Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2832

Search results for: gluten free

2832 Development of Low Glycemic Gluten Free Bread from Barnyard Millet and Lentil Flour

Authors: Hemalatha Ganapathyswamy, Thirukkumar Subramani


Celiac disease is an autoimmune response to dietary wheat gluten. Gluten is the main structure forming protein in bread and hence developing gluten-free bread is a technological challenge. The study aims at using nonwheat flours like barnyard millet and lentil flour to replace wheat in bread formulations. Other characteristics of these grains, such as high protein, soluble fiber, mineral content and bioactive components make them attractive alternatives to traditional gluten-free ingredients in the production of high protein, gluten-free bread. The composite flour formulations for the development of gluten-free bread were optimized using lentil flour (50 to 70 g), barnyard millet flour (0 to 30 g) and corn flour (0 to 30 g) by means of response surface methodology with various independent variables for physical, sensorial and nutritional characteristics. The optimized composite flour which had a desirability value of 0.517, included lentil flour –62.94 g, barnyard millet flour– 24.34 g and corn flour– 12.72 g with overall acceptability score 8.00/9.00. The optimized gluten-free bread formulation had high protein (14.99g/100g) and fiber (1.95g/100g) content. The glycemic index of the gluten-free bread was 54.58 rendering it as low glycemic which enhances the functional benefit of the gluten-free bread. Since the standardised gluten-free bread from barnyard millet and lentil flour are high protein, and gluten-free with low glycemic index, the product would serve as an ideal therapeutic food in the management of both celiac disease and diabetes mellitus with better nutritional value.

Keywords: gluten free bread, lentil, low glycemic index, response surface methodology

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2831 Characteristic of Gluten-Free Products: Latvian Consumer Survey

Authors: Laila Ozola, Evita Straumite


Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, a protein occurring in wheat, rye and barley. The only way of the effective daily treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. From the investigation of products available in the local market, it was found that Latvian producers do not offer gluten-free products. The aim of this research was to study and analyze changes of celiac patient’s attitude to gluten-free product quality and availability in the Latvian market and purchasing habits. The survey was designed using website, and a questionnaire was sent to people suffering from celiac disease. The first time the respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaire in 2011, but now repeatedly from the beginning of September 2013 till the end of January 2014. The questionnaire was performed with 75 celiac patients, respondents were from all Latvian regions and they answered 16 questions. One of the most important questions was aimed to find out consumers’ opinion about quality of gluten-free products, consumption patterns of gluten-free products, and, moreover, their interest in products made in Latvia. Respondents were asked to name gluten-free products they mainly buy and give specific purchase locations, evaluate the quality of products and necessity for products produced in Latvia. The results of questionnaire show that the consumers are satisfied with the quality of gluten-free flour, flour blends, sweets and pasta, but are not satisfied with the quality of bread and confectionery available in the Latvian markets.

Keywords: consumers, gluten-free products, quality, survey

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2830 Production of Gluten-Free Bread Using Emulsifying Salts and Rennet Casein

Authors: A. Morina, S. Ö. Muti, M. Öztürk


Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease observed in individuals with gluten intolerance. In this study, our aim was to create a protein matrix to mimic the functional properties of gluten. For this purpose, rennet casein and four emulsifying salts (disodium phosphate (DSP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP)) were investigated in gluten-free bread manufacture. Compositional, textural, and visual properties of the gluten-free bread dough and gluten-free breads were investigated by a two–level factorial experimental design with two-star points (α = 1.414) and two replicates of the center point. Manufacturing gluten-free bread with rennet casein and SHMP significantly increased the bread volume (P < 0.0001, R² = 97.8). In general, utilization of rennet casein with DSP and SAPP increased bread hardness while no difference was observed in samples manufactured with TSPP and SHMP. Except for TSPP, bread color was improved by the utilization of rennet casein and DSP, SAPP, and SHMP combinations. In conclusion, it is possible to manufacture gluten-free bread with acceptable texture and color by rennet casein and SHMP.

Keywords: celiac disease, gluten-free bread, emulsified salts, rennet casein, rice flour

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2829 Recent Trend in Gluten-Free Bakery Products

Authors: Madhuresh Dwivedi, Navneet Singh Deora, H. N. Mishra


In the context of bakery products, the gluten component of wheat has a crucial role in stabilizing the gas-cell and crumb structures, appearance, mouth feel and maintaining the rheological properties, thus the acceptability of these products. However, because of coeliac disease, some individuals cannot tolerate the protein gliadin present in the gluten fraction of wheat flour. Also termed as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, it is a common chronicle disorder in populations throughout the world with average prevalence of 0.37%. The safest way for celiac sufferers is to stay away from gluten-containing foods such as wheat, rye, barley as well as durum wheat, spelt wheat, and triticale. Thus, in view of the current increasing incidence of gluten intolerant sufferers (due to improved diagnostic procedures), the development of gluten-free cereal-based bakery products suitable for celiac patients represents a challenging and serious task, but also very demanding call for food technologists as well as for the bakers. The use of alternative cereal starches (like rice, soy, maize, potato and so on), gums, hydrocolloids, dietary fibres, alternative protein sources, prebiotics and combinations of them represent the most widespread approach used as replacement to mimic gluten in the manufacture of industrial processable gluten-free bakery products due to their structure-building and water binding properties.

Keywords: gluten-free, coeliac disease, alternative flour, hydrocolloid, crumb structure

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2828 Quinoa Choux Cream Gluten Free

Authors: Autumporn Buranapongphan, Ketsirin Meethong, Phukan Pahaphom


The objectives of this research is aim to study the standard formula of choux cream recipe. Formulation of choux cream were used gluten free as a replacer with flour in choux dough, quinoa milk in cream and shelf life on product. The results showed the acceptance test using 30 target consumers revealed that liking of choux dough with water 34%, egg 30% flour 19% butter 16% baking powder 1% and cream with milk 68% sugar 13% butter 6.8% egg 4.5% and vanilla 0.9%. The gluten free exhibited the formulation of dough is rice flour 12% potato starch 26% tapioca 7.7% and quinoa flour 4.3%. The ratio of corn flour at 40% had significant effects on liking of viscosity for quinoa cream. During storage by Total viable count (TVA) were kept in room temperature for 8 hours and chilled for 18 hours.

