Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: caregiver

89 The Model Development of Caregiver Skills for the End of Life’s Cancer Patients

Authors: Chaliya Wamaloon, Malee Chaisaena, Nusara Prasertsri

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Informal caregivers providing home-based palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care to people with advanced cancer is needed, however, there has not been develop caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. The aim of this research was to study the model development of caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. Mixed methods research was conducted in 3 phases. All subjects were in Ubon Rathchathani Cancer Hospital including 30 EOL cancer patient caregivers, 30 EOL cancer patients, and 111 health care professionals who provided care for the EOL cancer patients and 30 EOL target participants who had been trained to be cancer patient caregivers. The research tools were questionnaires, semi structured interviews, and caregiver skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, and content analysis. The result from this study showed the model development of caregiver skills for cancer patients consisted of 9 domains skills: 1. monitoring, 2. interpreting, 3. making decisions, 4. taking action, 5. making adjustments, 6. providing hands-on care, 7. accessing resources, 8. working together with the ill patients, and 9. navigating the healthcare system. The model composed of skills development curriculum for cancer patient caregivers, Manual of palliative care for caregivers, diary of health care records for cancer patients, and the evaluation model of development of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients. The results of the evaluation in the development model of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients showed that the caregivers were satisfied with the model of development for caregiver skills at a high level. The comparison of the caregiver skills before and after obtaining the development of caregivers skills revealed that it improved at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

Keywords: caregiver, caregiver skills, cancer patients, end of life

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
88 State and Determinant of Caregiver’s Mental Health in Thailand: A Household Level Analysis

Authors: Ruttana Phetsitong, Patama Vapattanawong, Malee Sunpuwan, Marc Voelker

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The majority of care for older people at home in Thai society falls upon caregivers resulting in caregiver’s mental health problem. Beyond individual characteristics, household factors might have a profound effect on the caregiver’s mental health. But reliable data capturing this at the household level have been limited to date. The objectives of the present study were to explore the levels of Thai caregiver’s mental health and to investigate the factors affecting the mental health at household level. Data were obtained from the 2011 National Survey of Thai Older Persons conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand. Caregiver’s mental health was measured by using the 15- items-short version of the Thai Mental Health Indicator (TMHI-15) developed by the Department of Mental Health, the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the impact of potential factors on caregiver’s mental health. The THMI-15 produced an overall average caregiver mental health score of 30.9 out of 45 (SD 5.3). The score can be categorized into good (34.02-45), fair (27.01-34), and poor (0-27). Duration of care for older people, household wealth, and functional dependency of the older people significantly predicted total caregiver’s mental health. Household economic factor was key in predicting better mental health. Compared to those poorest households, the adjusted effect of the fifth quintile household wealth was high (OR=2.34; 95%CI=1.47-3.73). The findings of this study provide a fuller picture to a better understanding of the level and factors that cause the mental health of Thai caregivers. Health care providers and policymakers should consider these factors when designing interventions aimed at alleviating caregiver’s psychological burden when provided care for older people at home.

Keywords: caregiver’s mental health, household, older people, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
87 The Connection between Social Support, Caregiver Burden, and Life Satisfaction of the Parents Whose Children Have Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: A. Uludağ, F. G. Tufekci, N. Ceviz

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Aim: The research has been carried out in order to evaluate caregiver burden, life satisfaction and received social support level of the parents whose children have congenital heart disease; to examine the relationship between the social supports received by them and caregiver burden and life satisfaction. Material and Method: The research which is descriptive and which is searching a relationship has been carried out between the dates June 7, 2012- June 30, 2014, in Erzurum Ataturk University Research and Application Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Children Cardiology Polyclinic. In the research, it was collaborated with the parents (N = 157) who accepted to participate in, of children who were between the ages of 3 months- 12 years. While gathering the data, a questionnaire, Zarit Caregiver Burden, Life Satisfaction and Social Support Scales have been used. The statistics of the data acquired has been produced by using percentage distribution, mean, and variance and correlation analysis. Ethical principles are followed in the research. Results: In the research, caregiver burden, life satisfaction and social support level received from family (p < 0.05), have been determined higher in the parents whose children have serious congenital heart disease than that of parents whose children have slight disease and social support received from friends has been found lower. It has been determined that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through negative direction between both social support levels and caregiver burden of parents; and that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through positive direction between both support levels and life satisfaction. Conclusion: That Social Support is in a strong relation with Caregiver Burden through a negative direction and a strong relation with Life Satisfaction through positive direction in parents of all the children who have congenital heart disease requires social support systems to be reinforced. Parents can be led or guided so as to prompt social support systems more.

