Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: dough

44 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit


The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil

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43 Enzyme Treatment of Sorghum Dough: Modifications of Rheological Properties and Product Characteristics

Authors: G. K. Sruthi, Sila Bhattacharya


Sorghum is an important food crop in the dry tropical areas of the world, and possesses significant levels of phytochemicals and dietary fiber to offer health benefits. However, the absence of gluten is a limitation for converting the sorghum dough into sheeted/flattened/rolled products. Chapathi/roti (flat unleavened bread prepared conventionally from whole wheat flour dough) was attempted from sorghum as wheat gluten causes allergic reactions leading to celiac disease. Dynamic oscillatory rheology of sorghum flour dough (control sample) and enzyme treated sorghum doughs were studied and linked to the attributes of the finished ready-to-eat product. Enzymes like amylase, xylanase, and a mix of amylase and xylanase treated dough affected drastically the rheological behaviour causing a lowering of dough consistency. In the case of amylase treated dough, marked decrease of the storage modulus (G') values from 85513 Pa to 23041 Pa and loss modulus (G") values from 8304 Pa to 7370 Pa was noticed while the phase angle (δ) increased from 5.6 to 10.1o for treated doughs. There was a 2 and 3 fold increase in the total sugar content after α-amylase and xylanase treatment, respectively, with simultaneous changes in the structure of the dough and finished product. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited enhanced extent of changes in starch granules. Amylase and mixed enzyme treatment produced a sticky dough which was difficult to roll/flatten. The dough handling properties were improved by the use of xylanase and quality attributes of the chapath/roti. It is concluded that enzyme treatment can offer improved rheological status of gluten free doughs and products.

Keywords: sorghum dough, amylase, xylanase, dynamic oscillatory rheology, sensory assessment

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42 Bread-Making Properties of Rice Flour Dough Using Fatty Acid Salt

Authors: T. Hamaishi, Y. Morinaga, H. Morita


Introduction: Rice consumption in Japan has decreased, and Japanese government has recommended use of rice flour in order to expand the consumption of rice. There are two major protein components present in flour, called gliadin and glutenin. Gluten forms when water is added to flour and is mixed. As mixing continues, glutenin interacts with gliadin to form viscoelastic matrix of gluten. Rice flour bread does not expand as much as wheat flour bread. Because rice flour is not included gluten, it cannot construct gluten network in the dough. In recent years, some food additives have been used for dough-improving agent in bread making, especially surfactants has effect in order to improve dough extensibility. Therefore, we focused to fatty acid salt which is one of anionic surfactants. Fatty acid salt is a salt consist of fatty acid and alkali, it is main components of soap. According to JECFA(FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives), salts of Myristic(C14), Palmitic(C16) and Stearic(C18) could be used as food additive. They have been evaluated ADI was not specified. In this study, we investigated to improving bread-making properties of rice flour dough adding fatty acid salt. Materials and methods: The sample of fatty acid salt is myristic (C14) dissolved in KOH solution to a concentration of 350 mM and pH 10.5. Rice dough was consisted of 100 g of flour using rice flour and wheat gluten, 5 g of sugar, 1.7 g of salt, 1.7g of dry yeast, 80 mL of water and fatty acid salt. Mixing was performed for 500 times by using hand. The concentration of C14K in the dough was 10 % relative to flour weight. Amount of gluten in the dough was 20 %, 30 % relative to flour weight. Dough expansion ability test was performed to measure physical property of bread dough according to the methods of Baker’s Yeast by Japan Yeast Industry Association. In this test, 150 g of dough was filled from bottom of the cylinder and fermented at 30 °C,85 % humidity for 120 min on an incubator. The height of the expansion in the dough was measured and determined its expansion ability. Results and Conclusion: Expansion ability of rice dough with gluten content of 20 %, 30% showed 316 mL, 341 mL for 120 min. When C14K adding to the rice dough, dough expansion abilities were 314 mL, 368 mL for 120 min, there was no significant difference. Conventionally it has been known that the rice flour dough contain gluten of 20 %. The considerable improvement of dough expansion ability was achieved when added C14K to wheat flour. The experimental result shows that c14k adding to the rice dough with gluten content more than 20 % was not improving bread-making properties. In conclusion, rice bread made with gluten content more than 20 % without C14K has been suggested to contribute to the formation of the sufficient gluten network.

Keywords: expansion ability, fatty acid salt, gluten, rice flour dough

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41 Quinoa Choux Cream Gluten Free

Authors: Autumporn Buranapongphan, Ketsirin Meethong, Phukan Pahaphom


The objectives of this research is aim to study the standard formula of choux cream recipe. Formulation of choux cream were used gluten free as a replacer with flour in choux dough, quinoa milk in cream and shelf life on product. The results showed the acceptance test using 30 target consumers revealed that liking of choux dough with water 34%, egg 30% flour 19% butter 16% baking powder 1% and cream with milk 68% sugar 13% butter 6.8% egg 4.5% and vanilla 0.9%. The gluten free exhibited the formulation of dough is rice flour 12% potato starch 26% tapioca 7.7% and quinoa flour 4.3%. The ratio of corn flour at 40% had significant effects on liking of viscosity for quinoa cream. During storage by Total viable count (TVA) were kept in room temperature for 8 hours and chilled for 18 hours.