Keywords: choux cream, gluten free, quinoa, dough

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2827 Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model

Authors: Austin Belfiori, Kevin Rinek, Zach Barcroft, Jennifer Berglind


Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.

Keywords: gluten, colitis, microbiota, DSS, dextran sulphate sodium

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2826 Stability of Novel Peptides (Linusorbs) in Flaxseed Meal Fortified Gluten-Free Bread

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney


Flaxseed meal is rich in water-soluble gums and, as such, can improve texture in gluten-free products. Flaxseed bioactive-antioxidant peptides, linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides), are a class of molecules that may contribute health-promoting effects. The effects of dough preparation, baking, and storage on flaxseed-derived LOs stability in doughs and baked products are un-known. Gluten-free (GF) bread dough and bread were prepared with flaxseed meal and the LO content was determined in the flaxseed meal, bread flour containing the flaxseed meal, bread dough, and bread. The LO contents during storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of oxidized LOs like [1–9-NαC],[1(Rs, Ss)-MetO]-linusorb B2 (LO14) were substantially constant in flaxseed meal and flour produced from flaxseed meal under all conditions for up to 4 weeks. However, during GF-bread production LOs decreased. Due to microbial contamination dough could not be stored at either 4 or 21°C, and bread could only be stored for one week at 21°C. Up to 4 weeks storage was possible for bread and dough at −18 °C and bread at 4 °C without the loss of LOs. The LOs change mostly from processing and less so from storage. The concentration of reduced LOs in flour and meal were much higher than measured in dough and bread. There was not a corre-sponding increase in oxidized LOs. The LOs in flaxseed meal-fortified bread were stable for products stored at low temperatures. This study is the first of the impact of baking conditions on LO content and quality.

Keywords: flaxseed, stability, gluten-free, antioxidant

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2825 Combined Effect of Gluten-Free Superfoods and by-Products from Ecuador to Evaluate the Functional and Sensory Properties of Breadmaking

Authors: Andrea Vasquez, Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado


In general, 'gluten-free' foods like breadmaking products provide functional or nutraceutical benefits for the consumer's health and increased their demand on the market. In Ecuador, there is an overproduction of superfoods, and the food by-products are undervalued. For the first time, to the author's best knowledge, gluten-free bread mixtures from quinoa and banana flour, cassava starch, lupine flour (LF), or whey protein (WP) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and transglutaminase (TG) were evaluated on their functional and sensory properties. Free amino groups and thiols, rheology, and electrophoresis SDS PAGE were performed to analyze the crosslinking of TG at different concentrations with HC or PL proteins. Dough characterization, pasting properties were evaluated, respectively, by a MIXOLAB and a rheometer with a pasting cell. The texture, porosity, and loaf volume were characterized using a texturometer, ImageJ software, and breadmaking ability, respectively. Finally, a breadmaking aptitude and sensorial bread acceptability were performed. A significant decrease in the content of free amino groups (0.16 to 0.11 and 0.46 to 0.36 mM/mg of protein) and free thiol groups (0.37 to 0.21 and 1.79 to 1.32 mM/mg protein) was observed when 1.0% and 0.5% TG were added to LF and WP, respectively. In apparent viscosity analysis, the action of TG on HC proteins changes their viscosity, while the viscosity of LF is not modified by TG. Results of electrophoresis in PL showed bands of higher molecular weight of different fragments of proteins with 1% TG. Formulation with 59.8, 39.9, 160.8, 6.0, 1.0, and 1.5% of, respectively, QF, BF, CS, LF or WP, TG, and HPMC had the best properties in dough parameters, pasting parameters (lower pasting temperature and higher peak viscosity), best crumb structure, lower crumb hardness and higher loaf volume (2.24 and 2.28 mL/g). All the loaves of bread were acceptable in baking aptitude and general acceptability.

Keywords: breadmaking, gluten-free, superfoods, by-products, Ecuador

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2824 Gluten Intolerance, Celiac Disease, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Translational Perspective

Authors: Jessica A. Hellings, Piyushkumar Jani


Background: Systemic autoimmune disorders are increasingly implicated in neuropsychiatric illness, especially in the setting of treatment resistance in individuals of all ages. Gluten allergy in fullest extent results in celiac disease, affecting multiple organs including central nervous system (CNS). Clinicians often lack awareness of the association between neuropsychiatric illness and gluten allergy, partly since many such research studies are published in immunology and gastroenterology journals. Methods: Following a Pubmed literature search and online searches on celiac disease websites, 40 articles are critically reviewed in detail. This work reviews celiac disease, gluten intolerance and current evidence of their relationship to neuropsychiatric and systemic illnesses. The review also covers current work-up and diagnosis, as well as dietary interventions, gluten restriction outcomes, and future research directions. Results: Gluten allergy in susceptible individuals damages the small intestine, producing a leaky gut and malabsorption state, as well as allowing antibodies into the bloodstream, which attack major organs. Lack of amino acid precursors for neurotransmitter synthesis together with antibody-associated brain changes and hypoperfusion may result in neuropsychiatric illness. This is well documented; however, studies in neuropsychiatry are often small. In the large CATIE trial, subjects with schizophrenia had significantly increased antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TTG), and antigliadin antibodies, both significantly greater gluten antibodies than in control subjects. On later follow up, TTG-6 antibodies were identified in these subjects’ brains but not in their intestines. Significant evidence mostly from small studies also exists for gluten allergy and celiac-related depression, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, ataxia, and epilepsy. Dietary restriction of gluten resulted in remission in several published cases, including for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Conclusions: Ongoing and larger studies are needed of the diagnosis and treatment efficacy of the gluten-free diet in neuropsychiatric illness. Clinicians should ask about the patient history of anemia, hypothyroidism, irritable bowel syndrome and family history of benefit from the gluten-free diet, not limited to but especially in cases of treatment resistance. Obtaining gluten antibodies by a simple blood test, and referral for gastrointestinal work-up in positive cases should be considered.

