Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 161

Search results for: flavonoid

161 Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of White and Brown Sesame Seed Oils

Authors: Fatima Bello, Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

Medicinal plants are the most important sources of life saving drugs for the majority of world’s population. People of all continents have used hundreds to thousands of indigenous plants in curing and management of many diseases. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most widely cultivated species for its nutritious and medicinal seeds and oil. This research was carried out to determine the flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of two varieties of sesame seeds oil. Oil extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The percentage oil yield for white and brown seeds were 47.85% and 20.72%, respectively. Flavonoid was present in both seeds with concentration of 480 mg/g and 360 mg/g in white and brown sesame seeds, respectively. The antioxidant potential was determined at different oil volume; 1.00, 0.75, 0.50 and 0.25ml. The results for the white and brown sesame seed oils were 96.8 and 70.7, 91.0 and 65.2, 83.1 and 55.4, 77.9 and 50.2, respectively. The white seed oil has higher oil yield than the brown seed oil. Likewise, the white seed oil has more flavonoid content than the brown seed oil and also better reducing power than the brown seed oil.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, brown sesame seeds, flavonoid content, sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum L., white sesame seeds

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160 In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Two Selected Herbal Medicines

Authors: S. Vinotha, I. Thabrew, S. Sri Ranjani

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Hot aqueous and methanol extracts of the two selected herbal medicines such are Vellarugu Chooranam (V.C) and Amukkirai Chooranam (A.C) were examined for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant activity using four different methods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanol extract of V.C were found to be higher (44.41±1.26 mg GAE⁄g; 174.44±9.32 mg QE⁄g) than in the methanol extract of A.C (20.56±0.67 mg GAE⁄g;7.21±0.85 mg QE⁄g). Hot methanol and aqueous extracts of both medicines showed low antioxidant activity in DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods and Iron chelating activity not found at highest possible concentration. V.C contains higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid contents than A.C and can also exert greater antioxidant activity than A.C, although the activities demonstrated were lower than the positive control Trolox. The in-vitro antioxidant activity was not related with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the methanol and aqueous extracts of both herbal medicines (A.C and V.C).

Keywords: activity, different extracts, herbal medicines, in-vitro antioxidant

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159 Impact on the Yield of Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Content from Pomegranate Fruit by Different Extraction Methods

Authors: Udeshika Yapa Bandara, Chamindri Witharana, Preethi Soysa

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Pomegranate fruits are used in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, Sri Lanka. Due to prevailing therapeutic effects of phytochemicals, this study was focus on anti-cancer properties of the constituents in the parts of Pomegranate fruit. Furthermore, the method of extraction, plays a crucial step of the phytochemical analysis. Therefore, this study was focus on different extraction methods. Five techniques were involved for the peel and the pericarp to evaluate the most effective extraction method; Boiling with electric burner (BL), Sonication (SN), Microwaving (MC), Heating in a 50°C water bath (WB) and Sonication followed by Microwaving (SN-MC). The presence of polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated to recognize the best extraction method for polyphenols. The total phenolic content was measured spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalents (w/w% GAE). Total flavonoid content was also determined spectrophotometrically with Aluminium chloride colourimetric assay and expressed as Quercetin Equivalents (w/w % QE). Pomegranate juice was taken as fermented juice (with Saccharomyces bayanus) and fresh juice. Powdered seeds were refluxed, filtered and freeze-dried. 2g of freeze-dried powder of each component was dissolved in 100ml of De-ionized water for extraction. For the comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol content, the polyphenols were removed by the Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVVP) column and fermented and fresh juice were tested for the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, before and after the removal of polyphenols. For the peel samples of Pomegranate fruit, total phenol and flavonoid contents were high in Sonication (SN). In pericarp, total phenol and flavonoid contents were highly exhibited in method of Sonication (SN). A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid contents, between five extraction methods for both peel and pericarp samples. Fermented juice had a greatest polyphenolic and flavonoid contents comparative to fresh juice. After removing polyphenols of fermented juice and fresh juice using Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVVP) column, low antioxidant activity was resulted for DPPH antioxidant activity assay. Seeds had a very low total phenol and flavonoid contents according to the results. Although, Pomegranate peel is the main waste component of the fruit, it has an excellent polyphenolic and flavonoid contents compared to other parts of the fruit, devoid of the method of extraction. Polyphenols play a major role for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, flavonoids, polyphenols, pomegranate

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158 Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect

Authors: Abhijit Das, Runu Chakraborty

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Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, decaffeination, green tea, flavonoid content, phenolic content, plant extract