Keywords: choux cream, gluten free, quinoa, dough

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40 Rheological Properties of Dough and Sensory Quality of Crackers with Dietary Fibers

Authors: Ljubica Dokić, Ivana Nikolić, Dragana Šoronja–Simović, Zita Šereš, Biljana Pajin, Nils Juul, Nikola Maravić


The possibility of application the dietary fibers in production of crackers was observed in this work, as well as their influence on rheological and textural properties on the dough for crackers and influence on sensory properties of obtained crackers. Three different dietary fibers, oat, potato and pea fibers, replaced 10% of wheat flour. Long fermentation process and baking test method were used for crackers production. The changes of dough for crackers were observed by rheological methods of determination the viscoelastic dough properties and by textural measurements. Sensory quality of obtained crackers was described using quantity descriptive method (QDA) by trained members of descriptive panel. Additional analysis of crackers surface was performed by videometer. Based on rheological determination, viscoelastic properties of dough for crackers were reduced by application of dietary fibers. Manipulation of dough with 10% of potato fiber was disabled, thus the recipe modification included increase in water content at 35%. Dough compliance to constant stress for samples with dietary fibers decreased, due to more rigid and stiffer dough consistency compared to control sample. Also, hardness of dough for these samples increased and dough extensibility decreased. Sensory properties of final products, crackers, were reduced compared to control sample. Application of dietary fibers affected mostly hardness, structure and crispness of the crackers. Observed crackers were low marked for flavor and taste, due to influence of fibers specific aroma. The sample with 10% of potato fibers and increased water content was the most adaptable to applied stresses and to production process. Also this sample was close to control sample without dietary fibers by evaluation of sensory properties and by results of videometer method.

Keywords: crackers, dietary fibers, rheology, sensory properties

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39 Effects of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: E. Ataye-Salehi, P. Taghinia, Z. Sheikholeslami


In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari bread (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased, but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control. But 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

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38 Impact of Pretreated Rice Bran on Wheat Dough Performance and Barbari Bread Quality

Authors: P. Taghinia, E. Ataye-Salehi, Z. Sheikholeslami


In this research, roasted and sonicated rice bran were added at 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w) in wheat flour for the production of Barbari breead (semi-voluminous Iranian bread). Dough's rheological properties and textural and sensory characteristics of bread were investigated. The results showed that water absorption, development time and the degree of dough softening were increased but dough stability was decreased by adding pretreated rice bran. Adding pretreated rice bran was increased, the moisture content and L* value of bread crust. The texture of samples which contained 10% pretreated rice bran during 3 hours after baking was less stiff than of control, but 48 hours after baking there was no significant difference between samples which contained 5%, 10% of rice bran and the sample without rice bran. Finally, the samples with 10% rice bran were selected as the best productive samples in this research by panelists.

Keywords: Barbari bread, rice bran, roasting, ultrasound

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37 Stability of Novel Peptides (Linusorbs) in Flaxseed Meal Fortified Gluten-Free Bread

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney


Flaxseed meal is rich in water-soluble gums and, as such, can improve texture in gluten-free products. Flaxseed bioactive-antioxidant peptides, linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides), are a class of molecules that may contribute health-promoting effects. The effects of dough preparation, baking, and storage on flaxseed-derived LOs stability in doughs and baked products are un-known. Gluten-free (GF) bread dough and bread were prepared with flaxseed meal and the LO content was determined in the flaxseed meal, bread flour containing the flaxseed meal, bread dough, and bread. The LO contents during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of oxidized LOs like [1–9-NαC],[1(Rs, Ss)-MetO]-linusorb B2 (LO14) were substantially constant in flaxseed meal and flour produced from flaxseed meal under all conditions for up to 4 weeks. However, during GF-bread production LOs decreased. Due to microbial contamination dough could not be stored at either 4 or 21°C, and bread could only be stored for one week at 21°C. Up to 4 weeks storage was possible for bread and dough at −18 °C and bread at 4 °C without the loss of LOs. The LOs change mostly from processing and less so from storage. The concentration of reduced LOs in flour and meal were much higher than measured in dough and bread. There was not a corre-sponding increase in oxidized LOs. The LOs in flaxseed meal-fortified bread were stable for products stored at low temperatures. This study is the first of the impact of baking conditions on LO content and quality.

