Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21896

Search results for: texture analysis

21896 Review on Effective Texture Classification Techniques

Authors: Sujata S. Kulkarni


Effective and efficient texture feature extraction and classification is an important problem in image understanding and recognition. This paper gives a review on effective texture classification method. The objective of the problem of texture representation is to reduce the amount of raw data presented by the image, while preserving the information needed for the task. Texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification include industrial and biomedical surface inspection, for example for defects and disease, ground classification of satellite or aerial imagery and content-based access to image databases.

Keywords: compressed sensing, feature extraction, image classification, texture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
21895 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh


Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: additive technology, texture, twins, Ti-6Al-4V, oxygen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
21894 Evaluation of Robust Feature Descriptors for Texture Classification

Authors: Jia-Hong Lee, Mei-Yi Wu, Hsien-Tsung Kuo


Texture is an important characteristic in real and synthetic scenes. Texture analysis plays a critical role in inspecting surfaces and provides important techniques in a variety of applications. Although several descriptors have been presented to extract texture features, the development of object recognition is still a difficult task due to the complex aspects of texture. Recently, many robust and scaling-invariant image features such as SIFT, SURF and ORB have been successfully used in image retrieval and object recognition. In this paper, we have tried to compare the performance for texture classification using these feature descriptors with k-means clustering. Different classifiers including K-NN, Naive Bayes, Back Propagation Neural Network , Decision Tree and Kstar were applied in three texture image sets - UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and Brodatz, respectively. Experimental results reveal SIFTS as the best average accuracy rate holder in UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and SURF is advantaged in Brodatz texture set. BP neuro network works best in the test set classification among all used classifiers.

Keywords: texture classification, texture descriptor, SIFT, SURF, ORB

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
21893 Automatic Moment-Based Texture Segmentation

Authors: Tudor Barbu


An automatic moment-based texture segmentation approach is proposed in this paper. First, we describe the related work in this computer vision domain. Our texture feature extraction, the first part of the texture recognition process, produces a set of moment-based feature vectors. For each image pixel, a texture feature vector is computed as a sequence of area moments. Second, an automatic pixel classification approach is proposed. The feature vectors are clustered using some unsupervised classification algorithm, the optimal number of clusters being determined using a measure based on validation indexes. From the resulted pixel classes one determines easily the desired texture regions of the image.

Keywords: image segmentation, moment-based, texture analysis, automatic classification, validation indexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
21892 Trabecular Texture Analysis Using Fractal Metrics for Bone Fragility Assessment

Authors: Khaled Harrar, Rachid Jennane


The purpose of this study is the discrimination of 28 postmenopausal with osteoporotic femoral fractures from an age-matched control group of 28 women using texture analysis based on fractals. Two pre-processing approaches are applied on radiographic images; these techniques are compared to highlight the choice of the pre-processing method. Furthermore, the values of the fractal dimension are compared to those of the fractal signature in terms of the classification of the two populations. In a second analysis, the BMD measure at proximal femur was compared to the fractal analysis, the latter, which is a non-invasive technique, allowed a better discrimination; the results confirm that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs is able to discriminate osteoporotic patients with femoral fracture from controls. This discrimination was efficient compared to that obtained by BMD alone. It was also present in comparing subgroups with overlapping values of BMD.

Keywords: osteoporosis, fractal dimension, fractal signature, bone mineral density

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
21891 Validating Texture Analysis as a Tool for Determining Bioplastic (Bio)Degradation