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157 Effect of Two Cooking Methods on Kinetics of Polyphenol Content, Flavonoid Content and Color of a Tunisian Meal: Molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius)

Authors: S. Njoumi, L. Ben Haj Said, M. J. Amiot, S. Bellagha

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to establish the kinetics of variation of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in Tunisian Corchorus olitorius powder and in a traditional home cooked-meal (Molokheiya) when using stewing and stir-frying as cooking methods, but also to compare the effect of these two common cooking practices on water content, TPC, TFC and color. The L*, a* and b* coordinates values of the Molokheiya varied from 24.955±0.039 to 21.301±0.036, from -1.556±0.048 to 0.23±0.026 and from 5.675±0.052 to 6.313±0.103 when using stewing and from 21.328±0.025 to 20.56±0.021, from -1.093± 0.011to 0.121±0.007 and from 5.708±0.020 to 6.263±0.007 when using stir-frying, respectively. TPC and TFC increased during cooking. TPC of Molokheiya varied from 29.852±0.866 mg GAE/100 g to 220.416±0.519 mg GAE/100 g after 150 min of stewing and from 25.257±0.259 mg GAE/100 g to 208.897 ±0.173 mg GAE/100 g using stir-frying method during 150 min. TFC of Molokheiya varied from 48.229±1.47 mg QE/100 g to 843.802±1.841 mg QE/100 g when using stewing and from 37.031± 0.368 mg QE/100 g to 775.312±0.736 mg QE/100 g when using stir-frying. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final TPC and TFC. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests zero-order kinetics. The mathematical relations and the numerical approach used to model the kinetics of polyphenol and flavonoid contents in Molokheiya are described.

Keywords: Corchorus olitorius, Molokheiya, phenolic compounds, kinetic

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156 Cytotoxicity of Flavonoid Compounds from Smilax corbularia Kunth Against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Pakakrong Thongdeeying, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

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The rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth have long been used as common ingredients in anticancer preparations. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate cytotoxicity of S. corbularia and its ingredients against cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-M156) by SRB assay. Ethanolic and water extracts of S. corbularia rhizomes were obtained using the procedures followed by Thai traditional doctors. Bioassay guided isolation was used to isolate cytotoxic compounds. The results revealed that the ethanolic extract of S. corbularia exhibited activity against KKU-M156 cell line with an IC50 value of 84.53±1.62 µg/ml, but the water extract showed no cytotoxic activity. Three flavonoid compounds [astilbin (1), engeletin (2), and quercetin (3)] were isolated from the ethanolic extract. Compound 3 exhibited the strongest activity against KKU-M156 cell line (IC50 = 8.14 ± 1.15 µg/ml), but 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 100 µg/ml). In conclusion, quercetin showed the highest efficacy against cholangiocarcinoma. These results support the traditional use of this plant by Thai traditional doctors for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, cytotoxicity, flavonoid, Smilax corbularia

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155 Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biological Evaluation of Acetylated Flavonoid Glycosides from Centaurium spicatum

Authors: Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Mansour S. Alsaid

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Four Acetylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch (Gentianaceae). Structure elucidation, especially the localization of the acetyl groups, and complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of these biologically active compounds were carried out using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods, including CNMR, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90 and gradient-assisted experiments such as DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments. The antioxidant activities of the new acetylated flavonoid glycosides using DPPH• assay were determined. The compounds tested showed a good DPPH• activity compared with control, but their activity was lower than that of their corresponding aglycone, quercetin.

Keywords: Centaurium spicatum, flavonoids, biological activity, isolation, glycosides

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154 Effect of Fermentation on the Bioavailability of Some Fruit Extracts