Keywords: congenital heart disease, child, parents, caregiver burden, life satisfaction, social support

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
86 Zarit Burden Interview among Informal Caregiver of Person with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nuraisyah H. Zulkifley, Suriani Ismail, Rosliza Abdul Manaf, Poh Y. Lim

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Taking care of a person with dementia (PWD) is one of the most problematic and challenging caregiving situations. Without proper support, caregiver would need to deal with the impact of caregiving that would lead to caregiver burden. One of the most common tools used to measure caregiver burden among caregivers of PWD is Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). A systematic review has been conducted through searching Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and Scopus databases to identify relevant articles that elaborate on intervention and outcomes on ZBI among informal caregiver of PWD. The articles were searched in October 2019 with no restriction on language or publication status. Inclusion criteria are randomized control trial (RCT) studies, participants were informal caregivers of PWD, ZBI measured as outcomes, and intervention group was compared with no intervention control or usual care control. Two authors reviewed and extracted the data from the full-text articles. From a total of 344 records, nine studies were selected and included in this narrative review, and eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The types of interventions that were implemented to ease caregiver burden are psychoeducation, physical activity, psychosocial, and computer-based intervention. The meta-analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the mean score of ZBI (p = 0.006) in the intervention group compared to the control group after implementation of intervention. In conclusion, interventions such as psychoeducation, psychosocial, and physical activity can help to reduce the burden experiencing by the caregivers of PWD.

Keywords: dementia, informal caregiver, randomized control trial, Zarit burden interview

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85 "At 60 – Old Age, at 70 – the Hoary Head": The Perceived Meaning of Bringing a Foreign Caregiver into the Home in the Haredi Society – Challenges and Barriers to Culturally-Sensitive Intervention

Authors: Amit Zriker, Anat Freund

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The aim of the study was to conduct a thorough examination into the multiple complexities of bringing a foreign caregiver into the home to care for older adults in the Haredi society, by relating to the perspectives of the older adult and his family members. Research questions were: What is the meaning of bringing a foreign caregiver into the home in Haredi society, from the point of view of the older adult’s family members, and what are the implications of these meanings in the context of developing social policies and interventions? The current study was a qualitative-phenomenological study, which relates to “the lived experience” of those involved in the studied phenomenon. In the framework of the study, the participants included 15 adult Haredi sons and daughters of elderly impaired parents who receive homecare from a foreign caregiver. Data collection was carried out using in-depth, semi-structured interviews; the interview guidelines are comprised of the following content worlds: the meanings of aging in Haredi families; the decision-making process in relation to providing home care assistance for elderly impaired parents; making decisions regarding bringing a foreign caregiver into the home to care for an elderly parent; the daily routine after bringing in a foreign caregiver; bringing in a foreign caregiver vs. the society and vs. the Haredi establishment; and more. The issue of bringing a foreign caregiver into the home in the context of a faith-based society has received only scant and partial research attention to date. Nevertheless, in light of the growing elderly population in the Haredi society in Israel, and in closed, faith-based societies, in general; there is a growing need to bring foreign caregivers into the home as a possible solution to the “aging-in-place” problem in these societies. The separatist nature, and the collectivist and faith-based lifestyle of the Haredi society present unique challenges and needs in the process of employing a foreign caregiver. Moreover, the foreign caregiver also brings his/her own cultural world to the encounter, meaning, this process involves the elderly impaired individual, his/her family members, as well as the foreign caregiver. Therefore, it is important to understand their attitudes, perceptions and interactions, in order to create a good fit among all involved parties. The innovation and uniqueness of the current study is in its in-depth exploration of a phenomenon through an emotional-cultural lens. The study findings also contribute to the creation of social policy in the field of nursing, which will be adapted and culturally sensitive to Haredi society, and other faith-based societies.