Keywords: flaxseed, stability, gluten-free, antioxidant

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36 Application of FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Electronic Nose in On-line Monitoring of Dough Proofing

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra


FT-NIR spectroscopy and electronic nose was used to study the kinetics of dough proofing. Spectroscopy was conducted with an optic probe in the diffuse reflectance mode. The dough leavening was carried out at different temperatures (25 and 35°C) and constant RH (80%). Spectra were collected in the range of wave numbers from 12,000 to 4,000 cm-1 directly on the samples, every 5 min during proofing, up to 2 hours. NIR spectra were corrected for scatter effect and second order derivatization was done to transform the spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the leavening process and process kinetics was calculated. PCA was performed on data set and loadings were calculated. For leavening, four absorption zones (8,950-8,850, 7,200-6,800, 5,250-5,150 and 4,700-4,250 cm-1) were involved in describing the process. Simultaneously electronic nose was also used for understanding the development of odour compounds during fermentation. The electronic nose was able to differential the sample on the basis of aroma generation at different time during fermentation. In order to rapidly differentiate samples based on odor, a Principal component analysis is performed and successfully demonstrated in this study. The result suggests that electronic nose and FT-NIR spectroscopy can be utilized for the online quality control of the fermentation process during leavening of bread dough.

Keywords: FT-NIR, dough, e-nose, proofing, principal component analysis

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35 An Ultrasonic Approach to Investigate the Effect of Aeration on Rheological Properties of Soft Biological Materials with Bubbles Embedded

Authors: Hussein M. Elmehdi


In this paper, we present the results of our recent experiments done to examine the effect of air bubbles, which were introduced to bio-samples during preparation, on the rheological properties of soft biological materials. To effectively achieve this, we three samples each prepared with differently. Our soft biological systems comprised of three types of flour dough systems made from different flour varieties with variable protein concentrations. The samples were investigated using ultrasonic waves operated at low frequency in transmission mode. The sample investigated included dough made from bread flour, wheat flour and all-purpose flour. During mixing, the main ingredient of the samples (the flour) was transformed into cohesive dough comprised of the continuous dough matrix and air pebbles. The rheological properties of such materials determine the quality of the end cereal product. Two ultrasonic parameters, the longitudinal velocity and attenuation coefficient were found to be very sensitive to properties such as the size of the occluded bubbles, and hence have great potential of providing quantitative evaluation of the properties of such materials. The results showed that the magnitudes of the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation coefficient peaked at optimum mixing times; the latter of which is taken as an indication of the end of the mixing process. There was an agreement between the results obtained by conventional rheology and ultrasound measurements, thus showing the potential of the use of ultrasound as an on-line quality control technique for dough-based products. The results of this work are explained with respect to the molecular changes occurring in the dough system as the mixing process proceeds; particular emphasis is placed on the presence of free water and bound water.

Keywords: ultrasound, soft biological materials, velocity, attenuation

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34 Quantification of Peptides (linusorbs) in Gluten-free Flaxseed Fortified Bakery Products

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin JT Reaney


Flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a superfood due to its health-promoting properties. Linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. Cyclolinopeptide) are bioactive compounds present in flaxseed exhibiting potential health effects. The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived LOs added to various bakery products. The flaxseed meal fortified gluten-free (GF) bakery bread was prepared, and the changes of LOs during the bread-making process (meal, fortified flour, dough, and bread) and storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The total oxidative LOs and LO1OB2 were almost kept stable in flaxseed meals at storage temperatures of 22−23 °C, −18 °C, and 4 °C for up to four weeks. Processing steps during GF-bread production resulted in the oxidation of LOs. Interestingly, no LOs were detected in the dough sample; however, LOs appeared when the dough was stored at −18 °C for one week, suggesting that freezing destroyed the sticky structure of the dough and resulted in the release of LOs. The final product, flaxseed meal fortified bread, could be stored for up to four weeks at −18 °C and 4 °C, and for one week at 22−23 °C. All these results suggested that LOs may change during processing and storage and that flaxseed flour-fortified bread should be stored at low temperatures to preserve effective LOs components.

Keywords: linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linusorb, stability, gluten-free, peptides, cyclolinopeptide

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33 Effect of Roasting Treatment on Milling Quality, Physicochemical, and Bioactive Compounds of Dough Stage Rice Grains

Authors: Chularat Leewuttanakul, Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol, Sasivimon Chittrakorn


Rice during grain development stage is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. Dough stage rice contains high amounts of photochemical and can be used for rice milling industries. However, rice grain at dough stage had low milling quality due to high moisture content. Thermal processing can be applied to rice grain for improving milled rice yield. This experiment was conducted to study the chemical and physic properties of dough stage rice grain after roasting treatment. Rice were roasted with two different methods including traditional pan roasting at 140 °C for 60 minutes and using the electrical roasting machine at 140 °C for 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The chemical, physical properties, and bioactive compounds of brown rice and milled rice were evaluated. The result of this experiment showed that moisture content of brown and milled rice was less than 10 % and amylose contents were in the range of 26-28 %. Rice grains roasting for 30 min using electrical roasting machine had high head rice yield and length and breadth of grain after milling were close to traditional pan roasting (p > 0.05). The lightness (L*) of rice did not affect by roasting treatment (p > 0.05) and the a* indicated the yellowness of milled rice was lower than brown rice. The bioactive compounds of brown and milled rice significantly decreased with increasing of drying time. Brown rice roasted for 30 minutes had the highest of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, α-tocopherol, and ɤ-oryzanol content. Volume expansion and elongation of cooked rice decreased as roasting time increased and quality of cooked rice roasted for 30 min was comparable to traditional pan roasting. Hardness of cooked rice as measured by texture analyzer increased with increasing roasting time. The results indicated that rice grains at dough stage, containing a high amount of bioactive compounds, have a great potential for rice milling industries and the electrical roasting machine can be used as an alternative to pan roasting which decreases processing time and labor costs.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, cooked rice, dough stage rice grain, grain development, roasting