Authors: Kubra Ozkan, Osman Sagdic

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To better understand the benefits of these fresh and fermented fruits on human health, the consequences of human metabolism and the bioavailability must be known. In this study, brine with 10% salt content, sugar, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) was added to fruits (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch) in different formulations. Samples were stored at 20±2˚C for their fermentation for 21 days. The effects of in vitro digestion were determined on the bioactive compounds in fresh and fermented fruits ((Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of post gastric (PG), IN (with small intestinal absorbers) and OUT (without small intestine absorbers) samples obtained as gastric and intestinal digestion in vitro were measured. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant capacity was tested by the CUPRAC methods, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total flavonoid content (TFC) determined by Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) method. While the antioxidant capacity of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 2.21±0.05 mg TEAC/g, 4.39±0.02mg TEAC/g; these values for fermented fruits were found 2.37±0.08mg TEAC/g, 5.38±0.07mg TEAC/g respectively. While the total phenolic contents of fresh fruits namely, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.51±0.01mg GAE/g, 5.56±0.01mg GAE/g; these values for fermented fruits were found as 0.52±0.01mg GAE/g, 6.81±0.03mg GAE/g, respectively. While the total flavonoid amounts of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.19±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.68±0.02mg CAE/g, these values for fermented fruits were found 0.20±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.93±0.02mg CAE/g, respectively. This study showed that phenolic, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of the samples were increased during the fermantation process. As a result of digestion, the amounts of bioactive components decreased in the stomach and intestinal environment. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 40.89% and 43.28%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 4.27% and 3.82%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 5.32% and 19.98%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 2.22% and 1.53%, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 33.06% and 33.51, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 14.50% and 15.31%, respectively. Fermentation process; Prunus amygdalus Batsch decreased bioavailability while Prunus domestica increased bioavailability. When two fruits are compared; Prunus domestica bioavailability is more than Prunus amygdalus Batsch.

Keywords: bioactivity, bioavailability, fermented, fruit, nutrition

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153 Evaluation of Achillea millefolium L. Biochemical Changes in Iran's Natural Habitat

Authors: Ghavamaldin Asadian, Aptin Rahnavard, Mariamalsadat Taghavi

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Achillea millefolium L. is one of the most important medicinal plants with antioxidant compounds. The use of compounds derived from plants reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases. The purpose of this investigation is study of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity some of ecotypes yarrow grown in natural habitats in Iran. This experimental study was conducted in 2013 at the Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch. After identifying the natural sites, we have attempted to harvest of aerial part and after drying in lab temperature, essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. In this research for evaluate the antioxidant properties was used of three method, DPPH, Antioxidant capacity ferro revival and phosphomolybdenum, that all mechanism is based on the electron donating. All ecotypes had antioxidant activity and ecotypes grown in Kandovan region were measured with the most total phenolic (89.5 mg GA/g dew) and flavonoid (20.4 µg/g dew) and the lowest in Saveh (71.3 mg GA/g dew, 17.4 µg/g dew). Variation of the antioxidant properties were significant (P≤0.01) in areas and were accounted Kandovan with highest value and the lowest in Save. As a result, yarrow essential oil grown in Kandovan in terms of amount of total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant property, it was determined the best natural habitat.

Keywords: achillea millefolium L., antioxidant compounds, DPPH, total phenolic, flavonoid natural habitats

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152 In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Derris scandens Extract

Authors: Nattawit Thiapairat

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Multiple diseases have been linked to excessive levels of free radicals, which cause tissue or cell damage as a result of oxidative stress. Many plants are sources of high antioxidant activity. Derris scandens has a high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents which demonstrated good biological activities. This study focused on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from D. scandens. This study performs total flavonoids content and various antioxidant assays, which were 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity assays. The total flavonoid content of D. scandens extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The antioxidant activity of D. scandens extract was also determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for D. scandens extract from DPPH and ABTS assays were 41.79 μg/mL ± 0.783 and 29.42 μg/mL ± 0.890, respectively, in the DPPH assay. To conclude, D. scandens extract consists of a high amount of total phenolic content, which exhibits a significant antioxidant activity. However, further investigation regarding antioxidant activity such as SOD, ROS, and RNS scavenging assays and in vivo experiments should be performed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant activity, Derris scandens, DPPH assays, total flavonoid content

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151 Fluorescence Sensing as a Tool to Estimate Palm Oil Quality and Yield

Authors: Norul Husna A. Kasim, Siva K. Balasundram

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The gap between ‘actual yield’ and ‘potential yield’ has remained a problem in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Ineffective maturity assessment and untimely harvesting have compounded this problem. Typically, the traditional method of palm oil quality and yield assessment is destructive, costly and laborious. Fluorescence-sensing offers a new means of assessing palm oil quality and yield non-destructively. This work describes the estimation of palm oil quality and yield using a multi-parametric fluorescence sensor (Multiplex®) to quantify the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanin and flavonoid, in fresh fruit bunches across three different palm ages (6, 9, and 12 years-old). Results show that fluorescence sensing is an effective means of assessing FFB maturity, in terms of palm oil quality and yield quantifications.