Authors: Sally J. Price, Greg F. Walker, Weiyi Liu, Craig R. Bunt


Plastics, due to their long lifespan, are becoming more of an environmental concern once their useful life has been completed. There are a vast array of different types of plastic and they can be found in almost every ecosystem on earth and are of particular concern in terrestrial environments where they can become incorporated into the food chain. Hence bioplastics have become more of interest to manufacturers and the public recently as they have the ability to (bio)degrade in commercial and in-home composting situations. However, tools in which to quantify how they degrade in response to environmental variables are still being developed – one such approach, texture analysis, using a TA.XT Texture Analyser, Stable Microsystems, was used to determine the force required to break or punch holes in standard ASTM D638 Type IV 3D printed bioplastic “dogbones” depending on their thickness of them. Manufacturers’ recommendations for calibrating the Texture Analyser are one such approach for standardizing results; however, an independent technique using dummy dogbones and a substitute for the bioplastic was used alongside the samples. This approach was unexpectedly more valuable than realized at the start of the trial as irregular results were later discovered with the substitute material before valuable samples collected from the field were lost due to possible machine malfunction. This work will show the value of having an independent approach to machine calibration for accurate sample analysis with a Texture Analyser when analyzing bioplastic samples.

Keywords: bioplastic, degradation, environment, texture analyzer

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
21890 Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis

Authors: Seyhan Karaçavuş, Bülent Yılmaz, Ömer Kayaaltı, Semra İçer, Arzu Taşdemir, Oğuzhan Ayyıldız, Kübra Eset, Eser Kaya


In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.

Keywords: cancer stage, cancer cell type, non-small cell lung carcinoma, PET, texture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
21889 Texture Analysis of Grayscale Co-Occurrence Matrix on Mammographic Indexed Image

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha


The mammographic image of breast cancer compressed and synthesized to get co-efficient values which will be converted (5x5) matrix to get ROI image where we get the highest value of effected region and with the same ideology the technique has been extended to differentiate between Calcification and normal cell image using mean value derived from 5x5 matrix values

Keywords: texture analysis, mammographic image, partitioned gray scale co-oocurance matrix, co-efficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
21888 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V.K.Jain


Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Masses and microcalcifications, architectural distortions are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support Vector Machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and accuracy of 96% for the detection of abnormalities with mammogram images collected from Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) database.

Keywords: architecture distortion, mammograms, GLCM texture features, GLRLM texture features, support vector machine classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
21887 Best-Performing Color Space for Land-Sea Segmentation Using Wavelet Transform Color-Texture Features and Fusion of over Segmentation

Authors: Seynabou Toure, Oumar Diop, Kidiyo Kpalma, Amadou S. Maiga


Color and texture are the two most determinant elements for perception and recognition of the objects in an image. For this reason, color and texture analysis find a large field of application, for example in image classification and segmentation. But, the pioneering work in texture analysis was conducted on grayscale images, thus discarding color information. Many grey-level texture descriptors have been proposed and successfully used in numerous domains for image classification: face recognition, industrial inspections, food science medical imaging among others. Taking into account color in the definition of these descriptors makes it possible to better characterize images. Color texture is thus the subject of recent work, and the analysis of color texture images is increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community. In optical remote sensing systems, sensors measure separately different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum; the visible ones and even those that are invisible to the human eye. The amounts of light reflected by the earth in spectral bands are then transformed into grayscale images. The primary natural colors Red (R) Green (G) and Blue (B) are then used in mixtures of different spectral bands in order to produce RGB images. Thus, good color texture discrimination can be achieved using RGB under controlled illumination conditions. Some previous works investigate the effect of using different color space for color texture classification. However, the selection of the best performing color space in land-sea segmentation is an open question. Its resolution may bring considerable improvements in certain applications like coastline detection, where the detection result is strongly dependent on the performance of the land-sea segmentation. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study conducted on different color spaces in order to show the best-performing color space for land-sea segmentation. In this sense, an experimental analysis is carried out using five different color spaces (RGB, XYZ, Lab, HSV, YCbCr). For each color space, the Haar wavelet decomposition is used to extract different color texture features. These color texture features are then used for Fusion of Over Segmentation (FOOS) based classification; this allows segmentation of the land part from the sea one. By analyzing the different results of this study, the HSV color space is found as the best classification performance while using color and texture features; which is perfectly coherent with the results presented in the literature.