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32 The Isolation and Performance Evaluation of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from Raffia Palm (Raphia hookeri) Wine Used at Different Concentrations for Proofing of Bread Dough

Authors: Elizabeth Chinyere Amadi


Yeast (sacchoromyces cerevisiae) was isolated from the fermenting sap of raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) wine. Different concerntrations of the yeast isolate were used to produce bread samples – B, C, D, E, F containing (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) g of yeast isolate respectively, other ingredients were kept constant. Sample A, containing 2g of commercial baker yeast served as control. The proof heights, weights, volumes and specific volume of the dough and bread samples were determined. The bread samples were also subjected to sensory evaluation using a 9–point hedonic scale. Results showed that proof height increased with increased concentration of the yeast isolate; that is direct proportion. Sample B with the least concentration of the yeast isolate had the least loaf height and volume of 2.80c m and 200 cm³ respectively but exhibited the highest loaf weight of 205.50g. However, Sample A, (commercial bakers’ yeast) had the highest loaf height and volume of 5.00 cm and 400 cm³ respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed sample D compared favorably with sample A in all the organoleptic attributes-(appearance, taste, crumb texture, crust colour and overall acceptability) tested for (P< 0.05). It was recommended that 4g compressed yeast isolate per 100g flour could be used to proof dough as a substitute for commercial bakers’ yeast and produce acceptable bread loaves.

Keywords: isolation of yeast, performance evaluation of yeast, Raffia palm wine, used at different concentrations, proofing of bread dough

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31 Rheological Properties and Consumer Acceptability of Supplemented with Flaxseed

Authors: A. Albaridi Najla


Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is well known to have beneficial effect on health. The seeds are rich in protein, α-linolenic fatty acid and dietary fiber. Bakery products are important part of our daily meals. Functional food recently received considerable attention among consumers. The increase in bread daily consumption leads to the production of breads with functional ingredients such as flaxseed The aim of this Study was to improve the nutritional value of bread by adding flaxseed flour and assessing the effect of adding 0, 5, 10 and 15% flaxseed on whole wheat bread rheological and sensorial properties. The total consumer's acceptability of the flaxseed bread was assessed. Dough characteristics were determined using Farinograph (C.W. Brabender® Instruments, Inc). The result shows no change was observed in water absorption between the stander dough (without flaxseed) and the bread with flaxseed (67%). An Increase in the peak time and dough stickiness was observed with the increase in flaxseed level. Further, breads were evaluated for sensory parameters, colour and texture. High flaxseed level increased the bread crumb softness. Bread with 5% flaxseed was optimized for total sensory evaluation. Overall, flaxseed bread produced in this study was highly acceptable for daily consumption as a functional foods with a potentially health benefits.

Keywords: bread, flaxseed, rheological properties, whole-wheat bread

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30 Potential Application of Artocarpus odoratisimmus Seed Flour in Bread Production

Authors: Hasmadi Mamat, Noorfarahzilah Masri


The search for lesser known and underutilized crops, many of which are potentially valuable as human and animal foods has been the focus of research in recent years. Tarap (Artocarpus odoratisimmus) is one of the most delicious tropical fruit and can be found extensively in Borneo, particularly in Sabah and Sarawak. This study was conducted in order to determine the proximate composition, mineral contents as well as to study the effect of the seed flour on the quality of bread produced. Tarap seed powder (TSP) was incorporated (up to 20%) with wheat flour and used to produce bread. The moisture content, ash, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber were measured using AOAC methods while the mineral content was determined using AAS. The effect of substitution of wheat flour with Tarap seed flour on the quality of dough and bread was investigated using various techniques. Farinograph tests were applied to determine the effect of seaweed powder on the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, while texture profile analysis (TPA) was used to measure the textural properties of the final product. Besides that sensory evaluations were also conducted. On a dry weight basis, the TSP was composed of 12.50% moisture, 8.78% protein, 15.60% fat, 1.17% ash, 49.65% carbohydrate and 12.30% of crude fiber. The highest mineral found were Mg, followed by K, Ca, Fe and Na respectively. Farinograh results found that as TSP percentage increased, dough consistency, water absorption capacity and development time of dough decreased. Sensory analysis results showed that bread with 10% of TSP was the most accepted by panelists where the highest acceptability score were found for aroma, taste, colour, crumb texture as well as overall acceptance. The breads with more than 10% of TSP obtained lower acceptability score in most of attributes tested.