Keywords: anthocyanin, flavonoid fluorescence sensor, palm oil yield and quality

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150 The Effect of Different Concentrations of Trichoderma harzianum Fungus on the Phytochemical and Antioxidative Parameters of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea convar.botrytisl) in Soils Contaminated with Lead

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shakori, Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Vajihe Esmaili

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Today, the increasing contamination is an environmental concern. There is relationship between plants and microorganisms many years ago. In this regard, an experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of lead across three levels ‘zero, 50, and 100 mg/L’ and Trichoderma Harzanium fungus across three levels ‘5, 10, and 15%’ in a factorial design in the form of fully randomized blocks in three replications under form conditions in the climatic conditions of Shahroud in Dehlama Village. This research was performed in 2014-2015 on cauliflower. In this experiment, chlorophyll a, b, total, cartenoid, phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant properties of cauliflowers were measured. The results indicated that the greatest level of chlorophyll a (75.723 mg/wet weight), chlorophyll b (27.378 mg/wet weight), and total chlorophyll (109.074 mg/wet weight) was related to the interactive effects of 5% treatment of Trichoderma fungus and 0mg/L lead. The results also indicated that the greatest amount of antioxidant (79.88% of free radical) and flavonoides (22.889 mg of coercetin/g of dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 50 mg/L and the treatment of Trichoderma fungus 5%. Further, the greatest level of phenol (21.33 mg of Gaelic acid/ dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 100 mg/L and Trichoderma fungus 5% . As carotenoids are a type of antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, with the development of alignment effect with other antioxidants such as the total phenol, flavonoid, achieved desirable levels of antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant, lead, flavonoid, cauliflower, chlorophyll

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149 Antioxidant Face Mask from Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batatas) with Oleum Cytrus

Authors: Lilis Kistriyani, Dine Olisvia, Lutfa Rahmawati

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Facial mask is an important part of every beauty treatment because it will give a smooth and gentle effect on the face. This research is done to make edible film that will be applied for face mask. The main ingredient in making this edible film is purple sweet potato powder with the addition of glycerol as plasticizer. One of the ingredients in purple sweet potato is a flavonoid compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the amount of glycerol to flavonoids release and the effect on the physical properties and biological properties of edible film produced. The stages of this research are the making of edible film, then perform some analysis, among others, spectrophotometer UV-vis analysis to find out how many flavonoids can be released into facial skin, tensile strength and elongation of break analysis, biodegradability analysis, and microbiological analysis. The variation of edible film is the volume of glycerol that is 1 ml, 2 ml, 3 ml. The results of spectrophotometer UV-vis analysis showed that the most flavonoid release concentration is 20.33 ppm in the 2 ml glycerol variation. The best tensile strength value is 8,502 N, and the greatest elongation of break value is 14% in 1 ml glycerol variation. In the biodegradability test, the more volume of glycerol added the faster the edible film is degraded. The results of microbiological analysis showed that purple sweet potato extract has the ability to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes seen in the presence of inhibiting zone which is 18.9 mm.

Keywords: face mask, edible film, plasticizer, flavonoid

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148 In vitro Synergistic Antioxidant Activity of Honey-Mentha Spicata Combination

Authors: Yuva Bellik, Selles Mohamed Amar

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The beneficial health effects including antioxidant properties of mint (Mentha spicata) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively studied. However, there is no data about the effects of their associated use. In this study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents for individual extracts of mint and honey and their combination were determined. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2´- azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diamonium salt (ABTS), and chelating power methods. The results showed that individual extracts contained important quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their combination was found to produce best antioxidant activity. A significant linear correlation between the phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity, especially with reducing power and free radical scavenging abilities, was observed.

Keywords: honey, mint, synergy, antioxidant activity

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147 Evaluation of Antioxidants in Medicinal plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba

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Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The acetonic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (0.9425 %to 11.131%). The total phenolic content ranged from 53.33 mg GAE/g DW to 672.79 mg GAE/g DW. The total flavonoid concentrations varied from 5.45 to 21.71 mg/100g. IC50 values ranged from 0.02 ± 0.0004 to 0.13 ± 0.002 mg/ml. All extracts showed very good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (23.91 mM) more effective than BHA, BHT and VC. Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the acetonic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. Can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: limoniastrum guyonianum, phenolics compounds, flavonoid compound, antioxidant activity

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146 Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activities of Formononetin in Lung Cancer by in vitro Methods

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan, Lakshmi Karunanidhi Santhanalakshmi, Srividya Ammayappan Rajam

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Formononetin is the O-Methoxy Flavonol that has many pharmacological activities, which belongs to the flavonoid family. In the current study, activity of this molecule was evaluated in lung cancer cell lines. In general, flavonoids possess certain anticancer mechanism. Being a flavonoid subfamily, this molecule was subjected to evaluate cytotoxicity assay by MTT ((3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide)) stain, mode of cell death assay stained by acridine orange and ethidium bromide and Evaluation of Apoptosis pathway (extrinsic or intrinsic) by Caspase 3/7 stain and Rhodamine-123 stain. From the results, we could able to confirm that the investigatory molecule formononetin has anticancer activity and in future, the study will propose to evaluate the formononetin action against genetic changes occurs during lung cancer progression.