Keywords: celiac, gluten, neuropsychiatric, translational

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2823 Safety of Implementation the Gluten - Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: J. Jessa


Background: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, the incidence of which has significantly increased in recent years. Children with autism have impairments in social skills, communication, and imagination. Children with autism has more common than healthy children feeding problems: food selectivity, problems with gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea, constipations, abdominal pain, reflux and others. Many parents of autistic children report that after implementation of gluten-, casein- and sugar free diet those symptoms disappear and even cognitive functions become better. Some children begin to understand speech and to communicate with parents, regain eye contact, become more calm, sleep better and has better concentration. Probably at the root of this phenomenon lies elimination from the diet peptides construction of which is similar to opiates. Enhanced permeability of gut causes absorption of not fully digested opioid-like peptides from food, like gluten and casein and probably others (proteins from soy and corn) which impact on brain of autistic children. Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the safety of gluten-free diet in children with autism, aged 2,5-7. Methods: Participants of the study (n=70) – children aged 2,5-7 with autism are divided into 3 groups. The first group (research group) are patients whose parents want to implement a gluten-free diet. The second group are patients who have been recommended to eliminate from the diet artificial substances, such as preservatives, artificial colors and flavors, and others (control group 1). The third group (control group 2) are children whose parents did not agree for implementation of the diet. Caregivers of children on the diet are educated about the specifics of the diet and how to avoid malnutrition. At the start of the study we exclude celiac disease. Before the implementation of the diet we performe a blood test for patients (morphology, ferritin, total cholesterol, dry peripheral blood drops to detect some genetic metabolic diseases), plasma aminogram) and urine tests (excretion of ions: Mg, Na, Ca, the profile of organic acids in urine), which assess nutritional status as well as the psychological test assessing the degree of the child's psychological functioning (PEP-R). All of these tests will be repeated after one year from the implementation of the diet. Results: To the present moment we examined 42 children with autism. 12 of children are on gluten- free diet. Our preliminary results are promising. Parents of 9 of them report that, there is a big improvement in child behavior, concentration, less aggression incidents, better eye contact and better verbal skills. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that dietary intervention may positively affect developmental outcome for some children diagnosed with ASD.

Keywords: gluten free diet, autism spectrum disorder, autism, blood test

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2822 The Search of New Laws for a Gluten Kingdom

Authors: Mohammed Saleem Tariq


The enthusiasm for gluten avoidance in a growing market is met by improvements in sensitive detection methods for analysing gluten content. Paradoxically, manufacturers employ no such systems in the production process but continue to market their product as gluten free, a significant risk posed to an undetermined coeliac population. The paper resonates with an immunological response that causes gastrointestinal scarring and villous atrophy with the conventional description of personal injury. The current developing regime in the UK however, it is discussed, has avoided creating specific rules to provide an adequate level of protection for this type of vulnerable ‘characteristic’. Due to the struggle involved with identifying an appropriate cause of action, this paper analyses whether a claim brought in misrepresentation, negligence and/or under the Consumer Protect Act 1987 could be sustained. A necessary comparison is then made with the approach adopted by the Americans with Disability Act 1990 which recognises this chronic disease as a disability. The ongoing failure to introduce a level of protection which matches that afforded to those who fall into any one of the ‘protected characteristics’ under the Equality Act 2010, is inconceivable given the outstanding level of legal vulnerability.

Keywords: coeliac, litigation, misrepresentation, negligence

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2821 Quantification of Peptides (linusorbs) in Gluten-free Flaxseed Fortified Bakery Products

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin JT Reaney


Flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a superfood due to its health-promoting properties. Linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. Cyclolinopeptide) are bioactive compounds present in flaxseed exhibiting potential health effects. The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived LOs added to various bakery products. The flaxseed meal fortified gluten-free (GF) bakery bread was prepared, and the changes of LOs during the bread-making process (meal, fortified flour, dough, and bread) and storage (0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks) at different temperatures (−18 °C, 4 °C, and 22−23 °C) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The total oxidative LOs and LO1OB2 were almost kept stable in flaxseed meals at storage temperatures of 22−23 °C, −18 °C, and 4 °C for up to four weeks. Processing steps during GF-bread production resulted in the oxidation of LOs. Interestingly, no LOs were detected in the dough sample; however, LOs appeared when the dough was stored at −18 °C for one week, suggesting that freezing destroyed the sticky structure of the dough and resulted in the release of LOs. The final product, flaxseed meal fortified bread, could be stored for up to four weeks at −18 °C and 4 °C, and for one week at 22−23 °C. All these results suggested that LOs may change during processing and storage and that flaxseed flour-fortified bread should be stored at low temperatures to preserve effective LOs components.

Keywords: linum usitatissimum L., flaxseed, linusorb, stability, gluten-free, peptides, cyclolinopeptide

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2820 Impact of Corn Gluten Hydrolysate on Seedling Growth

Authors: Jyotika Chopra, Dinesh Goyal


A study was initiated to examine the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate on seedlings growth and its development. Corn gluten is the byproduct of starch industry rich in proteins was hydrolysed by acid and alkali, and the impact of hydrolysate was studied on seed germination of Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulagris (Fabaceae) and Triticum aestivum and Oryza sativa (Gramineae). For this, the optimum hydrolysis was obtained by 4NHCl and 4M NaOH where insoluble protein in gluten was broken down to glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid which was initially confirmed by biuret test, xanthoproteic, solubility and chromatographic tests. The seeds of above families were separately treated with different dilutions of corn gluten hydrolysate ranging from 1-100% to see effects produced by these dilutions on seed germination, plumule, and radical growth. The seedlings were put in the Petri plates and placed in the optimized conditions of temperature (37˚C) and photoperiod of 16:8 hours. The results indicate the plumule of all seeds shows the increase in growth pattern up to 25.75%. Whereas radical shows the increase in growth up to 25.88% till 10% of dilution of corn and wheat gluten hydrolysate with respect to water as blank. Further, there is decrease in growth from 30- 100% of dilutions of both, the hydrolysate indicates the inhibitory effects which unveil about the careful usage of gluten hydrolysate.

Keywords: corn gluten, characterization, hydrolysis, seedling growth

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2819 Aquafaba Derived from Korean Soybean Cultivars: A Novel Vegan Egg Replacer

Authors: Yue He, Youn Young Shim, Ji Hye Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Martin J. T. Reaney


Recently, pulse cooking water (a.k.a. Aquafaba) has been used as an important and cost-effective alternative to eggs in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. The aquafaba (AQ) is primarily due to its excellent ability to stabilize foams and emulsions in foods. However, the functional ingredients of this excellent AQ are usually discarded with the compound release. This study developed a high-functional food material, AQ, using functional soybean AQ that has not been studied in Korea. A zero-waste and cost-effective hybrid process were used to produce oil emulsifiers from Korean soybeans. The treatment technique was implemented using a small number of efficient steps. Aquafaba from Backtae had the best emulsion properties (92%) and has the potential to produce more stable food oil emulsions. Therefore, this study is expected to be utilized in the development of the first gluten-free, vegan product for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies, utilizing wastewater from cooked soybeans as a source of plant protein that can replace animal protein.