Keywords: culturally-sensitive intervention, faith-based society, foreign caregiver, Haredi society

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84 Level of Caregiver Burden: A Study of Caregivers of Stroke Survivors at CRP in Bangladesh

Authors: Yeasir Arafat Alve, Nazmun Nahar, Salma BeguM

Abstract:

Introduction / Rationale: Caregivers of stroke survivors have experienced financial, emotional, physical and mental anxiety and have influence of family bonding and social customs, where 80% of caregivers were women and majority of the patients were cared for by immediate family members for example a spouse, son/daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, siblings and they are significantly feel burden as a caregiver. In Bangladeshi context, there has a limitation of knowledge about the level of caregiver burden. This study could be suggested the health professional to focus on the care giving stress to provide a better support to them and also it will be advisable to provide equivalent services for caregivers and their families. Objectives: The study finds out the socio-demographic image of caregivers of stroke survivors in Bangladesh as well as discovers the level of burden of caregiver of stroke survivor in relation to general strain, isolation, disappointment, emotional involvement and environment. The study will find out the association between level of burden among caregivers and onset of stroke of survivors & duration of care giving. As well as to determine the association between level of burden among caregivers and caregiver’s age, gender, occupation and caregiver’s relationship with stroke survivors. Method / Approach: The study is a non experimental cross-sectional study design where 151 participants were selected through purposive comprehensive sampling. Data were selected from occupational therapy outdoor and stroke rehab unit, CRP (Savar & Mirpur) where using the Caregiver Burden Scale (a structured questionnaire) with face to face interview. Results: Most of the caregivers (78.8%) of stroke survivors faced moderate level of burden in general strain (37.7%), isolation (27.2%) but in case of disappointment (60.3%) feel higher burden and lower burden in emotional involvement (9.9%) and environment (0.7%). Caregiver burden level was significantly associated with caregivers’ age (P=0.006), sex (P=0.002), occupation (p= 0.04), relationship with stroke survivors (P=0.02), care giving duration (P=0.000), care giving hours (P=0.009), and onset of stroke (P=0.000) of stroke survivors. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that most of the caregivers faced moderate burden where no environmental burden for them, this is possibly in case of Bangladeshi culture where people hospitable. Through this study, it was also found that there is a possibility to have the higher burden. Finally, it is being also suggested that appropriate advice and support may preserve care giving which eventually enables the survivors to live a longer and more fulfilling life in the community.

Keywords: caregiver, level of caregiver burden, stroke survivor, stroke rehab unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
83 The Relationship between Caregiver Burden and Life Satisfaction of Caregivers of Elderly Individuals

Authors: Guler Duru Asiret, Cemile Kutmec Yilmaz, Gulcan Bagcivan, Tugce Turten Kaymaz

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This descriptive study was conducted to determine the relationship between caregiver burden and life satisfaction who give home care to elderly individuals. The sample was recruited from the internal medicine unit and palliative unit of a state hospital located in Turkey on June 2016-2017. The study sample consisted of 231 primary caregiver family member, who met the eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: inpatient’s caregiver, primary caregiver for at least 3 months, at least 18 years of age, no communication problem or mental disorder. Data were gathered using an Information Form prepared by the researchers based on previous literature, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics software version 20.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). The descriptive characteristics of the participant were analyzed using number, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The suitability of normal distribution of scale scores was analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test. Relationships between scales were analyzed using Spearman’s rank-correlation coefficient. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. The average age of the caregivers was 50.11±13.46 (mean±SD) years. Of the caregivers, 76.2% were women, 45% were primary school graduates, 89.2% were married, 38.1% were the daughters of their patients. Among these, 52.4% evaluated their income level to be good. Of them, 53.6% had been giving care less than 2 years. The patients’ average age was 77.1±8.0 years. Of the patients, 55.8% were women, 56.3% were illeterate, 70.6% were married, and 97.4% had at least one chronic disease. The mean Zarit Burden Interview score was 35.4±1.5 and the Satisfaction with Life Scale score was 20.6±6.8. A negative relationship was found between the patients’ score average on the ZBI, and on the SWLS (r= -0.438, p=0.000). The present study determined that the caregivers have a moderate caregiver burden and the life satisfaction. And the life satisfaction of caregivers decreased as their caregiver burden increase. In line with the results obtained from the research, it is recommended that to increase the effectiveness of discharge training, to arrange training and counseling programs for caregivers to cope with the problems they experienced, to monitor the caregivers at regular intervals and to provide necessary institutional support.