Keywords: Caspase 3/7, formononetin, lung cancer, Rhodamine-123

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145 Effects of Cooking and Drying on the Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Cleome gynandra (Spider Plant)

Authors: E. Kayitesi, S. Moyo, V. Mavumengwana

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Cleome gynandra (spider plant) is an African green leafy vegetable categorized as an indigenous, underutilized and has been reported to contain essential phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds play a significant role in human diets due to their proposed health benefits. These compounds however may be affected by different processing methods such as cooking and drying. Cleome gynandra was subjected to boiling, steam blanching, and drying processes and analysed for Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), antioxidant activity and flavonoid composition. Cooking and drying significantly (p < 0.05) increased the levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the vegetable. The boiled sample filtrate exhibited the lowest TPC followed by the raw sample while the steamed sample depicted the highest TPC levels. Antioxidant activity results showed that steamed sample showed the highest DPPH, FRAP and ABTS with mean values of 499.38 ± 2.44, 578.68 ± 5.19, and 214.39 ± 12.33 μM Trolox Equivalent/g respectively. An increase in quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-rutinoside occurred after all the cooking and drying methods employed. Cooking and drying exerted positive effects on the vegetable’s phenolic content, antioxidant activity as a whole, but with varied effects on the individual flavonoid molecules. The results obtained help in defining the importance of African green leafy vegetable and resultant processed products as functional foods and their potential to exert health promoting properties.

Keywords: Cleome gynandra, phenolic compounds, cooking, drying, health promoting properties

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144 Anti-Allergic Activities of Smilax Glabra Rhizome Extracts and Its Isolated Compounds

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Kamonmas Srikwan, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Pakakrong Thongdeeying

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Background: The rhizomes of Smilax glabra (SG) has long been used in Traditional Chinese and Thai herbal medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases and immunological disorders. Objective: To investigate the in vitro anti-allergic activities of crude extracts and pure isolated flavonoid compounds from SG by determination of inhibitory effects on antigen-induced release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells. Methods: The in vitro inhibitory effects of crude aqueous and organic extracts on beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells were evaluated as an in vitro indication of possible anti-allergic activity in vivo. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts was used to isolate flavonoid compounds from the ethanolic extracts. Results: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed remarkably high anti-allergic activity, with IC50 values of 5.74 ± 2.44 and 23.54 ± 4.75 μg/ml, much higher activity than that for Ketotifen (IC50 58.90 μM). The water extract had negligible activity (IC50 > 100 μg/ml). The two isolated flavonols, Engeletin and Astilbin, showed weak anti-allergic activity, IC50 values 97.46 ± 2.04 and > 100 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusions: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed strong anti-allergic activity but two flavonol constituents did not show any significant anti-allergic activity. These findings suggest that a combination of effects of various phytochemicals in crude extracts used in traditional medicine are responsible for the purported anti-allergic activity of SG herbal preparations. The plethora of constituents in crude extracts, as yet unidentified, are likely to be acting synergistically to account for the strong observed anti-allergic in vitro activity.

Keywords: Smilax glabra, anti-allergic activity, RBL-2H3 cells, flavonoid compounds

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143 Induction of Apoptosis by Diosmin through Interleukins/STAT and Mitochondria Mediated Pathway in Hep-2 and KB Cells

Authors: M. Rajasekar, K. Suresh

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Diosmin is a flavonoid, most abundantly found in many citrus fruits. As a flavonoid, it possesses a multitude of biological activities including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-mutagenic properties. At this point, we established the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of diosmin in Hep-2 and KB cells. Diosmin has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of Hep-2 and KB cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as apparent by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G1phase of the cell cycle. Results exposed that inhibition of cell proliferation is associated with regulation of the Interleukins/STAT pathway. In addition, Diosmin treatment with Hep-2 and KB cells actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. And also an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations conclude that Diosmin induce apoptosis via Interleukins /STAT-mediated pathway.