Keywords: aquafaba, soybean, chickpea, emulsifiers, egg replacer, egg-free products

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2818 Fluorometric Aptasensor: Evaluation of Stability and Comparison to Standard Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

Authors: J. Carlos Kuri, Varun Vij, Raymond J. Turner, Orly Yadid-Pecht


Celiac disease (CD) is an immune system disorder that is triggered by ingesting gluten. As a gluten-free (GF) diet has become a concern of many people for health reasons, a gold standard had to be nominated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has taken the seat of this role. However, multiple limitations were discovered, and with that, the desire for an alternative method now exists. Nucleic acid-based aptamers have become of great interest due to their selectivity, specificity, simplicity, and rapid-testing advantages. However, fluorescence-based aptasensors have been tagged as unstable, but lifespan details are rarely stated. In this work, the lifespan stability of a fluorescence-based aptasensor is shown over an 8-week-long study displaying the accuracy of the sensor and false negatives. This study follows 22 different samples, including GF and gluten-rich (GR) and soy sauce products, off-the-shelf products, and reference material from laboratories, giving a total of 836 tests. The analysis shows an accuracy of correctly classifying GF and GR products of 96.30% and 100%, respectively when the protocol is augmented with molecular sieves. The overall accuracy remains around 94% within the first four weeks and then decays to 63%.

Keywords: aptasensor, PEG, rGO, FAM, RM, ELISA

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2817 Proximate Composition, Minerals and Sensory Attributes of Cake, Cookies, Cracker, and Chin-Chin Prepared from Cassava-Gari Residue Flour

Authors: Alice Nwanyioma Ohuoba, Rose Erdoo Kukwa, Ukpabi Joseph Ukpabi


Cassava root (Manihot esculenta) is one of the important carbohydrates containing crops in Nigeria. It is a staple food, mostly in the southern part of the country, and a source of income to farmers and processors. Cassava gari processing methods result to residue fiber (solid waste) from the sieving operation, these residue fibers ( solid wastes) can be dried and milled into flour and used to prepare cakes, cookies, crackers and chin-chin instead of being thrown away mostly on farmland or near the residential area. Flour for baking or frying may contain carbohydrates and protein (wheat flour) or rich in only carbohydrates (cassava flour). Cake, cookies, crackers, and chin-chin were prepared using the residue flour obtained from the residue fiber of cassava variety NR87184 roots, processed into gari. This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, mineral content and sensory attributes of these selected snacks produced. The proximate composition results obtained showed that crackers had the lowest value in moisture (2.3390%) and fat (1.7130%), but highest in carbohydrates (85.2310%). Amongst the food products, cakes recorded the highest value in protein (8.0910%). Crude fibre values ranges from 2.5265% (cookies) to 3.4165% (crackers). The result of the mineral contents showed cookies ranking the highest in Phosphorus (65.8535 ppm) and Iron (0.1150 mg/L), Calcium (1.3800mg/L) and Potassium (7.2850 mg/L) contents, while chin-chin and crackers were lowest in Sodium ( 2.7000 mg/L). The food products were also subjected to sensory attributes evaluation by thirty member panelists using 9-hedonic scale which ranged from 1 ( dislike extremely) to 9 (like extremely). The means score obtained shows all the food products having above 7.00 (above “like moderately”). This study has shown that food products that may be functional or nutraceuticals could be prepared from the residue flour. There is a call for the use of gluten-free flour in baking due to ciliac disease and other allergic causes by gluten. Therefore local carbohydrates food crops like cassava residue flour that are gluten-free, could be the solution. In addition, this could aid cassava gari processing waste management thereby reducing post-harvest losses of cassava root.

Keywords: allergy, flour, food-products, gluten-free

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2816 Bread-Making Properties of Rice Flour Dough Using Fatty Acid Salt

Authors: T. Hamaishi, Y. Morinaga, H. Morita


Introduction: Rice consumption in Japan has decreased, and Japanese government has recommended use of rice flour in order to expand the consumption of rice. There are two major protein components present in flour, called gliadin and glutenin. Gluten forms when water is added to flour and is mixed. As mixing continues, glutenin interacts with gliadin to form viscoelastic matrix of gluten. Rice flour bread does not expand as much as wheat flour bread. Because rice flour is not included gluten, it cannot construct gluten network in the dough. In recent years, some food additives have been used for dough-improving agent in bread making, especially surfactants has effect in order to improve dough extensibility. Therefore, we focused to fatty acid salt which is one of anionic surfactants. Fatty acid salt is a salt consist of fatty acid and alkali, it is main components of soap. According to JECFA(FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives), salts of Myristic(C14), Palmitic(C16) and Stearic(C18) could be used as food additive. They have been evaluated ADI was not specified. In this study, we investigated to improving bread-making properties of rice flour dough adding fatty acid salt. Materials and methods: The sample of fatty acid salt is myristic (C14) dissolved in KOH solution to a concentration of 350 mM and pH 10.5. Rice dough was consisted of 100 g of flour using rice flour and wheat gluten, 5 g of sugar, 1.7 g of salt, 1.7g of dry yeast, 80 mL of water and fatty acid salt. Mixing was performed for 500 times by using hand. The concentration of C14K in the dough was 10 % relative to flour weight. Amount of gluten in the dough was 20 %, 30 % relative to flour weight. Dough expansion ability test was performed to measure physical property of bread dough according to the methods of Baker’s Yeast by Japan Yeast Industry Association. In this test, 150 g of dough was filled from bottom of the cylinder and fermented at 30 °C,85 % humidity for 120 min on an incubator. The height of the expansion in the dough was measured and determined its expansion ability. Results and Conclusion: Expansion ability of rice dough with gluten content of 20 %, 30% showed 316 mL, 341 mL for 120 min. When C14K adding to the rice dough, dough expansion abilities were 314 mL, 368 mL for 120 min, there was no significant difference. Conventionally it has been known that the rice flour dough contain gluten of 20 %. The considerable improvement of dough expansion ability was achieved when added C14K to wheat flour. The experimental result shows that c14k adding to the rice dough with gluten content more than 20 % was not improving bread-making properties. In conclusion, rice bread made with gluten content more than 20 % without C14K has been suggested to contribute to the formation of the sufficient gluten network.