Keywords: caregiver burden, family caregivers, nurses, satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
82 The Experience of Applying Multi-Sensory Stimulation ICU for Arousing a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury in Intensive Care

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Tsai

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Motor vehicle accident is the first cause of head injury in the world; severe head injury cases may cause conscious disturbance and death. This is a report about a case of a young adult patient suffering from motor vehicle accident leading to severe head injury who passed through three time surgical procedures, and his mother (who is the informal caregiver). This case was followed from 28th January to 15th February 2011 by using Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns. Patient’s cognitive-perceptual and self-perception-self-concept patterns were altered. Anxiety was also noted on his informal caregiver due to patients’ condition. During the intensive care period, maintaining patient’s vital signs and cerebral perfusion pressure were essential to avoid secondary neuronal injury. Multi-sensory stimulation, caring accompanying, supporting, listening and encouraging patient’s family involved in patient care were very important to reduce informal caregiver anxiety. Finally, the patient consciousness improved from GCS 4 to GCS 11 before discharging from ICU. Patient’s primary informal caregiver, his mother, also showed anxiety improvement. This is was successful case with traumatic brain injury recovered from coma.

Keywords: anxiety, multi-sensory stimulation, reduce intracranial adaptive capacity, traumatic brain injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
81 Self-Care and Risk Behaviors in Primary Caregiver of Cancer Patients

Authors: Ivonne N. Pérez-Sánchez. María L. Rascón- Gasca, Angélica Riveros-Rosas, Rebeca Robles García

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Introduction: Primary caregivers of cancer patients have health problems related to their lack of time, stress, and fiscal strain. Their health problems could affect their patients’ health and also increase the expenses in public health. Aim: To describe self-care and risk behaviors in a sample of Mexican primary caregiver and the relation of these behaviors with emotional distress (caregiver burden, anxiety and depression symptoms), coping and sociodemographic variables. Method: Participated in this study 173 caregivers of a third level reference medical facility (age: M=49.4, SD=13.5) females 78%, males 22%, 57.5% were caregivers of patients with terminal cancer (CPTC), and 40.5% were caregivers of patients on oncology treatment (CPOT). Results: The 75.7% of caregivers reported to have had health problem in last six months as well as several symptoms which were related to emotional distress, these symptoms were more frequently between CPTC and female caregivers. A half (47.3%) of sample reported have had difficulties in caring their health; these difficulties were related to emotional distress and lower coping, more affected caregivers were who attend male patients and CPTC. The 76.8% of caregivers had health problems in last six months, but 26.5% of them waited to search medical care until they were very sick, and 11% didn't do it. Also, more than a half of sample (56.1%) admitted to have risk behaviors as drink alcohol, smoke or overeating for feeling well, these caregivers showed high emotional distress and lower coping. About caregivers healthy behaviors, 80% of them had a hobby; 27.2% do exercise usually and between 12% to 60% did medical checkups (glucose tests, blood pressure and cholesterol tests, eye exams and watched their weight), these caregivers had lower emotional distress and high coping, some variables related health behaviors were: care only one patient or a female patient and be a CPOT, social support, high educational level and experience as a caregiver in past. The half of caregivers were worrying to develop cancer in the future; this idea was 2.5 times more frequent in caregiver with problems to care their health. Conclusions: The results showed a big proportion of caregivers with medical problems. High emotional distress and low coping were related to physical symptoms, risk behaviors, and low self-care; poor self-care was frequently even in caregiver who have chronic illness.