Keywords: tarap seed, proximate analysis, bread, sensory evaluation

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29 Rheological and Sensory Attributes of Dough and Crackers Including Amaranth Flour (Amaranthus spp.)

Authors: Claudia Cabezas-Zabala, Jairo Lindarte-Artunduaga, Carlos Mario Zuluaga-Dominguez


Amaranth is an emerging pseudocereal rich in such essential nutrients as protein and dietary fiber, which was employed as an ingredient in the formulation of crackers to evaluate the rheological performance and sensory acceptability of the obtained food. A completely randomized factorial design was used with two factors: (A) ratio of wheat and amaranth flour used in the preparation of the dough, in proportion 90:10 and 80:20 (% w/w) and (B) two levels of inulin addition of 8.4% and 16.7 %, having two control doughs made from amaranth and wheat flour, respectively. Initially, the functional properties of the formulations mentioned were measured, showing no significant differences in the water absorption capacity (WAC) and swelling power (SP), having mean values between 1.66 and 1.81 g/g for WAC and between 1.75 and 1.86 g/g for SP, respectively. The amaranth flour had the highest water holding capacity (WHR) of 8.41 ± 0.15 g/g and emulsifying activity (EA) of 74.63 ± 1.89 g/g. Moreover, the rheological behavior, measured through the use of farinograph, extensograph, Mixolab, and falling index, showed that the formulation containing 20% of amaranth flour and 7.16% of inulin had a rheological behavior similar to the control produced exclusively with wheat flour, being the former, the one selected for the preparation of crackers. For this formulation, the farinograph showed a mixing tolerance index of 11 UB, indicating a strong and cohesive dough; likewise, the Mixolab showed dough reaches stability at 6.47 min, indicating a good resistance to mixing. On the other hand, the extensograph exhibited a dough resistance of 637 UB, as well as extensibility of 13.4 mm, which corresponds to a strong dough capable of resisting the laminate. Finally, the falling index was 318 s, which indicates the crumb will retain enough air to enhance the crispness of a characteristic cracker. Finally, a sensory consumer test did not show significant differences in the evaluation of aroma between the control and the selected formulation, while this latter had a significantly lower rating in flavor. However, a purchase intention of 70 % was observed among the population surveyed. The results obtained in this work give perspectives for the industrial use of amaranth in baked goods. Additionally, amaranth has been a product typically linked to indigenous populations in the Andean South American countries; therefore, the search for diversification and alternatives of use for this pseudocereal has an impact on the social and economic conditions of such communities. The technological versatility and nutritional quality of amaranth is an advantage for consumers, favoring the consumption of healthy products with important contributions of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: amaranth, crackers, rheology, pseudocereals, kneaded products

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28 Microscale observations of a gas cell wall rupture in bread dough during baking and confrontation to 2/3D Finite Element simulations of stress concentration

Authors: Kossigan Bernard Dedey, David Grenier, Tiphaine Lucas


Bread dough is often described as a dispersion of gas cells in a continuous gluten/starch matrix. The final bread crumb structure is strongly related to gas cell walls (GCWs) rupture during baking. At the end of proofing and during baking, part of the thinnest GCWs between expanding gas cells is reduced to a gluten film of about the size of a starch granule. When such size is reached gluten and starch granules must be considered as interacting phases in order to account for heterogeneities and appropriately describe GCW rupture. Among experimental investigations carried out to assess GCW rupture, no experimental work was performed to observe the GCW rupture in the baking conditions at GCW scale. In addition, attempts to numerically understand GCW rupture are usually not performed at the GCW scale and often considered GCWs as continuous. The most relevant paper that accounted for heterogeneities dealt with the gluten/starch interactions and their impact on the mechanical behavior of dough film. However, stress concentration in GCW was not discussed. In this study, both experimental and numerical approaches were used to better understand GCW rupture in bread dough during baking. Experimentally, a macro-scope placed in front of a two-chamber device was used to observe the rupture of a real GCW of 200 micrometers in thickness. Special attention was paid in order to mimic baking conditions as far as possible (temperature, gas pressure and moisture). Various differences in pressure between both sides of GCW were applied and different modes of fracture initiation and propagation in GCWs were observed. Numerically, the impact of gluten/starch interactions (cohesion or non-cohesion) and rheological moduli ratio on the mechanical behavior of GCW under unidirectional extension was assessed in 2D/3D. A non-linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic approach was performed to match the finite strain involved in GCW during baking. Stress concentration within GCW was identified. Simulated stresses concentration was discussed at the light of GCW failure observed in the device. The gluten/starch granule interactions and rheological modulus ratio were found to have a great effect on the amount of stress possibly reached in the GCW.