Keywords: classification, coastline, color, sea-land segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
21886 Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh


Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing intervals that reflect different stages of the pavement life. The test could still be considered lengthy and to some extent labor-intensive. Therefore, there is a need to come up with another method that can assist in investigating the bituminous pavement surface characteristics in a practical and time-efficient test procedure. The purpose of this paper is to utilize a well-developed image analysis technique to characterize asphalt pavement surfaces without the need to use conventional friction and texture measuring devices in an attempt to shorten and simplify the polishing procedure in the lab. Promising findings showed the possibility of using image analysis in lieu of the labor-sensitive-variable-in-nature friction and texture measurements. It was found that the exposed aggregate surface area of asphalt specimens made from limestone and gravel aggregates produced solid evidence of the validity of this method in describing asphalt pavement surfaces. Image analysis results correlated well with the British Pendulum Numbers (BPN), Polish Values (PV) and Mean Texture Depth (MTD) values.

Keywords: friction, image analysis, polishing, statistical analysis, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
21885 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui


In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
21884 Effect of Depth on Texture Features of Ultrasound Images

Authors: M. A. Alqahtani, D. P. Coleman, N. D. Pugh, L. D. M. Nokes


In diagnostic ultrasound, the echo graphic B-scan texture is an important area of investigation since it can be analyzed to characterize the histological state of internal tissues. An important factor requiring consideration when evaluating ultrasonic tissue texture is the depth. The effect of attenuation with depth of ultrasound, the size of the region of interest, gain, and dynamic range are important variables to consider as they can influence the analysis of texture features. These sources of variability have to be considered carefully when evaluating image texture as different settings might influence the resultant image. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of depth on the texture features in-vivo using a 3D ultrasound probe. The left leg medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 healthy subjects were scanned. Two regions A and B were defined at different depth within the gastrocnemius muscle boundary. The size of both ROI’s was 280*20 pixels and the distance between region A and B was kept constant at 5 mm. Texture parameters include gray level, variance, skewness, kurtosis, co-occurrence matrix; run length matrix, gradient, autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet transform were extracted from the images. The paired t –test was used to test the depth effect for the normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon–Mann-Whitney test was used for the non-normally distributed data. The gray level, variance, and run length matrix were significantly lowered when the depth increased. The other texture parameters showed similar values at different depth. All the texture parameters showed no significant difference between depths A and B (p > 0.05) except for gray level, variance and run length matrix (p < 0.05). This indicates that gray level, variance, and run length matrix are depth dependent.

Keywords: ultrasound image, texture parameters, computational biology, biomedical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
21883 Effect of Different Contact Rollers on the Surface Texture during the Belt Grinding Process

Authors: Amine Hamdi, Sidi Mohammed Merghache, Brahim Fernini


During abrasive machining of hard steels by belt grinding, the finished surface texture is influenced by the pressure between the abrasive belt and the workpiece; this pressure is the force applied by the contact roller on the workpiece. Therefore, the contact roller has an important role and has a direct impact on process efficiency. The objective of this article is to study and compare the influence of different contact rollers on the belt ground surface texture. The quality of the surface texture is characterized by eight roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv, Rsk, Rku, Rsm, and Rdq) and five parameters of the bearing area curve (Rpk, Rk, Rvk, Mr1, and Mr2). The results of the experimental tests indicate a better surface texture obtained by the PA 6 polyamide roller (hardness 60 Shore D) compared to that obtained with other rollers of the same hardness or of different hardness. Simultaneously, optimum medium pressure between the belt and the workpiece allows chip removal without fracturing the abrasive grains. This generates a good surface texture.

Keywords: belt grinding, contact roller, pressure, abrasive belt, surface texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
21882 Effects of Boiling Temperature and Time on Colour, Texture and Sensory Properties of Volutharpa ampullacea perryi Meat

