Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Mindaugas Malakauskas

9 Changes in Chromatographically Assessed Fatty Acid Profile during Technology of Dairy Products

Authors: Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Mindaugas Malakauskas, Loreta Serniene


Dairy product manufacturers constantly are looking for new markets for their production. And in most cases, the problem of product compliance with the composition requirements of foreign products is highlighted. This is especially true of the composition of milk fat in dairy products. It is well known that there are many factors such as feeding ratio, season, cow breed, stage of lactation that affect the fatty acid composition in milk. However, there is less evidence on the impact of the technological process on the composition of fatty acids in raw milk and products made from it. In this study the influence of the technological process on fat composition in 82% fat butter, 15% fat curd, 3.6% fat yogurt and 2.5% fat UHT milk was determined. The samples were collected at each stage of production, starting with raw milk and ending with the final product in the Lithuanian milk-processing company. Fatty acids methyl esters were quantified using a GC (Clarus 680, Perkin Elmer) equipped with flame ionization detector (FID) and a capillary column SP-2560, 100 m x 0.25 mm id x 0.20 µm. Fatty acids peaks were identified using Supelco® 37 Component FAME Mix. The concentration of each fatty acid was expressed in percent of the total fatty acid amount. In the case of UHT milk production, it was compared raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and UHT milk but significant differences were not estimated between these stages. Analyzing stages of the yogurt production (raw milk, pasteurized milk, and milk with a starter culture and yogurt), no significant changes were detected between stages as well. A slight difference was observed with C4:0 - a percentage of this fatty acid was less (p=0.053) in the final stage than in milk with the starter culture. During butter production, the composition of fatty acids in raw cream, buttermilk, and butter did not change significantly. Only C14:0 decreased in the butter then compared to buttermilk. The curd fatty acid analysis showed the increase of C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C11:0, C12:0 C14:0 and C17:0 at the final stage when compared to raw milk, cream, milk mixture, and whey. Meantime the increase of C18:1n9c (in comparison with milk mixture and curd) and C18:2n6c (in comparison with raw milk, milk mixture, and curd) was estimated in cream. The results of this study suggest that the technological process did not affect the composition of fatty acids in UHT milk, yogurt, butter, and curd but had the impact on the concentration of individual fatty acids. In general, all of the fatty acids from the raw milk were converted into the final product, only some of them slightly changed the concentration. Therefore, in order to ensure an appropriate composition of certain fatty acids in the final product, producers must carefully choose the raw milk. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by Lithuanian Ministry of Agriculture (No. MT-17-13).

Keywords: dairy products, fat composition, fatty acids, technological process

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
8 Application of Strength Criteria for Cellular Pressure Vessels

Authors: Antanas Žiliukas, Mindaugas Kukis


The work deals with cellular pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure. Their cellular insert can be used for placing liquids or gases, which is necessary to carry out technological processes, and the vessel itself has a good bearing capacity. Numerical calculations of the three core structures, which measure the influence of the inner cylinder thickness on maximum bearing capacity are presented. The calculations are compared using strength criteria and they show the different strength safety level.

Keywords: pressure, strength criterion, sandwich plate, cellular vessel

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
7 The Use of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Extracts for Increased Safety and Sustainability of Dairy Products

Authors: Loreta Serniene, Dalia Sekmokiene, Justina Tomkeviciute, Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Kristina Kondrotiene, Neringa Kasetiene, Mindaugas Malakauskas