Keywords: cancer, primary caregiver, risk behaviors, self-care

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
80 Family Caregivers' Burden in Providing Care to the Hospitalized Elderly: Findings from Two Hospitals in Kolkata, India

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharyya, Suhita Chopra Chatterjee

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Family caregivers are vital in providing physical and emotional care to the aged. Providing care to aged involves physical as well as psycho-socio-economic challenges, compels the caregiver to fit in manifold roles, feel overburdened; which in turn requires them to change their priorities in life. The study conducted on family caregivers of the hospitalized elderly explores caregiver’s burden using Zarit Burden Scale (ZBS). The data has been collected from two randomly selected Multispecialty Hospitals in Kolkata (India), after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board of both the hospitals. The predictors of burden were also assessed using interview schedules. Among fifty-seven caregivers who participated in the study, caregiver’s burden was identified among thirty respondents with twenty-six having mild to moderate burden and four having moderate to severe burden. Majority of the caregivers were found to be female, reflecting the gendered nature of caregiving. Family caregivers spent more than six hours per day on caregiving, which severely disturbed their work-life including loss of job. The study revealed that the caregivers’ marital status, family structure, academic qualification, occupation and time spent on caregiving are related to family caregivers’ burden. The burden of care giving was accentuated by poor access to information, counseling, and lack of supportive services. The paper concludes by indicating the need for greater state interventions for caregivers.

Keywords: caregivers burden, family caregiving, hospitalized elderly, elderly in Kolkata, India, Zarit Burden Scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
79 The Turkish Version of the Carer’s Assessment of Satisfaction Index (CASI-TR): Its Cultural Adaptation, Validation, and Reliability

Authors: Cemile Kütmeç Yilmaz, Güler Duru Asiret, Gulcan Bagcivan

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Carer’s Assessment of Satisfaction Index (CASI-TR). The study was conducted between the dates of June 2016 and September 2017 at the Training and Research Hospital of Aksaray University with the caregiving family members of the inpatients with chronic diseases. For this study, the sample size was calculated as at least 10 individuals for each item (item number (30)X10=300). The study sample included 300 caregiving family members, who provided primer care for at least three months for a patient (who had at least one chronic disease and received inpatient treatment in general internal medicine and palliative care units). Data were collected by using a demographic questionnaire and CASI-TR. Descriptive statistics, and psychometric tests were used for the data analysis. Of those caregivers, 76.7% were female, 86.3% were 65 years old and below, 43.7% were primary school graduates, 87% were married, 86% were not working, 66.3% were housewives, and 60.3% defined their income status as having an income covering one’s expenses. Care recipients often had problems in terms of walking, sleep, balance, feeding and urinary incontinence. The Cronbach Alpha value calculated for the CASI-TR (30 items) was 0,949. Internal consistency coefficients calculated for subscales were: 0.922 for the subscale of ‘caregiver satisfaction related to care recipient’, 0.875 for the subscale of ‘caregiver satisfaction related to themselves’, and 0.723 for the subscale of ‘dynamics of interpersonal relations’. Factor analysis revealed that three factors accounted for 57.67% of the total variance, with an eigenvalue of >1. assessed in terms of significance, we saw that the items came together in a significant manner. The factor load of the items were between 0.311 and 0.874. These results show that the CASI-TR is a valid and reliable scale. The adoption of the translated CASI in Turkey is found reliable and valid to assessing the satisfaction of caregivers. CASI-TR can be used easily in clinics or house visits by nurses and other health professionals for assessing caregiver satisfaction from caregiving.