Authors: Xianbao Sun, Jinlong Zhao, Shudong He, Jing Li


Volutharpa ampullacea perryi is a high-protein marine shellfish. However, few data are available on the effects of boiling temperatures and time on quality of the meat. In this study, colour, texture and sensory characteristics of Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat during the boiling cooking processes (75-100 °C, 5-60 min) were investigated by colors analysis, texture profile analysis (TPA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and sensory evaluation. The ratio of cooking loss gradually increased with the increase of temperature and time. The colour of meat became lighter and more yellower from 85 °C to 95 °C in a short time (5-20 min), but it became brown after a 30 min treatment. TPA results showed that the Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat were more firm and less cohesive after a higher temperature (95-100 °C) treatment even in a short period (5-15 min). Based on the SEM analysis, it was easily found that the myofibrils structure was destroyed at a higher temperature (85-100 °C). Sensory data revealed that the meat cooked at 85-90 °C in 10-20 min showed higher scores in overall acceptance, as well as color, hardness and taste. Based on these results, it could be constructed that Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat should be heated on a suitable condition (such as 85 °C 15 min or 90 °C 10 min) in the boiling cooking to be ensure a better acceptability.

Keywords: Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat, boiling cooking, colour, sensory, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
21881 Fusion of Shape and Texture for Unconstrained Periocular Authentication

Authors: D. R. Ambika, K. R. Radhika, D. Seshachalam


Unconstrained authentication is an important component for personal automated systems and human-computer interfaces. Existing solutions mostly use face as the primary object of analysis. The performance of face-based systems is largely determined by the extent of deformation caused in the facial region and amount of useful information available in occluded face images. Periocular region is a useful portion of face with discriminative ability coupled with resistance to deformation. A reliable portion of periocular area is available for occluded images. The present work demonstrates that joint representation of periocular texture and periocular structure provides an effective expression and poses invariant representation. The proposed methodology provides an effective and compact description of periocular texture and shape. The method is tested over four benchmark datasets exhibiting varied acquisition conditions.

Keywords: periocular authentication, Zernike moments, LBP variance, shape and texture fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
21880 Texture Identification Using Vision System: A Method to Predict Functionality of a Component

Authors: Varsha Singh, Shraddha Prajapati, M. B. Kiran


Texture identification is useful in predicting the functionality of a component. Many of the existing texture identification methods are of contact in nature, which limits its measuring speed. These contact measurement techniques use a diamond stylus and the diamond stylus being sharp going to damage the surface under inspection and hence these techniques can be used in statistical sampling. Though these contact methods are very accurate, they do not give complete information for full characterization of surface. In this context, the presented method assumes special significance. The method uses a relatively low cost vision system for image acquisition. Software is developed based on wavelet transform, for analyzing texture images. Specimens are made using different manufacturing process (shaping, grinding, milling etc.) During experimentation, the specimens are illuminated using proper lighting and texture images a capture using CCD camera connected to the vision system. The software installed in the vision system processes these images and subsequently identify the texture of manufacturing processes.

Keywords: diamond stylus, manufacturing process, texture identification, vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
21879 A Biologically Inspired Approach to Automatic Classification of Textile Fabric Prints Based On Both Texture and Colour Information

Authors: Babar Khan, Wang Zhijie


Machine Vision has been playing a significant role in Industrial Automation, to imitate the wide variety of human functions, providing improved safety, reduced labour cost, the elimination of human error and/or subjective judgments, and the creation of timely statistical product data. Despite the intensive research, there have not been any attempts to classify fabric prints based on printed texture and colour, most of the researches so far encompasses only black and white or grey scale images. We proposed a biologically inspired processing architecture to classify fabrics w.r.t. the fabric print texture and colour. We created a texture descriptor based on the HMAX model for machine vision, and incorporated colour descriptor based on opponent colour channels simulating the single opponent and double opponent neuronal function of the brain. We found that our algorithm not only outperformed the original HMAX algorithm on classification of fabric print texture and colour, but we also achieved a recognition accuracy of 85-100% on different colour and different texture fabric.

Keywords: automatic classification, texture descriptor, colour descriptor, opponent colour channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
21878 Muscle: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind

Authors: Chantana Insra


The research objective focuses on creating a prototype media of the tactile texture of muscles for educational institutes to help visually impaired students learn massage extra learning materials further than the ordinary curriculum. This media is designed as an extra learning material. The population in this study was 30 blinded students between 4th - 6th grades who were able to read Braille language. The research was conducted during the second semester in 2012 at The Bangkok School for the Blind. The method in choosing the population in the study was purposive sampling. The methodology of the research includes collecting data related to visually impaired people, the production of the tactile texture media, human anatomy and Thai traditional massage from literature reviews and field studies. This information was used for analyzing and designing 14 tactile texture pictures presented to experts to evaluate and test the media.