Keywords: diosmin, apoptosis, antioxidant, STAT pathway

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142 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Uchegbu Nneka

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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB–treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using the standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28%, and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: African yam bean, antioxidant, diabetes, total phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
141 Screening of Antiviral Compounds in Medicinal Plants: Non-Volatiles

Authors: Tomas Drevinskas, Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Nicola Tiso, Algirdas Salomskas, Raimundas Lelesius, Agneta Karpovaite, Ona Ragazinskiene, Loreta Kubiliene

Abstract:

Antiviral effect of substances accumulated by plants and natural products is known to ethno-pharmacy and modern day medicine. Antiviral properties are usually assigned to volatile compounds and polyphenols. This research work is divided into several parts and the task of this part was to investigate potential plants, potential substances and potential preparation conditions that can be used for the preparation of antiviral agents. Sixteen different medicinal plants, their parts and two types of propolis were selected for screening. Firstly, extraction conditions of non-volatile compounds were investigated: 3 pre-selected plants were extracted with 5 different ethanol – water mixtures (96%, 75%, 60%, 40%, 20 %, vol.) and bidistilled water. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity was determined. The results indicated that optimal extrahent is 40%, vol. of ethanol – water mixture. Further investigations were performed with the extrahent of 40%, vol. ethanol – water mixture. All 16 of selected plants, their parts and two types of propolis were extracted using selected extrahent. Determined total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity indicated that extracts of Origanum Vulgare L., Mentha piperita L., Geranium macrorrhizum L., Melissa officinalis L. and Desmodium canadence L. contains highest amount of extractable phenolic compounds (7.31, 5.48, 7.88, 8.02 and 7.16 rutin equivalents (mg/ ml) respectively), flavonoid content (2.14, 2.23, 2.49, 0.79 and 1.51 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively) and radical scavenging activity (11.98, 8.72, 13.47, 13.22 and 12.22 rutin equivalents (mg/ml) respectively). Composition of the extracts is analyzed using HPLC.

Keywords: antiviral effect, plants, propolis, phenols

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140 Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Wild Herb Urginea wightii

Authors: S. K. Hemalata, M. N. Shiva Kameshwari

Abstract:

The present work focusses on anti-inflammatory action of Urginea wightii in-vitro. Urginea wightii is a member of Hyacinthaceae and considered to be wonder plant because of its varied important medicinal properties. The plant is endemic to India, Africa, and Mediterranian regions. Presence of alkaloids, flavonoid-glycosides especially flavonone derivatives are responsible for the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii. In present research work, anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of the bulb powder was tested on Male Wistar Rats. In these test animals, inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan as the irritant to induce paw edema in Wistar rats. Inflammation of Paw edema was treated with both plant extract and Pyrox gel a known synthetic anti-inflammatory drug through external application. The result indicated that anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii extract was almost similar to the synthetic Pyrox gel. This disproves the modern world's scepticism towards the herbal medicines and encourages to rely on natural plant extracts.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, flavonoid-glycosides, Pyrox gel, Urginia wightii

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139 In Vitro and in Vivo Biological Investigations of Philodendron Bipinnatifidum Schott Ex Endl (Araceae) and Its Bioactive Phenolic Constituents

Authors: Alia Ragheb

Abstract:

Philodendron species were reported in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. From the 70% methanol extract of the aerial parts of Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl, nine flavonoid compounds were isolated and identified for the first time; saponarin, genkwanin 8-C-(2′′-O-β-glucopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-(2′′-O-β-glucopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside, schaftoside, swertisin, swertiajaponin, isoswertisin, isorhamnetin 3-O-(2′′-acetyl)-β-glucopyranoside and apigenin. Characterization of the plant was achieved using chromatographic, physical, chemical, spectroscopic, and spectrometric techniques. The 70% methanol aerial parts extract and the methanol fraction of the plant were in vivo screened for their acute anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects where significant effects were exhibited compared to that of reference drugs. From the reported literature, these biological activities could be attributed to its phenolic constituent. The 70% methanol aerial parts and successive extracts, as well as some pure isolated flavonoid compounds, were in vitro investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

Keywords: antioxidant, araceae, cytotoxicity, flavonoids

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138 Treatment of Histopathological Symptoms in N-Nitrosopyrrolidine Induced Changes in Lung Tissue by Isolated Flavonoid from Indigofera tinctoria

Authors: Aastha Agarwal, Veena Sharma

Abstract:

N-nitrosopyrollidine or NPYR is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine which upon intoxicated causes abnormal production of Reactive Oxygen Species disrupt the endogenous antioxidant system. The study was designed to evaluate the histological changes in lung tissue of Mus musculus in NPYR administered lungs and effect of isolated flavonoid 3,6-dihydroxy-(3’,4’,7’-trimethoxyphenyl)-chromen-4-one-7-glucoside (ITC) from experimental plant Indigofera tinctorial. Post treatment with isolated compound significantly restored the abnormal symptoms and changes in pulmonary tissue. Transverse section of mouse lung in control animals appeared as a thin lace. Histologically, most of the lung was arranged as alveoli which were thin walled structures made up of single layered squamous epithelial cells. In the transverse section of lung at 100 X will clearly show the component of alveoli, surround by a thin layer of connective tissue and blood vessels. Smaller bronchioles were lined by cuboidal epithelial cells while larger bronchioles were lined by ciliated columnar epithelium layer while in NPYR intoxicated lungs signs of vast pulmonary damages and carcinogenesis as alveolar damage, necrosis, DADs or defused alveolar damages hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and next stage of carcinogenesis were revealed. Treatment with ITC showed the significant positive changes in the lung tissue due to the side hydroxyl and methoxy groups in its structure which help in combating oxidative injuries and give protection from the free radicals generated during the metabolism of NPYR in body. Thus, histopathological analysis confirms the development of the cancerous conditions in the lung tissue in mice model and the protective effects of ITC.

Keywords: flavonoid, histopathology, Indigofera tinctoria, lung

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137 Effects of Vitexin on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats

Authors: Mehdi Sheikhi, Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Esmail Abbasi, Mahsa Shafiee

Abstract:

Various synthetic derivatives of natural flavonoids are known to have neuroactive properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitexin (5, 7, 4-trihydroxyflavone-8-glucoside), a flavonoid found in such plants as tartary buckwheat sprouts, wheat leaves phenolome, Mimosa pudica Linn and Passiflora spp, on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. To achieve this goal, we assessed the effects of vitexin on memory retrieval in the presence or absence of scopolamine using a step-through passive avoidance trial. In the first part of the study, vitexin (25, 50, and 100 μM) was administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) before acquisition trials. In the second part, vitexin, at the same doses, was administered before scopolamine (10 μg, i.c.v.) and before the acquisition trials. During retention tests, vitexin (100 μM) in the absence of scopolamine significantly increased the stepthrough latencies compared to scopolamine. In addition, vitexin (100 μM) significantly reversed the shorter step-through latencies induced by scopolamine (P < 0.05). These results indicate that vitexin has a potential role in enhancing memory retrieval. A possible mechanism is modulation of cholinergic receptors; however, other mechanisms may be involved in its effects in acute exposure.

Keywords: flavonoid, memory retrieval, passive avoidance, scopolamine, vitexin

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
136 α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity of Some Tunisian Aromatic and Medicinal Plants

Authors: Hamdi Belfeki, Belgacem Chandoul, Mnasser Hassouna, Mondher Mejri

Abstract:

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of eight Tunisian aromatic and medicinal plants (TAMP) were characterized by studying their composition in polyphenols and also their antiradical and antioxidant capacities. In absence and in the presence of the various extracts, α-amylase from Bacillus subtlis activity, was measured in order to detect a potential inhibition. The total contents of polyphenols and flavonoid vary in function of TAMP and the mobile phase used for the extraction (distilled water or ethanol). The ethanolic extracts showed the most significant antiradical and antioxidant activities. Only the extracts from Coriandrum sativum showed a significant inhibiting effect on the α-amylase activity. This inhibiting capacity could be correlated with the chemical profile of the two extracts, due to the fact that they have the greatest amount of total flavonoid. The ethanolic extract has the most important antioxidant and anti-radicalizing activities among the sixteen extracts studied. The inhibition kinetics of the two coriander extracts were evaluated by pre-incubation method, using Lineweaver-Burk’s equation, obtained by linearization of Michaeilis-Menten’s expression. The results showed that both extracts exercised a competitive inhibition mechanism.