Keywords: carer’s assessment of satisfaction index, caregiver, validity, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
78 Development of the Family Capacity of Management of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis

Authors: Marcio Emilio Dos Santos, Kelly C. F. Dos Santos

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Caregivers of patients diagnosed with ASD are subjected to high stress situations due to the complexity and multiple levels of daily activities that require the organization of events, behaviors and socioemotional situations, such as immediate decision making and in public spaces. The cognitive and emotional requirement needed to fulfill this caregiving role exceeds the regular cultural process that adults receive in their process of preparation for conjugal and parental life. Therefore, in many cases, caregivers present a high level of overload, poor capacity to organize and mediate the development process of the child or patient about their care. Aims: Improvement in the cognitive and emotional capacities related to the caregiver function, allowing the reduction of the overload, the feeling of incompetence and the characteristic level of stress, developing a more organized conduct and decision making more oriented towards the objectives and procedural gains necessary for the integral development of the patient with diagnosis of ASD. Method: The study was performed with 20 relatives, randomly selected from a total of 140 patients attended. The family members were submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III intelligence test and the Family assessment Management Measure (FaMM) questionnaire as a previous evaluation. Therapeutic activity in a small group of family members or caregivers, with weekly frequency, with a minimum workload of two hours, using the Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment Cognitive Development Program - Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment for ten months. Reapplication of the previous tests to verify the gains obtained. Results and Discussion: There is a change in the level of caregiver overload, improvement in the results of the Family assessment Management Measure and highlight to the increase of performance in the cognitive aspects related to problem solving, planned behavior and management of behavioral crises. These results lead to the discussion of the need to invest in the integrated care of patients and their caregivers, mainly by enabling cognitively to deal with the complexity of Autism. This goes beyond the simple therapeutic orientation about adjustments in family and school routines. The study showed that when the caregiver improves his/her capacity of management, the results of the treatment are potentiated and there is a reduction of the level of the caregiver's overload. Importantly, the study was performed for only ten months and the number of family members attended in the study (n = 20) needs to be expanded to have statistical strength.

Keywords: caregiver overload, cognitive development program ASD caregivers, feuerstein instrumental enrichment, family assessment management measure

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77 Accuracy and Depiction of Mental Illness-Popular Cinema

Authors: Ankur Kapur, Moosath Vasudevan

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This movie review looks at the depiction of mental illness in popular cinema, using the movie A Beautiful Mind as a case study. It tries to understand cinema and media from a clinical psychology perspective in terms of the portrayal of symptoms and caregiver support. The review aims to analyze the portrayal of schizophrenia in the book and the movie ‘A Beautiful Mind’ on Professor John Nash. It will analyze the differences in portrayal of schizophrenia, under different media and the creative applications of the author, directors and actors in depicting the disorder as closely as it is understood in Clinical Psychology. The differences would be studied for romanticisation of symptoms in the book and the movie. Even within a medium (only the movie), verbal and non-verbal cues of the disorder will be compared for the depiction of schizophrenia. The study will dwell on the comparative description of how the caregivers coped with the patient and his illness. For this, the study will understand it through the lens of Bowen’s Family Systems Theory.

Keywords: caregiver, communication, media, systems theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
76 Differences in the Perception of Behavior Problems in Pre-school Children among the Teachers and Parents

Authors: Jana Kožárová

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Even the behavior problems in pre-school children might be considered as a transitional problem which may disappear by their transition into elementary school; it is an issue that needs a lot of attention because of the fact that the behavioral patterns are adopted in the children especially in this age. Common issue in the process of elimination of the behavior problems in the group of pre-school children is a difference in the perception of the importance and gravity of the symptoms. The underestimation of the children's problems by parents often result into conflicts with kindergarten teachers. Thus, the child does not get the support that his/her problems require and this might result into a school failure and can negatively influence his/her future school performance and success. The research sample consisted of 4 children with behavior problems, their teachers and parents. To determine the most problematic area in the child's behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) filled by parents and Caregiver/Teacher Form (CTF-R) filled by teachers were used. Scores from the CBCL and the CTR-F were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient in order to find the differences in the perception of behavior problems in pre-school children.