Keywords: dough, experimental, numerical, rupture

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27 Influence of Yeast Strains on Microbiological Stability of Wheat Bread

Authors: E. Soboleva, E. Sergachyova, S. G. Davydenko, T. V. Meledina


Problem of food preservation is extremely important for mankind. Viscous damage ("illness") of bread results from development of Bacillus spp. bacteria. High temperature resistant spores of this microorganism are steady against 120°C) and remain in bread during pastries, potentially causing spoilage of the final product. Scientists are interested in further characterization of bread spoiling Bacillus spp. species. Our aim was to find weather yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to produce natural antimicrobial killer factor can preserve bread illness. By diffusion method, we showed yeast antagonistic activity against spore-forming bacteria. Experimental technological parameters were the same as for bakers' yeasts production on the industrial scale. Risograph test during dough fermentation demonstrated gas production. The major finding of the study was a clear indication of the presence of killer yeast strain antagonistic activity against rope in bread causing bacteria. After demonstrating antagonistic effect of S. cerevisiae on bacteria using solid nutrient medium, we tested baked bread under provocative conditions. We also measured formation of carbon dioxide in the dough, dough-making duration and quality of the final products, when using different strains of S. cerevisiae. It is determined that the use of yeast S. cerevisiae RCAM 01730 killer strain inhibits appearance of rope in bread. Thus, natural yeast antimicrobial killer toxin, produced by some S. cerevisiae strains is an anti-rope in bread protector.

Keywords: bakers' yeasts, killer toxin, rope in bread, Saccharomyces cerevisiæ

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26 Rheological Study of Wheat-Chickpea Flour Blend Bread for People with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Tasleem Zafar, Jiwan Sidhu


Introduction: Chickpea flour is known to offer many benefits to diabetic persons, especially in maintaining their blood sugar levels in the acceptable range. Under this project we have studied the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of white flour (WF), whole wheat flour (WWF) and chickpea flour (BF), in addition to the effect of replacement of WF and WWF with BF on the rheological characteristics of these flour blends, with the ultimate objective of producing acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread for the diabetic consumers. Methods: WF and WWF were replaced with BF ranging from 0 to 40%, to investigate its effect on the rheological properties and functionality of blended flour dough using farinograph, viscoamylograph, mixograph and falling number apparatus as per the AACC standard methods. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) was carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF using Stable Micro System Texture Analyzer. Effect of certain additives, such as freeze-dried amla fruit powder (Phyllanthus emblica L.), guar gum, and xanthan gum on the dough rheological properties were also studied. Results: Freeze-dried amla fruit powder was found to be very rich in ascorbic acid and other phenolics having higher antioxidant activity. A decreased farinograph water absorption, increased dough development time, higher mixing tolerance index (i.e., weakening of dough), decreased resistance to extension, lower ratio numbers were obtained when the replacement with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. The BF gave lower peak viscosity, lower paste breakdown, and lower setback values when compared with WF. The falling number values were significantly lower in WWF (meaning higher α-amylase activity) than both the WF and BF. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) carried on the WF, WWF, and their blends with BF showed significant variations in hardness and compressibility values, dough becoming less hard and less compressible when the replacement of WF and WWF with BF was increased from 0 to 40%. Conclusions: To overcome the deleterious effects of adding BF to WF and WWF on the rheological properties will be an interesting challenge when good quality pan bread and Arabic flatbread have to be commercially produced in a bakery. Use of freeze-dried amla fruit powder, guar gum, and xanthan gum did show some promise to improve the mixing characteristics of WF, WWF, and their blends with BF, and these additives are expected to be useful in producing an acceptable quality flat as well as pan-bread on a commercial scale.

Keywords: wheat flour, chickpea flour, amla fruit, rheology

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25 Impact of the Xanthan Gum on Rheological Properties of Ceramic Slip

Authors: Souad Hassene Daouadji, Larbi Hammadi, Abdelkrim Hazzab


The slips intended for the manufacture of ceramics must have rheological properties well-defined in order to bring together the qualities required for the casting step (good fluidity for feeding the molds easily settles while generating a regular settling of the dough and for the dehydration phase of the dough in the mold a setting time relatively short is required to have a sufficient refinement which allows demolding both easy and fast). Many additives haveadded in slip of ceramic in order to improve their rheological properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of xanthan gumon rheological properties of ceramic Slip. The modified Cross model is used to fit the stationary flow curves of ceramic slip at different concentration of xanthan added. The thixotropic behavior studied of mixture ceramic slip-xanthan gumat constant temperature is analyzed by using a structural kinetic model (SKM) in order to account for time dependent effect.

Keywords: ceramic slip, xanthan gum, modified cross model, thixotropy, viscosity

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24 Impact of Flavor on Food Product Quality, A Case Study of Vanillin Stability during Biscuit Preparation

Authors: N. Yang, R. Linforth, I. Fisk


The influence of food processing and choice of flavour solvent was investigated using biscuits prepared with vanillin flavour as an example. Powder vanillin either was added directly into the dough or dissolved into flavour solvent then mixed into the dough. The impact of two commonly used flavour solvents on food quality was compared: propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA). The analytical approach for vanillin detection was developed by chromatography (HPLC-PDA), and the standard extraction method for vanillin was also established. The results indicated the impact of solvent choice on vanillin level during biscuit preparation. After baking, TA as a more heat resistant solvent retained more vanillin than PG, so TA is a better solvent for products that undergo a heating process. The results also illustrated the impact of mixing and baking on vanillin stability in the matrices. The average loss of vanillin was 33% during mixing and 13% during baking, which indicated that the binding of vanillin to fat or flour before baking might cause larger loss than evaporation loss during baking.