Keywords: blind, tactile texture, muscle, visual arts and design

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
21877 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari


Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycles present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.

Keywords: current density, duty cycle, microstructure, nickel, pulse frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
21876 Effect of Heat Treatment on Columnar Grain Growth and Goss Texture on Surface in Grain-Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Jungkyun Na, Jaesang Lee, Yang Mo Koo


In this study to find a replacement for expensive secondary recrystallization in GO electrical steel production, effect of heat treatment on the formation of columnar grain and Goss texture is investigated. The composition of the sample is Fe-2.0Si-0.2C. This process involves repeating of cold rolling and decarburization as a replacement for secondary recrystallization. By cold-rolling shear band is made and Goss grain grows from shear band by decarburization. By doing another cold rolling, some Goss texture is newly formed from the shear band, and some Goss texture is retained in microbands. To determine whether additional heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is needed on decarburization process for growth of Goss texture, comparing between decarburization and heat treatment with H2 atmosphere is performed. Also, to find optimum condition for heat treatment, heat treatment with various time and temperature is performed. It was found that increase in the number of cold rolling and heat treatment increases Goss texture. Both high Goss texture and good columnar structure is achieved at 900℃, and this temperature is within a+r phase region. Heat treatment at a temperature higher than a+r phase region caused carbon diffusion and this made layer with Goss grain decrease.

Keywords: electrical steel, Goss texture, columnar structure, normal grain growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
21875 Computer Aide Discrimination of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules by Ultrasound Imaging

Authors: Akbar Gharbali, Ali Abbasian Ardekani, Afshin Mohammadi


Introduction: Thyroid nodules have an incidence of 33-68% in the general population. More than 5-15% of these nodules are malignant. Early detection and treatment of thyroid nodules increase the cure rate and provide optimal treatment. Between the medical imaging methods, Ultrasound is the chosen imaging technique for assessment of thyroid nodules. The confirming of the diagnosis usually demands repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). So, current management has morbidity and non-zero mortality. Objective: To explore diagnostic potential of automatic texture analysis (TA) methods in differentiation benign and malignant thyroid nodules by ultrasound imaging in order to help for reliable diagnosis and monitoring of the thyroid nodules in their early stages with no need biopsy. Material and Methods: The thyroid US image database consists of 70 patients (26 benign and 44 malignant) which were reported by Radiologist and proven by the biopsy. Two slices per patient were loaded in Mazda Software version 4.6 for automatic texture analysis. Regions of interests (ROIs) were defined within the abnormal part of the thyroid nodules ultrasound images. Gray levels within an ROI normalized according to three normalization schemes: N1: default or original gray levels, N2: +/- 3 Sigma or dynamic intensity limited to µ+/- 3σ, and N3: present intensity limited to 1% - 99%. Up to 270 multiscale texture features parameters per ROIs per each normalization schemes were computed from well-known statistical methods employed in Mazda software. From the statistical point of view, all calculated texture features parameters are not useful for texture analysis. So, the features based on maximum Fisher coefficient and the minimum probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC) eliminated to 10 best and most effective features per normalization schemes. We analyze this feature under two standardization states (standard (S) and non-standard (NS)) with Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA). The 1NN classifier was performed to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. The confusion matrix and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for the formulation of more reliable criteria of the performance of employed texture analysis methods. Results: The results demonstrated the influence of the normalization schemes and reduction methods on the effectiveness of the obtained features as a descriptor on discrimination power and classification results. The selected subset features under 1%-99% normalization, POE+ACC reduction and NDA texture analysis yielded a high discrimination performance with the area under the ROC curve (Az) of 0.9722, in distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Conclusions: Our results indicate computer-aided diagnosis is a reliable method, and can provide useful information to help radiologists in the detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