Keywords: behavior problems, Child Behavior Checklist, Caregiver/Teacher Form, Pearson correlation coefficient, pre-school age

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
75 Coping Strategies among Caregivers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Cluster Analysis

Authors: Noor Ismael, Lisa Mische Lawson, Lauren Little, Murad Moqbel

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Background/Significance: Caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) develop coping mechanisms to overcome daily challenges to successfully parent their child. There is variability in coping strategies used among caregivers of children with ASD. Capturing homogeneity among such variable groups may help elucidate targeted intervention approaches for caregivers of children with ASD. Study Purpose: This study aimed to identify groups of caregivers of children with ASD based on coping mechanisms, and to examine whether there are differences among these groups in terms of strain level. Methods: This study utilized a secondary data analysis, and included survey responses of 273 caregivers of children with ASD. Measures consisted of the COPE Inventory and the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire. Data analyses consisted of cluster analysis to group caregiver coping strategies, and analysis of variance to compare the caregiver coping groups on strain level. Results: Cluster analysis results showed four distinct groups with different combinations of coping strategies: Social-Supported/Planning (group one), Spontaneous/Reactive (group two), Self-Supporting/Reappraisal (group three), and Religious/Expressive (group four). Caregivers in group one (Social-Supported/Planning) demonstrated significantly higher levels than the remaining three groups in the use of the following coping strategies: planning, use of instrumental social support, and use of emotional social support, relative to the other three groups. Caregivers in group two (Spontaneous/Reactive) used less restraint relative to the other three groups, and less suppression of competing activities relative to the other three groups as coping strategies. Also, group two showed significantly lower levels of religious coping as compared to the other three groups. In contrast to group one, caregivers in group three (Self-Supporting/Reappraisal) demonstrated significantly lower levels of the use of instrumental social support and the use of emotional social support relative to the other three groups. Additionally, caregivers in group three showed more acceptance, positive reinterpretation and growth coping strategies. Caregivers in group four (Religious/Expressive) demonstrated significantly higher levels of religious coping relative to the other three groups and utilized more venting of emotions strategies. Analysis of Variance results showed no significant differences between the four groups on the strain scores. Conclusions: There are four distinct groups with different combinations of coping strategies: Social-Supported/Planning, Spontaneous/Reactive, Self-Supporting/Reappraisal, and Religious/Expressive. Each caregiver group engaged in a combination of coping strategies to overcome the strain of caregiving.

Keywords: autism, caregivers, cluster analysis, coping strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
74 Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Patient and Perception of Caregiver Regarding Speech and Language Therapy in Bangladesh

Authors: K. M. Saif Ur Rahman, Razib Mamun, Himica Arjuman, Fida Al Shams

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Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has become an emerging neurodevelopmental disorder with increasing prevalence. It has become an important public health issue globally. Many approaches including speech and language therapy (SLT), occupational therapy, behavioral therapy etc. are being applied for the betterment of the ASD patients. This study aims to describe the characteristics of ASD patients and perception of caregiver regarding SLT in Bangladesh. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a therapy and rehabilitation center at Dhaka city. Caregivers of 48 ASD patients responded regarding their perception of SLT and characteristics of patients. Results: Among 48 ASD patients, 56.3% were between 3 to 5 years age group with a male predominance (87.5%). More than half of the participants (56.3%) initiated SLT at the age of 1-3 years and the majority (43.8%) were taking SLT for less than 1 year. Majority of the patients (64.6%) were taken to a physician for healthcare as a first contact of which 29.2% were referred to SLT by physicians. More than half (56.3%) of the caregivers were moderately satisfied with SLT and most of them (62.5%) mentioned moderate improvement through SLT. Improvement rate was 10-15% in specific symptoms such as eye contact, complex mannerism, pointing, imitation etc. Conclusion: This study reveals the self-reported perception of caregivers on SLT. Despite reported improvements, more exploration of different approaches and intervention for management of ASD is recommended.