Keywords: expansion ability, fatty acid salt, gluten, rice flour dough

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2815 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Controlling of Autism in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari


Objectives: The prevalence of Autism in the world has taken on a growing trend. Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that is identified at the age of three. Studies have been shown that nutritional management can control nutritional deficiencies in Autism. This review study aimed to assess the role of nutritional management strategies for Autism in children has been made. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 68 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 15 articles with criteria such as including dietary pattern, nutritional deficiencies and Autism controlling were selected. Results: The studies showed that intake of vitamins D, E, and calcium because of restricted diet (casein and gluten free) in autistic children is less than typically developing children (TYP) (p value ≤ 0.001) and as a result of restrictions on the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, vitamin C and magnesium intake is less than TYP children (p value ≤ 0.001). Autistic children also get omega-3 less than TYP children. Studies have shown that food sources rich in omega-3 can improve behavioral indicators, especially in reducing hyperactivity (95% CI = -2.2 - 5.2). Zinc deficiency in these children leads to a high serum level of mercury, lead and cadmium. As a result of the repetitive dietary pattern, Sodium intake in autistic children is more than TYP children (p value < 0.001).Because of low food variety in autistic children, healthy eating index (HEI) is less than TYP children (p value = 0.008).Food selectivity in Autism due to repetitive and restricted dietary pattern and nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Because of restricted (casein and gluten free) and repetitive dietary pattern, the intake of some micronutrients are denied in autistic children. The nutritional strategy programs appear to help controlling of Autism.

Keywords: autism, food selectivity, nutrient intake, nutritional strategies

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2814 Prevalence of Positive Serology for Celiac Disease in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: A. Venkatakrishnan, M. Juneja, S. Kapoor


Background: Gastrointestinal dysfunction is an emerging co morbidity seen in autism and may further strengthen the association between autism and celiac disease. This is supported by increased rates (22-70%) of gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, constipation, abdominal discomfort/pain, and gastrointestinal inflammation in children with the etiology of autism is still elusive. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors such as toxin exposure, intrauterine exposure to certain teratogenic drugs, are being proposed as possible contributing factors in the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in cognizance with reports of increased gut permeability and high rates of gastrointestinal symptoms noted in children with ASD, celiac disease has also been proposed as a possible etiological factor. Despite insufficient evidence regarding the benefit of restricted diets in Autism, GFD has been promoted as an alternative treatment for ASD. This study attempts to discern any correlation between ASD and celiac disease. Objective: This cross sectional study aims to determine the proportion of celiac disease in children with ASD. Methods: Study included 155 participants aged 2-12 yrs, diagnosed as ASD as per DSM-5 attending the child development center at a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Those on gluten free diet or having other autoimmune conditions were excluded. A detailed Performa was filled which included sociodemographic details, history of gastrointestinal symptoms, anthropometry, systemic examination, and pertinent psychological testing was done using was assessed using Developmental Profile-3(DP-3) for Developmental Quotient, Childhood Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2) for severity of ASD, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) for adaptive behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for behavioral problems and BAMBI (Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Scales) for feeding problems. Screening for celiac was done by TTG-IgA levels, and total serum IgA levels were measured to exclude IgA deficiency. Those with positive screen were further planned for HLA typing and endoscopic biopsy. Results: A total of 155 cases were included, out of which 5 had low IgA levels and were hence excluded from the study. The rest 150 children had TTG levels below the ULN and normal total serum IgA level. History of Gastrointestinal symptoms was present in 51 (34%) cases abdominal pain was the most frequent complaint (16.6%), followed by constipation (12.6%). Diarrhea was seen in 8 %. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more common in children with ASD above 5 yrs (p-value 0.006) and those who were verbal (p = 0.000). There was no significant association between socio-demographic factors, anthropometric data, or severity of autism with gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion: None of the150 patients with ASD had raised TTG levels; hence no association was found between ASD and celiac disease. There is no justification for routine screening for celiac disease in children with ASD. Further studies are warranted to evaluate association of Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity with ASD and any role of gluten-free diet in such patients.

Keywords: autism, celiac, gastrointestinal, gluten

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2813 Enzyme Treatment of Sorghum Dough: Modifications of Rheological Properties and Product Characteristics

Authors: G. K. Sruthi, Sila Bhattacharya


Sorghum is an important food crop in the dry tropical areas of the world, and possesses significant levels of phytochemicals and dietary fiber to offer health benefits. However, the absence of gluten is a limitation for converting the sorghum dough into sheeted/flattened/rolled products. Chapathi/roti (flat unleavened bread prepared conventionally from whole wheat flour dough) was attempted from sorghum as wheat gluten causes allergic reactions leading to celiac disease. Dynamic oscillatory rheology of sorghum flour dough (control sample) and enzyme treated sorghum doughs were studied and linked to the attributes of the finished ready-to-eat product. Enzymes like amylase, xylanase, and a mix of amylase and xylanase treated dough affected drastically the rheological behaviour causing a lowering of dough consistency. In the case of amylase treated dough, marked decrease of the storage modulus (G') values from 85513 Pa to 23041 Pa and loss modulus (G") values from 8304 Pa to 7370 Pa was noticed while the phase angle (δ) increased from 5.6 to 10.1o for treated doughs. There was a 2 and 3 fold increase in the total sugar content after α-amylase and xylanase treatment, respectively, with simultaneous changes in the structure of the dough and finished product. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited enhanced extent of changes in starch granules. Amylase and mixed enzyme treatment produced a sticky dough which was difficult to roll/flatten. The dough handling properties were improved by the use of xylanase and quality attributes of the chapath/roti. It is concluded that enzyme treatment can offer improved rheological status of gluten free doughs and products.