Keywords: biscuit, flavour stability, food quality, vanillin

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23 Stability of Ochratoxin a During Bread Making Process

Authors: Sara Heidari, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Elmira Pouladi Borj


In this research, stability of Ochratoxin A (OTA) during bread making process including fermentation with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Sourdough (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C were examined. Bread was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using wheat flour spiked with standard solution of OTA. During this process, mycotoxin levels were determined after fermentation of the dough with sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast after further baking 200°C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. According to the results, the highest stability of was observed in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest stability was observed in the baking stage in comparison to contaminated flour. In addition, compressed yeast showed the maximum impact on stability of OTA during bread making process.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, bread, dough, yeast, sourdough

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22 The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties

Authors: Banafsheh Aghamohammadi, Masoud Honarvar, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi


Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.

Keywords: cake, green-A syrup, quality tests, sensory evaluation, wash syrup

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21 Combined Effect of Gluten-Free Superfoods and by-Products from Ecuador to Evaluate the Functional and Sensory Properties of Breadmaking

Authors: Andrea Vasquez, Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado


In general, 'gluten-free' foods like breadmaking products provide functional or nutraceutical benefits for the consumer's health and increased their demand on the market. In Ecuador, there is an overproduction of superfoods, and the food by-products are undervalued. For the first time, to the author's best knowledge, gluten-free bread mixtures from quinoa and banana flour, cassava starch, lupine flour (LF), or whey protein (WP) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and transglutaminase (TG) were evaluated on their functional and sensory properties. Free amino groups and thiols, rheology, and electrophoresis SDS PAGE were performed to analyze the crosslinking of TG at different concentrations with HC or PL proteins. Dough characterization, pasting properties were evaluated, respectively, by a MIXOLAB and a rheometer with a pasting cell. The texture, porosity, and loaf volume were characterized using a texturometer, ImageJ software, and breadmaking ability, respectively. Finally, a breadmaking aptitude and sensorial bread acceptability were performed. A significant decrease in the content of free amino groups (0.16 to 0.11 and 0.46 to 0.36 mM/mg of protein) and free thiol groups (0.37 to 0.21 and 1.79 to 1.32 mM/mg protein) was observed when 1.0% and 0.5% TG were added to LF and WP, respectively. In apparent viscosity analysis, the action of TG on HC proteins changes their viscosity, while the viscosity of LF is not modified by TG. Results of electrophoresis in PL showed bands of higher molecular weight of different fragments of proteins with 1% TG. Formulation with 59.8, 39.9, 160.8, 6.0, 1.0, and 1.5% of, respectively, QF, BF, CS, LF or WP, TG, and HPMC had the best properties in dough parameters, pasting parameters (lower pasting temperature and higher peak viscosity), best crumb structure, lower crumb hardness and higher loaf volume (2.24 and 2.28 mL/g). All the loaves of bread were acceptable in baking aptitude and general acceptability.

Keywords: breadmaking, gluten-free, superfoods, by-products, Ecuador

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20 Food Foam Characterization: Rheology, Texture and Microstructure Studies

Authors: Rutuja Upadhyay, Anurag Mehra


Solid food foams/cellular foods are colloidal systems which impart structure, texture and mouthfeel to many food products such as bread, cakes, ice-cream, meringues, etc. Their heterogeneous morphology makes the quantification of structure/mechanical relationships complex. The porous structure of solid food foams is highly influenced by the processing conditions, ingredient composition, and their interactions. Sensory perceptions of food foams are dependent on bubble size, shape, orientation, quantity and distribution and determines the texture of foamed foods. The state and structure of the solid matrix control the deformation behavior of the food, such as elasticity/plasticity or fracture, which in turn has an effect on the force-deformation curves. The obvious step in obtaining the relationship between the mechanical properties and the porous structure is to quantify them simultaneously. Here, we attempt to research food foams such as bread dough, baked bread and steamed rice cakes to determine the link between ingredients and the corresponding effect of each of them on the rheology, microstructure, bubble size and texture of the final product. Dynamic rheometry (SAOS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, flatbed scanning, image analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA) has been used to characterize the foods studied. In all the above systems, there was a common observation that when the mean bubble diameter is smaller, the product becomes harder as evidenced by the increase in storage and loss modulus (G′, G″), whereas when the mean bubble diameter is large the product is softer with decrease in moduli values (G′, G″). Also, the bubble size distribution affects texture of foods. It was found that bread doughs with hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, alginate) aid a more uniform bubble size distribution. Bread baking experiments were done to study the rheological changes and mechanisms involved in the structural transition of dough to crumb. Steamed rice cakes with xanthan gum (XG) addition at 0.1% concentration resulted in lower hardness with a narrower pore size distribution and larger mean pore diameter. Thus, control of bubble size could be an important parameter defining final food texture.