One of the most important areas of product development and research in the dairy industry is the product enrichment with active ingredients as well as leading to increased product safety and sustainability. The most expanding field of the active ingredients is the various plants' CO₂ extracts with aromatic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In this study, 15 plant extracts were evaluated based on their antioxidant, antimicrobial properties as well as sensory acceptance indicators for the development of new dairy products. In order to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the milk products, it was important to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CO₂ extract. The total phenolic content of fifteen different commercial CO₂ extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as milligrams of the Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in gram of extract. The antioxidant activities were determined by 2.2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS) methods. The study revealed that the antioxidant activities of investigated CO₂ extract vary from 4.478-62.035 µmole Trolox/g, while the total phenolic content was in the range of 2.021-38.906 mg GAE/g of extract. For the example, the estimated antioxidant activity of Chinese cinnamon (Cinammonum aromaticum) CO₂ extract was 62.023 ± 0.15 µmole Trolox/g and the total flavonoid content reached 17.962 ± 0.35 mg GAE/g. These two parameters suggest that cinnamon could be a promising supplement for the development of new cheese. The inhibitory effects of these essential oils were tested by using agar disc diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria, most commonly found in dairy products. The obtained results showed that essential oil of lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, P. florescens, L. monocytogenes, Br. thermosphacta, P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium with the diameter of inhibition zones variation from 10 to 52 mm. The sensory taste acceptability of plant extracts in combination with a dairy product was evaluated by a group of sensory evaluation experts (31 individuals) by the criteria of overall taste acceptability in the scale of 0 (not acceptable) to 10 (very acceptable). Each of the tested samples included 200g grams of natural unsweetened greek yogurt without additives and 1 drop of single plant extract (essential oil). The highest average of overall taste acceptability was defined for the samples with essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis) - average score 6.67, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) – 6.62, elderberry flower (Sambucus nigra flos.) – 6.61, lemon (Citrus limon) – 5.75 and cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) – 5.41, respectively. The results of this study indicate plant extracts of Cinnamomum cassia and Backhousia citriodora as a promising additive not only to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the milk products and as alternative antibacterial agent to combat pathogenic bacteria commonly found in dairy products but also as a desirable flavour for the taste pallet of the consumers with expressed need for safe, sustainable and innovative dairy products. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund according to the supported activity 'Research Projects Implemented by World-class Researcher Groups' under Measure No. 01.2.2-LMT-K-718.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, antimicrobial properties, cinnamon, CO₂ plant extracts, dairy products, essential oils, lemon myrtle

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
6 An Interaction between Human and Animal through the Death Experience

Authors: Mindaugas Kazlauskas


In this paper, it is presupposed that the description of the relationship between animal and human should begin with a description of the direct experience of the animal and how, in this experience, the human experiences itself (a self awareness mode). A human is concerned first and foremost with himself as a human through the experience of another as an animal. The questionsare: In the encounter with an animal, how is the animal constituted in the acts of human experience? How does human-animal interaction influence human behavioral patterns, and how does the human identifies itself in this interaction? The paper will present the results of interpretative phenomenological descriptions (IPA) of the relationship between human and animal in the face of death phenomenon through the experience of pet owners who lost their beloved companions and hunters, veterinatians, and farmers who face animal death. The results of IPA analysis reveal different relations such as the identification with an animal, the alienation experience, the experience of resistance, and an experience of detachment. Within these themes, IPA qualitative research results will be presented by highlighting patterns of human behavior, following Friedrich Schlachermacher's hermeneutics methodological principles, and reflecting on changes in value and attitude within society during daily interaction with the animal.

Keywords: animal human interaction, phenomenology, philosophy, death phenomenon

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
5 Changes in the Quantity of Milk and the PH and Temperature of Rumen Content, after Surgical Treatment of Displaced Abomasum

Authors: Ramūnas Antanaitis, Robertas Stoškus, Mindaugas Televičius


The objective is to identify changes in the quantity of milk and the pH and the temperature of rumen content after omentopexia. The research was performed in a dairy farm with 550 cows on December 2014 – January 2015. The sample consisted of 10 cows. Left-sided displacement of the abomasums was diagnosed in 5 of them, which was treated by lateral omentopexia according to Dirksen; the rest 5 were used for control. Additional treatment was not applied. A special bolus for measuring pH and temperature was administered to the rumen of healthy cows and cows after the operation. The quantity of milk was registered with the help of herd management program Westfalia DP C21. All data were recorded ones a week in the period of four weeks. Statistically reliable difference in the quantity of milk (p<0.05) between the research groups was observed during the entire research. The major difference was recorded on Week 1 after the treatment (29.18 kg/d); on Week 4, the difference was 13.97 kg/d. During the entire research, rumen pH of Test group was lower than that of the Control group. Statistically reliable difference between the groups was identified on Week 1 (p<0.05). On the period mentioned, the pH of the rumen content of Test group was lower by 0.42 than that of the Control group. On Week 3, the difference increased up to 0.84. On Weeks 1, 2, and 3, statistically reliable (p<0.05) higher temperature was observed in the Test group. Major difference of temperature, 1.81 °C, was recorded on Week 1. On Week 4, the temperature of rumen in the Test group became equal to that of the Control group. After omentopexia treatment, the first four weeks showed the following results: statistically reliable difference in the quantity of milk remains the most obvious in Week 1 after the treatment; cows with left-sided displacement of abomasums were exposed to greater risk of acidosis; they indicated lower pH of rumen content; the first two weeks after omentopexia, rumen content has increased temperature, especially obvious in Week 1.