Keywords: ultrasound imaging, thyroid nodules, computer aided diagnosis, texture analysis, PCA, LDA, NDA

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
21874 Effect of Texture of Orthorhombic Martensite on Thermal Expansion of Metastable Titanium Alloy

Authors: E. Stepanova, N. Popov, S. Demakov, S. Stepanov


This paper examines the so-called invar-type behavior of metastable titanium alloy subjected to cold rolling. The effect was shown to occur due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion of titanium orthorhombic martensite. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis and dilatometry analyses, the influence of crystallographic texture of orthorhombic martensite on the coefficient of thermal expansion of sheets of metastable titanium alloy VT23 was examined. Anisotropy of the coefficient of thermal expansion has been revealed. It was lower in the rolling plane and higher along the transverse direction of the cold-rolled sheet comparing to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the unprocessed alloy.

Keywords: invar-type, cold rolling, metastable titanium alloy, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
21873 Food Foam Characterization: Rheology, Texture and Microstructure Studies

Authors: Rutuja Upadhyay, Anurag Mehra


Solid food foams/cellular foods are colloidal systems which impart structure, texture and mouthfeel to many food products such as bread, cakes, ice-cream, meringues, etc. Their heterogeneous morphology makes the quantification of structure/mechanical relationships complex. The porous structure of solid food foams is highly influenced by the processing conditions, ingredient composition, and their interactions. Sensory perceptions of food foams are dependent on bubble size, shape, orientation, quantity and distribution and determines the texture of foamed foods. The state and structure of the solid matrix control the deformation behavior of the food, such as elasticity/plasticity or fracture, which in turn has an effect on the force-deformation curves. The obvious step in obtaining the relationship between the mechanical properties and the porous structure is to quantify them simultaneously. Here, we attempt to research food foams such as bread dough, baked bread and steamed rice cakes to determine the link between ingredients and the corresponding effect of each of them on the rheology, microstructure, bubble size and texture of the final product. Dynamic rheometry (SAOS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, flatbed scanning, image analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA) has been used to characterize the foods studied. In all the above systems, there was a common observation that when the mean bubble diameter is smaller, the product becomes harder as evidenced by the increase in storage and loss modulus (G′, G″), whereas when the mean bubble diameter is large the product is softer with decrease in moduli values (G′, G″). Also, the bubble size distribution affects texture of foods. It was found that bread doughs with hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, alginate) aid a more uniform bubble size distribution. Bread baking experiments were done to study the rheological changes and mechanisms involved in the structural transition of dough to crumb. Steamed rice cakes with xanthan gum (XG) addition at 0.1% concentration resulted in lower hardness with a narrower pore size distribution and larger mean pore diameter. Thus, control of bubble size could be an important parameter defining final food texture.

Keywords: food foams, rheology, microstructure, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
21872 Correlation between Electromyographic and Textural Parameters for Different Textured Indian Foods Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: S. Rustagi, N. S. Sodhi, B. Dhillon, T. Kaur


The objective of this study was to check whether there is any relationship between electromyographic (EMG) and textural parameters during food texture evaluation. In this study, a total of eighteen mastication variables were measured for entire mastication, per chew mastication and three different stages of mastication (viz. early, middle and late) by EMG for five different foods using eight human subjects. Cluster analysis was used to reduce the number of mastication variables from 18 to 5, so that principal component analysis (PCA) could be applied on them. The PCA further resulted in two meaningful principal components. The principal component scores for each food were measured and correlated with five textural parameters (viz. hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness). Correlation coefficients were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.10) for cohesiveness and adhesiveness while if we reduce the significance level (p < 0.20) then chewiness also showed correlation with mastication parameters.