Keywords: food foams, rheology, microstructure, texture

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19 Using Composite Flour in Bread Making: Cassava and Wheat Flour

Authors: Aishatu Ibrahim, Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu


The study set out to produce bread using composite cassava flour. The main objective of the work is to determine the possibility of using composite cassava flour in bread production and to find out whether it is acceptable in the hospitality industry and by the general public. The research questions were formed and analyzed. A sample size of 10 professional catering judges was used in the department of hospitality management/food science and technology. Relevant literature was received. Data collected was analyzed using mean deviation. Product A which is 20% cassava flour and 80% wheat flour product, and D which is 100% wheat flour product were competing with high acceptability. It was observed that the composite cassava dough needed to be allowed to proof for a longer period. Lastly, the researcher recommends that the caterers should be encouraged to use composite cassava flour in the production of bread in order to reduce cost.

Keywords: bread, cassava, flour, wheat

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18 Development of Pasta Production by Using of Hard and Soft Domestic Sorts of Wheat

Authors: A.N. Zhilkaidarov, G.K. Iskakova, V.Y. Chernyh


High-qualified and not-expensive products of daily usage have a big demand on food products’ market. Moreover, it is about independent and irreplaceable product as pasta. Pasta is a product, which represents itself the conserved dough from wheat flour made through special milling process. A wide assortment of the product and its pleasant taste properties allow to use pasta products in very different combinations with other food products. Pasta industry of Kazakhstan has large perspectives of development. There are many premises for it, which includes first an importance of pasta as a social product. Due to for its nutritional and energetically value pasta is the part of must have food. Besides that, the pasta production in Kazakhstan has traditional bases, and nowadays the market of this product develops rapidly as in quantity as well as in quality aspects. Moreover, one of the advantages of this branch is an economical aspect – pasta is the product of secondary processing, and therefore price for sailing is much higher as its own costs.

Keywords: pasta, new wheat sorts, domesic sorts of wheat, macaronic flour

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17 Influence of Dairy Cows Food on Uncooked Pressed Dough Cheese "Edam" Quality

Authors: Nougha Meriem, Sadouki Mohammed


Cheese quality is an important manufacturing requirement. It deals with traceability, from the dairy cows feed to the storage location. In this study, we have seen the impact of distributing two different types of green feed (purple clover VS alfalfa), in a ration composed of oat hay, silage of corn and concentrated feed, in equal quantities, on resulting milk destined for an Edam manufacturing. It reveals that alfalfa allows a high production of milk, comparatively to purple clover. However, this latter allows a high quality of milk, in point of view physico-chemical properties, especially regarding proteins and fat yields, two essential factors affecting Edam quality. The obtained results indicated that milk allowed by purple clover shows a best physico-chemical quality beside alfalfa, for it use in Edam manufacturing according to the values recommended by standardized dairies.

Keywords: dairy cows, Edam, food, quality

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16 Use of Cassava Flour in Cakes Processing

Authors: S. S. Silva, S. M. A. Souza, C. F. P. Oliveira


Brazil's agriculture is a major economic base in the country; in addition, family farming is directly responsible for the production of most agricultural products in Brazil, such as cassava. The number of studies on the use of cassava and its derivatives in the food industry has been increased, which is the basis of this study. Sought to develop a food that take advantage the products from farmers, adding value to these products and to study its effects as a replacement for wheat flour. For such elaborated a gluten-free cake – aiming to meet the needs of the celiac public – containing cassava flour, cane sugar, honey, egg, soya oil, coconut desiccated, baking powder and water. For evaluation of their characteristics technological, physicochemical and texture characterizations were done. Cake showed similar characteristics of cake made with wheat flour and growth and aeration of the dough. In sum up, marketing the product is viable, in that it has a typical overall appearance of cake made of wheat flour, meet the needs of celiac people and value the family farming.

Keywords: baking, cake, cassava flour, celiac disease

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15 The Use of an Extract from the Polish Variety of White Mulberry Leaves in Flat Bread of Paratha Type

Authors: Monika Przeor


The pace of life of modern society promotes the occurrence of affluence diseases. Functional food, which design and consumption by the consumer may be useful in the prevention of occurrence of different diseases, is becoming the alternative of food products available in the market. Design and determination of properties of flat bread of paratha type with the addition of an extract from the leaves of white mulberry became the overriding objective in the presented study. The centuries-old use of mulberry leaves in alternative medicine gave hope to obtain positive effects of the undertaken activity. In the designed product, stability, and content of polyphenols as well as their antioxidant properties were tested. Moreover, in the paper an aqueous extract of mulberry leaves obtained on semi-technical scale was described. It is rich in polyphenols, which results in its antioxidant activity. The addition of the extract significantly increased health-promoting qualities of paratha. The 3% extract addition to the dough turned out to be the most desired by the consumer group.

Keywords: mulberry leaves extract, flat bread, paratha, antioxidant activity

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