Keywords: Displacement of the abomasum, omentopexia, acidosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
4 The Formation of Thin Copper Films on Graphite Surface Using Magnetron Sputtering Method

Authors: Zydrunas Kavaliauskas, Aleksandras Iljinas, Liutauras Marcinauskas, Mindaugas Milieska, Vitas Valincius


The magnetron sputtering deposition method is often used to obtain thin film coatings. The main advantage of magnetron vaporization compared to other deposition methods is the high rate erosion of the cathode material (e.g., copper, aluminum, etc.) and the ability to operate under low-pressure conditions. The structure of the formed coatings depends on the working parameters of the magnetron deposition system, which is why it is possible to influence the properties of the growing film, such as morphology, crystal orientation, and dimensions, stresses, adhesion, etc. The properties of these coatings depend on the distance between the substrate and the magnetron surface, the vacuum depth, the gas used, etc. Using this deposition technology, substrates are most often placed near the anode. The magnetic trap of the magnetrons for localization of electrons in the cathode region is formed using a permanent magnet system that is on the side of the cathode. The scientific literature suggests that, after insertion of a small amount of copper into graphite, the electronic conductivity of graphite increase. The aim of this work is to create thin (up to 300 nm) layers on a graphite surface using a magnetron evaporation method, to investigate the formation peculiarities and microstructure of thin films, as well as the mechanism of copper diffusion into graphite inner layers at different thermal treatment temperatures. The electron scanning microscope was used to investigate the microrelief of the coating surface. The chemical composition is determined using the EDS method, which shows that, with an increase of the thermal treatment of the copper-carbon layer from 200 °C to 400 °C, the copper content is reduced from 8 to 4 % in atomic mass units. This is because the EDS method captures only the amount of copper on the graphite surface, while the temperature of the heat treatment increases part of the copper because of the diffusion processes penetrates into the inner layers of the graphite. The XRD method shows that the crystalline copper structure is not affected by thermal treatment.

Keywords: carbon, coatings, copper, magnetron sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3 Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Apples Grown in Different Geographical Regions

Authors: Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Monika Tallat-Kelpsaite, Darius Kviklys, Jonas Viskelis, Pranas Viskelis, Norbertas Uselis, Juozas Lanauskas, Valdimaras Janulis


Apples are an important source of various biologically active compounds used for human health. Phenolic compounds detected in apples are natural antioxidants and have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and cardiovascular protective activity. The quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in apples may be affected by various factors. It is important to investigate it in order to provide the consumer with high-quality well-known composition apples and products made out of it. The objective of this study was to evaluate phenolic compounds quantitative composition in apple fruits grown in a different geographical region. In this study, biological replicates of apple cv. 'Ligol', grown in Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, and Estonia, were investigated. Three biological replicates were analyzed; one of each contained 10 apples. Samples of lyophilized apple fruits were extracted with 70% ethanol (v/v) for 20 min at 40∘C temperature using the ultrasonic bath. The ethanol extracts of apple fruits were analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method. The study found that the geographical location of apple-trees had an impact on the composition of phenolic compounds in apples. The number of quercetin glycosides varied from 314.78±9.47 µg/g (Poland) to 648.17±5.61 µg/g (Estonia). The same trend was also observed with flavan-3-ols (from 829.56±47.17 µg/g to 2300.85±35.49 µg/g), phloridzin (from 55.29±1.7 µg/g to 208.78±0.35 µg/g), and chlorogenic acid (from 501.39±28.84 µg/g to 1704.35±22.65 µg/g). It was observed that the amount of investigated phenolic compounds tended to increase from apples grown in the southern location (Poland) (1701.02±75.38 µg/g) to apples grown northern location (Estonia) (4862.15±56.37 µg/g). Apples (cv. 'Ligol') grown in Estonia accumulated approx. 2.86 times higher amount of phenolic compounds than apples grown in Poland. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by a grant from the Research Council of Lithuania, project No. S-MIP-17-8.