Keywords: electromyography, mastication, sensory, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
21871 Clustering Color Space, Time Interest Points for Moving Objects

Authors: Insaf Bellamine, Hamid Tairi


Detecting moving objects in sequences is an essential step for video analysis. This paper mainly contributes to the Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) extraction and detection. We propose a new method for detection of moving objects. Two main steps compose the proposed method. First, we suggest to apply the algorithm of the detection of Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP) on both components of the Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition which is based on a Partial Differential Equation (PDE): a color geometric structure component and a color texture component. A descriptor is associated to each of these points. In a second stage, we address the problem of grouping the points (CSTIP) into clusters. Experiments and comparison to other motion detection methods on challenging sequences show the performance of the proposed method and its utility for video analysis. Experimental results are obtained from very different types of videos, namely sport videos and animation movies.

Keywords: Color Space-Time Interest Points (CSTIP), Color Structure-Texture Image Decomposition, Motion Detection, clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
21870 Detecting HCC Tumor in Three Phasic CT Liver Images with Optimization of Neural Network

Authors: Mahdieh Khalilinezhad, Silvana Dellepiane, Gianni Vernazza


The aim of the present work is to build a model based on tissue characterization that is able to discriminate pathological and non-pathological regions from three-phasic CT images. Based on feature selection in different phases, in this research, we design a neural network system that has optimal neuron number in a hidden layer. Our approach consists of three steps: feature selection, feature reduction, and classification. For each ROI, 6 distinct set of texture features are extracted such as first order histogram parameters, absolute gradient, run-length matrix, co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and wavelet, for a total of 270 texture features. We show that with the injection of liquid and the analysis of more phases the high relevant features in each region changed. Our results show that for detecting HCC tumor phase3 is the best one in most of the features that we apply to the classification algorithm. The percentage of detection between these two classes according to our method, relates to first order histogram parameters with the accuracy of 85% in phase 1, 95% phase 2, and 95% in phase 3.

Keywords: multi-phasic liver images, texture analysis, neural network, hidden layer

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21869 Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cryo Rolled and Annealed Ductile TaNbHfZrTi Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Mokali Veeresham


The microstructure and texture evolution of cryo rolled and annealed ductile TaHfNbZrTi refractory high entropy alloy was investigated. To obtain that, the alloy is severely cryo rolled and subsequently annealed for the recrystallization process. The cryo rolled – 90% shows the presence of very fine grains and microstructural heterogeneity. The cryo rolled samples are annealed at a temperature ranging from 800°C to 1400°C, the partial recrystallization is observed at 800°C annealed condition, and at higher annealing temperatures the complete recrystallization process is noticed. The development of ND fiber texture is observed after the annealing.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloy, cryo-rolling, annealing, microstructure, texture

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21868 Local Texture and Global Color Descriptors for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: Tajinder Kaur, Anu Bala


An image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching, and retrieving images from a large database of digital images a new algorithm meant for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is presented in this paper. The proposed method combines the color and texture features which are extracted the global and local information of the image. The local texture feature is extracted by using local binary patterns (LBP), which are evaluated by taking into consideration of local difference between the center pixel and its neighbors. For the global color feature, the color histogram (CH) is used which is calculated by RGB (red, green, and blue) spaces separately. In this paper, the combination of color and texture features are proposed for content-based image retrieval. The performance of the proposed method is tested on Corel 1000 database which is the natural database. The results after being investigated show a significant improvement in terms of their evaluation measures as compared to LBP and CH.

Keywords: color, texture, feature extraction, local binary patterns, image retrieval

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21867 Effective Texture Features for Segmented Mammogram Images Based on Multi-Region of Interest Segmentation Method

Authors: Ramayanam Suresh, A. Nagaraja Rao, B. Eswara Reddy


Texture features of mammogram images are useful for finding masses or cancer cases in mammography, which have been used by radiologists. Textures are greatly succeeded for segmented images rather than normal images. It is necessary to perform segmentation for exclusive specification of cancer and non-cancer regions separately. Region of interest (ROI) is most commonly used technique for mammogram segmentation. Limitation of this method is that it is unable to explore segmentation for large collection of mammogram images. Therefore, this paper is proposed multi-ROI segmentation for addressing the above limitation. It supports greatly in finding the best texture features of mammogram images. Experimental study demonstrates the effectiveness of proposed work using benchmarked images.

Keywords: texture features, region of interest, multi-ROI segmentation, benchmarked images

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