

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Akila Hamichi, Siham Semmar

Abstract:

The crude ethanolic extract from Solenostemma argel was obtained by maceration of leaves and stems of the plant. Phytochimical study revealed the richness of the species on flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides. Antimicrobial activity of the growth of clinical isolates of Eschirichia coli, Pseudomonas aeriginosa, Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus Subtilis was carried out using agar disc diffusion. The results of the study revealed that the test compound has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria which are resistant to commonly antimicrobial agents used. However, no effect was observed on other species tested.

Keywords: Solenostemma argel, crude extract, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 279