Keywords: sorghum dough, amylase, xylanase, dynamic oscillatory rheology, sensory assessment

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2812 Effect of Planting Date on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Different Bread Wheat and Durum Cultivars

Authors: Mahdi Nasiri Tabrizi, A. Dadkhah, M. Khirkhah


In order to study the effect of planting on yield, yield components and quality traits in bread and durum wheat varieties, a field split-plot experiment based on complete randomized design with three replications was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Razavi Khorasan located in city of Mashhad during 2013-2014. Main factor were consisted of five sowing dates (first October, fifteenth December, first March, tenth March, twentieth March) and as sub-factors consisted of different bread wheat (Bahar, Pishgam, Pishtaz, Mihan, Falat and Karim) and two durum wheat (Dena and Dehdasht). According to results of analysis variance the effect of planting date was significant on all examined traits (grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, number of grain per spike, thousands kernel weight, number of spike per square meter, plant height, the number of days to heading, the number of days to maturity, during the grain filling period, percentage of wet gluten, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, percentage of protein). By delay in planting, majority of traits significantly decreased, except quality traits (percentage of wet gluten, percentage of dry gluten and percentage of protein). Results of means comparison showed, among planting date the highest grain yield and biological yield were related to first planting date (Octobr) with mean of production of 5/6 and 1/17 tons per hectare respectively and the highest bread quality (gluten index) with mean of 85 and percentage of protein with mean of 13% to fifth planting date also the effect of genotype was significant on all traits. The highest grain yield among of studied wheat genotypes was related to Dehdasht cultivar with an average production of 4.4 tons per hectare. The highest protein percentage and bread quality (gluten index) were related to Dehdasht cultivar with 13.4% and Falat cultivar with number of 90 respectively. The interaction between cultivar and planting date was significant on all traits and different varieties had different trend for these traits. The highest grain yield was related to first planting date (October) and Falat cultivar with an average of production of 6/7 tons per hectare while in grain yield did not show a significant different with Pishtas and Mihan cultivars also the most of gluten index (bread quality index) and protein percentage was belonged to the third planting date and Karim cultivar with 7.98 and Dena cultivar with 7.14% respectively.

Keywords: yield component, yield, planting date, cultivar, quality traits, wheat

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2811 Microscale observations of a gas cell wall rupture in bread dough during baking and confrontation to 2/3D Finite Element simulations of stress concentration

Authors: Kossigan Bernard Dedey, David Grenier, Tiphaine Lucas


Bread dough is often described as a dispersion of gas cells in a continuous gluten/starch matrix. The final bread crumb structure is strongly related to gas cell walls (GCWs) rupture during baking. At the end of proofing and during baking, part of the thinnest GCWs between expanding gas cells is reduced to a gluten film of about the size of a starch granule. When such size is reached gluten and starch granules must be considered as interacting phases in order to account for heterogeneities and appropriately describe GCW rupture. Among experimental investigations carried out to assess GCW rupture, no experimental work was performed to observe the GCW rupture in the baking conditions at GCW scale. In addition, attempts to numerically understand GCW rupture are usually not performed at the GCW scale and often considered GCWs as continuous. The most relevant paper that accounted for heterogeneities dealt with the gluten/starch interactions and their impact on the mechanical behavior of dough film. However, stress concentration in GCW was not discussed. In this study, both experimental and numerical approaches were used to better understand GCW rupture in bread dough during baking. Experimentally, a macro-scope placed in front of a two-chamber device was used to observe the rupture of a real GCW of 200 micrometers in thickness. Special attention was paid in order to mimic baking conditions as far as possible (temperature, gas pressure and moisture). Various differences in pressure between both sides of GCW were applied and different modes of fracture initiation and propagation in GCWs were observed. Numerically, the impact of gluten/starch interactions (cohesion or non-cohesion) and rheological moduli ratio on the mechanical behavior of GCW under unidirectional extension was assessed in 2D/3D. A non-linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic approach was performed to match the finite strain involved in GCW during baking. Stress concentration within GCW was identified. Simulated stresses concentration was discussed at the light of GCW failure observed in the device. The gluten/starch granule interactions and rheological modulus ratio were found to have a great effect on the amount of stress possibly reached in the GCW.

Keywords: dough, experimental, numerical, rupture

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2810 Association Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Adult Patients

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Taieb Ach, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Neirouz Ghannouchi, Koussay Ach, Elhem Ben Jazia


Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are complex disorders with shared genetic components. The association between CD and T1D has been reported in many pediatric series. The aim of our study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutive characteristics of adult patients presenting this association. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study including patients diagnosed with CD and T1D, explored in Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Endocrinology and Diabetology Departments of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, between January 2005 and June 2016. Results: Among 57 patients with CD, 15 patients had also T1D (26.3%). There are 11 women and 4 men with a median age of 27 years (16-48). All patients developed T1D prior to the diagnosis of CD with an average duration of 47 months between the two diagnosis (6 months-5 years). CD was revealed by recurrent abdominal pain in 11 cases, diarrhea in 10 cases, bloating in 8 cases, constipation in 6 cases and vomiting in 2 cases. Three patients presented cycle disorders with secondary amenorrhea in 2 patients. Anti-Endomysium, anti-transglutaminase and Anti-gliadin antibodies were positive respectively in 57, 54 and 11 cases. The biological tests revealed anemia in 10 cases, secondary to iron deficiency in 6 cases and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in 4 cases, hypoalbuminaemia in 4 cases, hypocalcemia in 3 cases and hypocholesterolemia in 1 patient. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an effacement of the folds of the duodenal mucosa in 6 cases and a congestive duodenal mucosa in 3 cases. The macroscopic appearance was normal in the others cases. Microscopic examination showed an aspect of villous atrophy in 57 cases, which was partial in 10 cases and total in 47 cases. After an average follow-up of 3 years 2 months, the evolution was favorable in all patients under gluten-free diet with the necessity of less important doses of insulin in 10 patients. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of T1D in adult patients with CD was 26.3%. This association can be attributed to overlapping genetic HLA risk loci. In recent studies, the role of gluten as an important player in the pathogenesis of CD and T1D has been also suggested.