Keywords: apples, cultivar 'Ligol', geographical regions, HPLC, phenolic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
2 Phenolic Composition and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Borkh Fruit Cultivars

Authors: Raudone Lina, Raudonis Raimondas, Liaudanskas Mindaugas, Pukalskas Audrius, Viskelis Pranas, Janulis Valdimaras


Human health fortification, its protection and disease prophylaxis are the main problems of the health care systems. Plant origin materials and their preparations are applied for the prevention of the common diseases. Oxidative stress takes part in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune, neurodegenerative, tumor and ageing processes. The antioxidants are able to protect the human body from the free radicals and to stop the progression of numerous chronic diseases. The research of plant origin materials is relevant for the search of natural antioxidants. A group of compounds that gained scientific attention due to antioxidant properties and effects on human health are phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are widely abundant in various parts of plants, i.e. leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits. Most commonly consumed fruits all over the world are apples. It is very important to analyze the antioxidant activity of apples as they are extensively used in the prevention of various diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant profiles of Malus domestica Borkh fruit cultivars (Aldas, Auksis, Connel Red, Ligol, Lodel, Rajka) and to identify the phenolic compounds with potent contribution to antioxidant activity. Nineteen constituents were identified in apple cultivars using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC–QTOF–MS). Phytochemical profile was constituted of phenolic acids, procyanidins, quercetin derivatives and dihydrochalcones. Reducing and radical scavenging activities of individual constituents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to post-column FRAP and ABTS assay, respectively. Significant differences of total radical scavenging and reducing activity (expressed as trolox equivalents, TE µmol/g) were determined between the investigated cultivars. Chlorogenic acid and complex of procyanidins were the main contributors to antioxidant activity determining up to 35 % and 55 % of total TE values, respectively. Determined phenolic composition and antioxidant activity significantly depend on apple cultivars. It is important to determine the individual compounds that are significant for antioxidant activity and that could be investigated in vivo systems. The identification of the antioxidants provides information for the further research of standardized extracts that could be used for pharmaceutical preparations with specific phenolic traits.

Keywords: FRAP, ABTS, antioxidant, phenolic, apples, chlorogenic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
1 Methodology for the Determination of Triterpenic Compounds in Apple Extracts

Authors: Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Darius Kviklys, Kristina Zymonė, Raimondas Raudonis, Jonas Viškelis, Norbertas Uselis, Pranas Viškelis, Valdimaras Janulis


Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits in the world. Based on data from the year 2014, approximately 84.63 million tons of apples are grown per annum. Apples are widely used in food industry to produce various products and drinks (juice, wine, and cider); they are also used unprocessed. Apples in human diet are an important source of different groups of biological active compounds that can positively contribute to the prevention of various diseases. They are a source of various biologically active substances – especially vitamins, organic acids, micro- and macro-elements, pectins, and phenolic, triterpenic, and other compounds. Triterpenic compounds, which are characterized by versatile biological activity, are the biologically active compounds found in apples that are among the most promising and most significant for human health. A specific analytical procedure including sample preparation and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed, optimized, and validated for the detection of triterpenic compounds in the samples of different apples, their peels, and flesh from widespread apple cultivars 'Aldas', 'Auksis', 'Connel Red', 'Ligol', 'Lodel', and 'Rajka' grown in Lithuanian climatic conditions. The conditions for triterpenic compound extraction were optimized: the solvent of the extraction was 100% (v/v) acetone, and the extraction was performed in an ultrasound bath for 10 min. Isocratic elution (the eluents ratio being 88% (solvent A) and 12% (solvent B)) for a rapid separation of triterpenic compounds was performed. The validation of the methodology was performed on the basis of the ICH recommendations. The following characteristics of validation were evaluated: the selectivity of the method (specificity), precision, the detection and quantitation limits of the analytes, and linearity. The obtained parameters values confirm suitability of methodology to perform analysis of triterpenic compounds. Using the optimised and validated HPLC technique, four triterpenic compounds were separated and identified, and their specificity was confirmed. These compounds were corosolic acid, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Ursolic acid was the dominant compound in all the tested apple samples. The detected amount of betulinic acid was the lowest of all the identified triterpenic compounds. The greatest amounts of triterpenic compounds were detected in whole apple and apple peel samples of the 'Lodel' cultivar, and thus apples and apple extracts of this cultivar are potentially valuable for use in medical practice, for the prevention of various diseases, for adjunct therapy, for the isolation of individual compounds with a specific biological effect, and for the development and production of dietary supplements and functional food enriched in biologically active compounds. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by a grant from the Research Council of Lithuania, project No. MIP-17-8.

Keywords: apples, HPLC, triterpenic compounds, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 95