Keywords: α-amylase, antioxidant activity, aromatic and medicinal plants, inhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
135 In Vitro Study of Antioxidant Capacity of Chrysanthemum Indicum Extract

Authors: Puchita Chokcharoenying

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Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants found in plants, and they are highly effective at scavenging oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants to help prevent heart disease, stroke, and some cancers. This study focused on evaluating the flavonoids content of Chrysanthemum Indicum and determine their antioxidant capacity by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. indicumextract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by an aluminiumchloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC50 of C. indicum extract were 83.57μg/mL ± 0.875 and52.57μg/mL ± 0.632for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. indicumextract exhibited antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In summary, C. indicum extract is rich in flavonoids, which have potent antioxidant properties. Thus, C. indicum extract is a good source of antioxidants and can be developed for medicinal purposes. Nevertheless, more research on the antioxidant activity of C. indicum extract and in vivo antioxidant studies are still needed.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, chrysanthemum indicum, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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134 Gas Chromatography-Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Some Extracts and Fractions of Linum usitatissimum

Authors: Eman Abdullah Morsi, Hend Okasha, Heba Abdel Hady, Mortada El-Sayed, Mohamed Abbas Shemis

Abstract:

Context: Linum usitatissimum (Linn), known as Flaxseed, is one of the most important medicinal plants traditionally used for various health as nutritional purposes. Objective: Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluate the antioxidant using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay and investigation of anti-inflammatory by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anticancer activities of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) have been applied on hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts and also, fractions of methonal extract (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated in-vitro. Anticancer activity of extracts and fractions of methanolic extract were tested on (HepG2) and (MCF7). Results: Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction contain higher contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In addition, methanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity. Butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions yielded higher percent of inhibition of protein denaturation. Meanwhile, ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract had anticancer activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (IC50=60 ± 0.24 and 29.4 ± 0.12µg.mL⁻¹) and (IC50=94.7 ± 0.21 and 227 ± 0.48µg.mL⁻¹), respectively. In Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, methanolic extract has 32 compounds, whereas; ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contain 40 and 36 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: Flaxseed contains totally different biologically active compounds that have been found to possess good variable activities, which can protect human body against several diseases.

Keywords: phenolic content, flavonoid content, HepG2, MCF7, hemolysis-assay, flaxseed

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133 Evaluation Of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Camellia Sinensis Leaves Extract

Authors: Jirathan Pongchababnapa

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Polyphenols are the most common antioxidant found in plants and are efficient in capturing oxidative free radicals. Antioxidants are substances found in medicinal plants which may have a protective role to play in certain conditions such as heart disease, stroke and some cancers. By relying on these benefits, we have traced out the presence of antioxidant in Camellia sinensis leaves extract. This study aims to evaluate flavonoids content in C. sinensisextract and investigate antioxidant activities by using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging capacity assay. The total flavonoid content of C. Sinensis extract was determined and expressed as quercetin equivalents (QE)/g measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. The results showed that the IC₅₀ of C. Sinensis leaves extract were 40.90 μg/mL ± 0.755 and32.96 μg/mL ± 0.679 for DPPH and ABTS, respectively. C. Sinensis extract at increasing concentration showed antioxidant activities as a concentration dependent manner. In the DPPH assay, vitamin C was used as a positive control, whereas Trolox was used as a positive control in the ABTS assay. In conclusion, C. Sinensis extract consisted of a high amount of flavonoids content which possesses potent antioxidant activity. However, further investigation on the identification of pure compound of this plant and molecular antioxidant assays are still required.

Keywords: ABTS assay, antioxidant, camellia sinensis, DPPH assay, total flavonoid content

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132 The Effects of Red Onion Extract (Allium ascalonicum L.) in the Pulmonary Histopathological Lesions of Layer Chickens at 47 Days Old Raised in the Battery Cage

Authors: R. N. Nataria, A. D. Paryuni, R. Wasito

Abstract:

Layer farms in Indonesia have still obstacles to increasing their productivity, especially due to poultry diseases. The red onion (Allium ascalonicum L.) is a plant that contains flavonoid and saponin. Flavonoid is useful as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant while saponin is useful as antivirus, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and immunomodulator. This study aimed to know and determine the effect of onion extracts to pulmonary histopathological lesions in layer chickens which raised in the battery cage. This study used eighteen layer chickens at seventeen days old. The eighteen layer chickens were divided into three groups of six each, namely without administration of red onion extract (Group I), with administration red onion extract through drinking water (Group II) and with administration red onion extract peroral (Group III). Every ten days, six chickens were necropsied and then the lungs were processed for histopathological preparations and stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin. The results showed that the lungs of the Group I had severe congestion and diffuse hemorrhages. In Group II, lungs had moderate congestion and hemorrhages. In group III, lungs had mild congestion and hemorrhages. It is concluded, that red onion extract apparently has reduced the lungs lesions in layer chickens.

Keywords: histopathological lesions, layers, lungs, poultry diseases, red onion extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 263