Keywords: celiac disease, gluten, prevalence, type 1 diabetes

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2809 A Review of Evidence on the Use of Digital Healthcare Interventions to Provide Follow-Up Care for Coeliac Disease Patients

Authors: R. Cooper, M. Kurien


Background: Coeliac Disease affects around 1 in 100 people. Untreated, it can result in serious morbidity such as malabsorption and cancers. The only treatment is to adhere to a gluten free diet (GFD). International guidelines recommend that people with the coeliac disease receive follow-up healthcare annually to detect complications early and support their adherence to a GFD. However, there is a finite amount of healthcare in the UK, and as such, not all patients receive follow-up care as recommended by the guidelines. Furthermore, there is an increasing number of patients being diagnosed with coeliac disease. Given the potential severe morbidity that non-adherence to a GFD could result in, alongside reports that the rate of non- GFD adherence could be as high as 91%, it is imperative that action is taken. One potential solution to this would be to provide follow-up care digitally through utilising technology. This abstract reports on a rapid review undertaken to explore the existing evidence in this area. Methods: In June 2020, 11 bibliographic databases were searched to find any pertinent studies. The inclusion criteria required the study to be written in the English language and report on the use of digital healthcare interventions for people with Coeliac Disease. Results: A small amount of evidence (n=8) was found which met our inclusion criteria and pertained to the provision of CD follow-up digitally. These studies focussed either on educating and supporting patients to adhere to a GFD or providing consultation remotely with a focus on detecting complications early. These studies showed that there is potential for digital healthcare interventions to positively impact people with coeliac disease. However, it is suggested that the effectiveness of these interventions may depend on local circumstances, individual knowledge of CD and general attitudes. Conclusion: The above studies suggest that providing follow-up care digitally may offer a potential solution; however, the evidence about how this should be done and in what circumstances this will work for individuals is scarce. In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, the introduction of digital healthcare interventions appears to be highly topical, and as such, this review may benefit from being refreshed in the future.

Keywords: coeliac disease, follow-up, gluten free diet, digital healthcare interventions

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2808 Sulfur-Containing Diet Shift Hydrogen Metabolism and Reduce Methane Emission and Modulated Gut Microbiome in Goats

Authors: Tsegay Teklebrhan Gebremariam, Zhiliang, Arjan Jonker


The study investigated that using corn gluten (CG) instead of cornmeal (CM) increased dietary sulfur shifted H₂ metabolism from methanogenesis to alternative sink and modulated microbiome in the rumen as well as hindgut segments of goats. Ruminal fermentation, CH₄ emissions and microbial abundance in goats (n = 24). The experiment was performed using a randomized block design with two dietary treatments (CM and CG with 400 g/kg DM each). Goats in CG increased sulfur, NDF and CP intake and decreased starch intake as compared with those in CM. Goats that received CG diet had decreased dissolved hydrogen (dH₂) (P = 0.01) and dissolved methane yield and emission (dCH₄) (P = 0.001), while increased dH₂S both in the rumen and hindgut segments than those fed CM. Goats fed CG had higher (p < 0.01) gene copies of microbiota and cellulolytic bacteria, whereas starch utilizing bacterial species were less in the rumen and hindgut than those fed CM. Higher (P < 0.05) methanogenic diversity and abundances of Methanimicrococcus and Methanomicrobium were observed in goats that consumed CG, whilst containing lower Methanobrevibacter populations than those receiving CM. The study suggested that goats fed corn gluten improved the gene copies of microbiota and fibrolytic bacterial species while reducing starch utilizing species in the rumen and hindgut segments as compared with that fed cornmeal. Goats consuming corn gluten had a more enriched methanogenic diversity and reduced Methanobrevibacter, a contributor to CH₄ emissions, as compared with goats fed CM. Corn gluten could be used as an alternative feed to decrease the enteric CH₄ emission in ruminant production.

Keywords: dissolved gasses, methanogenesis, microbial community, metagenomics

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2807 Research Regarding Resistance Characteristics of Biscuits Assortment Using Cone Penetrometer

Authors: G.–A. Constantin, G. Voicu, E.–M. Stefan, P. Tudor, G. Paraschiv, M.–G. Munteanu


In the activity of handling and transport of food products, the products may be subjected to mechanical stresses that may lead to their deterioration by deformation, breaking, or crushing. This is the case for biscuits, regardless of their type (gluten-free or sugary), the addition of ingredients or flour from which they are made. However, gluten-free biscuits have a higher mechanical resistance to breakage or crushing compared to easily shattered sugar biscuits (especially those for children). The paper presents the results of the experimental evaluation of the texture for four varieties of commercial biscuits, using the penetrometer equipped with needle cone at five different additional weights on the cone-rod. The assortments of biscuits tested in the laboratory were Petit Beurre, Picnic, and Maia (all three manufactured by RoStar, Romania) and Sultani diet biscuits, manufactured by Eti Burcak Sultani (Turkey, in packs of 138 g). For the four varieties of biscuits and the five additional weights (50, 77, 100, 150 and 177 g), the experimental data obtained were subjected to regression analysis in the MS Office Excel program, using Velon's relationship (h = a∙ln(t) + b). The regression curves were analysed comparatively in order to identify possible differences and to highlight the variation of the penetration depth h, in relation to the time t. Based on the penetration depth between two-time intervals (every 5 seconds), the curves of variation of the penetration speed in relation to time were then drawn. It was found that Velon's law verifies the experimental data for all assortments of biscuits and for all five additional weights. The correlation coefficient R2 had in most of the analysed cases values over 0.850. The values recorded for the penetration depth were framed, in general, within 45-55 p.u. (penetrometric units) at an additional mass of 50 g, respectively between 155-168 p.u., at an additional mass of 177 g, at Petit Beurre biscuits. For Sultani diet biscuits, the values of the penetration depth were within the limits of 32-35 p.u., at an additional weight of 50 g and between 80-114 p.u., at an additional weight of 177g. The data presented in the paper can be used by both operators on the manufacturing technology flow, as well as by the traders of these food products, in order to establish the most efficient parametric of the working regimes (when packaging and handling).

Keywords: biscuits resistance/texture, penetration depth, penetration velocity, sharp pin penetrometer

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2806 Elevated Celiac Antibodies and Abnormal Duodenal Biopsies Associated with IBD Markers: Possible Role of Altered Gut Permeability and Inflammation in Gluten Related Disorders

Authors: Manav Sabharwal, Ruda Rai Md, Candace Parker, James Ridley


Wheat is one of the most commonly consumed grains worldwide, which contains gluten. Nowadays, gluten intake is considered to be a trigger for GRDs, including Celiac disease (CD), a common genetic disease affecting 1% of the US population, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and wheat allergy. NCGS is being recognized as an acquired gluten-sensitive enteropathy that is prevalent across age, ethnic and geographic groups. The cause of this entity is not fully understood, and recent studies suggest that it is more common in participants with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with iron deficiency anemia, symptoms of fatigue, and has considerable overlap in symptoms with IBS and Crohn’s disease. However, these studies were lacking in availability of complete serologies, imaging tests and/or pan-endoscopy. We performed a prospective study of 745 adult patients who presented to an outpatient clinic for evaluation of chronic upper gastro-intestinal symptoms and subsequently underwent an upper endoscopic (EGD) examination as standard of care. Evaluation comprised of comprehensive celiac antibody panel, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) serologic markers, duodenal biopsies and Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy (VCE), when available. At least 6 biopsy specimens were obtained from the duodenum and proximal jejunum during EGD, and CD3+ Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and villous architecture were evaluated by a single experienced pathologist, and VCE was performed by a single experienced gastroenterologist. Of the 745 patients undergoing EGD, 12% (93/745) patients showed elevated CD3+ IELs in the duodenal biopsies. 52% (387/745) completed a comprehensive CD panel and 7.2% (28/387) were positive for at least 1 CD antibody (Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), being the most common antibody in 65% (18/28)). Of these patients, 18% (5/28) showed increased duodenal CD3+ IELs, but 0% showed villous blunting or distortion to meet criteria for CD. Surprisingly, 43% (12/28) were positive for at 1 IBD serology (ASCA, ANCA or expanded IBD panel (LabCorp)). Of these 28 patients, 29% (8/28) underwent a SB VCE, of which 100 % (8/8) showed significant jejuno-ileal mucosal lesions diagnostic for IBD. Findings of abnormal CD antibodies (7.2%, 28/387) and increased CD3+ IELs on duodenal biopsy (12%, 93/745) were observed frequently in patients with UGI symptoms undergoing EGD in an outpatient clinic. None met criteria for CD, and a high proportion (43%, 12/28) showed evidence of overlap with IBD. This suggests a potential causal link of acquired GRDs to underlying inflammation and gut mucosal barrier disruption. Further studies to investigate a role for abnormal antigen presentation of dietary gluten to gut associated lymphoid tissue as a cause are justified. This may explain a high prevalence of GRDs in the population and correlation with IBS, IBD and other gut inflammatory disorders.

Keywords: celiac, gluten sensitive enteropathy, lymphocitic enteritis, IBS, IBD

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2805 Microbial Metabolites with Ability of Anti-Free Radicals

Authors: Yu Pu, Chien-Ping Hsiao, Chien-Chang Huang, Chieh-Lun Cheng


Free radicals can accelerate aging on human skin by causing lipid oxidation, protein denaturation, and even DNA mutation. Substances with the ability of anti-free radicals can be used as functional components in cosmetic products. Research are attracted to develop new anti-free radical components for cosmetic application. This study was aimed to evaluate the microbial metabolites on free radical scavenging ability. Two microorganisms, PU-01 and PU-02, were isolated from soil of hot spring environment and grew in LB agar at 50°C for 24 h. The suspension was collected by centrifugation at 4800 g for 3 min, The anti-free radical activity was determined by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging assay. The result showed that the growth medium of PU-01 presented a higher DPPH scavenging effect than that of PU-02. This study presented potential anti-free radical components from microbial metabolites that might be applied in anti-aging cosmetics.

Keywords: anti-ageing, anti-free radical, biotechnology, microorganism

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2804 Osteoarticular Manifestations and Abnormalities of Bone Metabolism in Celiac Disease

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Elhem Ben Jazia


Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory enteropathy caused by gluten. The clinical presentation is very variable. Malabsorption in the MC is responsible for an alteration of the bone metabolism. Our purpose is to study the osteoarticular manifestations related to this condition. Material and methods: It is a retrospective study of 41 cases of CD diagnosed on clinical, immunological, endoscopic and histological arguments, in the Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Department of Farhat Hached Hospital between September 2005 and January 2016. Results: Osteoarticular manifestations were found in 9 patients (22%) among 41 patients presenting CD. These were 7 women and 2 men with an average age of 35.7 years (25 to 67 years). These manifestations were revelatory of CD in 3 cases. Abdominal pain and diarrhea were present in 6 cases. Inflammatory polyarthralgia of wrists and knees has been reported in 7 patients. Mechanical mono arthralgia was noted in 2 patients. Biological tests revealed microcytic anemia by iron deficiency in 7 cases, hypocalcemia in 5 cases, Hypophosphatemia in 3 cases and elevated alkaline phosphatases in 3 cases. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy found villous atrophy in all cases. In immunology, Anti-transglutaminase antibodies were positive in all patients, Anti-endomysium in 7 cases. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by biphotonic X-ray absorptiometer with evaluation of the T-score and the Z-score was performed in Twenty patients (48.8%). It was normal in 7 cases (33%) and showed osteopenia in 5 patients (25%) and osteoporosis in 2 patients (10%). All patients were treated with a Gluten-free diet associated with vitamin D and calcium substitution in 5 cases. The evolution was favorable in all cases with reduction of bone pain and normalization of the phosphocalcic balance. Conclusion: The bone impact of CD is frequent but often asymptomatic. Patients with CD should be evaluated by the measurement of bone mineral density and monitored for calcium and vitamin D deficiencies.

Keywords: bone mineral density, celiac disease, osteoarticular manifestations, vitamin D and calcium

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2803 Influence of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yields and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat under Different Environmental Conditions

Authors: Alicja Sułek, Grażyna Cacak-Pietrzak, Marta Wyzińska, Anna Nieróbca


In 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, a field experiment was conducted in two locations: Osiny and Wielichowo (Poland). The two-factor experiment was based on the method of randomized subblocks, in three replications. The first factor (A) was dose of nitrogen fertilization (two levels). The second factor (B) was nine winter wheat cultivars. It was found that winter wheat cultivars exhibited different reactions to higher nitrogen fertilization depending on the years and localities. Only KWS Dacanto cultivar under all growing conditions showed a significant increase in grain yield after the application of a higher level of nitrogen fertilization. The increase in nitrogen fertilization influenced the increase in gluten proteins content in wheat grain, but these changes were statistically significant only in the first year of the study. The quality of gluten does not depend on nitrogen fertilization. The quality of wheat grain depends on cultivars.

Keywords: fertilization, grain quality, winter wheat, yield

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