Keywords: ASD, characteristics, SLT, Bangladesh

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
73 Medical Decision-Making in Advanced Dementia from the Family Caregiver Perspective: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Elzbieta Sikorska-Simmons

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Advanced dementia is a progressive terminal brain disease that is accompanied by a syndrome of difficult to manage symptoms and complications that eventually lead to death. The management of advanced dementia poses major challenges to family caregivers who act as patient health care proxies in making medical treatment decisions. Little is known, however, about how they manage advanced dementia and how their treatment choices influence the quality of patient life. This prospective qualitative study examines the key medical treatment decisions that family caregivers make while managing advanced dementia. The term ‘family caregiver’ refers to a relative or a friend who is primarily responsible for managing patient’s medical care needs and legally authorized to give informed consent for medical treatments. Medical decision-making implies a process of choosing between treatment options in response to patient’s medical care needs (e.g., worsening comorbid conditions, pain, infections, acute medical events). Family caregivers engage in this process when they actively seek treatments or follow recommendations by healthcare professionals. Better understanding of medical decision-making from the family caregiver perspective is needed to design interventions that maximize the quality of patient life and limit inappropriate treatments. Data were collected in three waves of semi-structured interviews with 20 family caregivers for patients with advanced dementia. A purposive sample of 20 family caregivers was recruited from a senior care center in Central Florida. The qualitative personal interviews were conducted by the author in 4-5 months intervals. The ethical approval for the study was obtained prior to the data collection. Advanced dementia was operationalized as stage five or higher on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) (i.e., starting with the GDS score of five, patients are no longer able survive without assistance due to major cognitive and functional impairments). Information about patients’ GDS scores was obtained from the Center’s Medical Director, who had an in-depth knowledge of each patient’s health and medical treatment history. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The qualitative data analysis was conducted to answer the following research questions: 1) what treatment decisions do family caregivers make while managing the symptoms of advanced dementia and 2) how do these treatment decisions influence the quality of patient life? To validate the results, the author asked each participating family caregiver if the summarized findings accurately captured his/her experiences. The identified medical decisions ranged from seeking specialist medical care to end-of-life care. The most common decisions were related to arranging medical appointments, medication management, seeking treatments for pain and other symptoms, nursing home placement, and accessing community-based healthcare services. The most challenging and consequential decisions were related to the management of acute complications, hospitalizations, and discontinuation of treatments. Decisions that had the greatest impact on the quality of patient life and survival were triggered by traumatic falls, worsening psychiatric symptoms, and aspiration pneumonia. The study findings have important implications for geriatric nurses in the context of patient/caregiver-centered dementia care. Innovative nursing approaches are needed to support family caregivers to effectively manage medical care needs of patients with advanced dementia.

Keywords: advanced dementia, family caregiver, medical decision-making, symptom management

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72 D-Epi App: Mobile Application to Control Sodium Valproat Administration in Children with Idiopatic Epilepsy in Indonesia

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

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There are 325,000 children younger than age 15 in the U.S. have epilepsy. In Indonesia, 40% of 3,5 millions cases of epilepsy happens in children. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and which has no identifiable cause. One of the most commonly used medications in the treatment of this childhood epilepsy is sodium valproate. Administration of sodium valproat in children has a problem to fail. Nearly 60% of pediatric patients known were mildly, moderately, or severely non-adherent with therapy during the first six months of treatment. Many parents or caregiver took far less medication than prescribed, and the treatment-adherence pattern for the majority of patients was established during the first month of treatment. 42% of the patients were almost always given their medications as prescribed but 13% had very poor adherence even in the early weeks and months of treatment. About 7% of patients initially gave the medication correctly 90% of the time, but adherence dropped to around 20% within six months of starting treatment. Over the six months of observation, the total missing of administration is about four out of 14 doses in any given week. This fail can cause the epilepsy to relapse. Whereas, current reported epilepsy disorder were significantly more likely than those never diagnosed to experience depression (8% vs 2%), anxiety (17% vs 3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (23% vs 6%), developmental delay (51% vs 3%), autism/autism spectrum disorder (16% vs 1%), and headaches (14% vs 5%) (all P< 0.05). They had a greater risk of limitation in the ability to do things (relative risk: 9.22; 95% CI: 7.56–11.24), repeating a school grade (relative risk: 2.59; CI: 1.52–4.40), and potentially having unmet medical and mental health needs. In the other side, technology can help to make our life easier. One of the technology, that we can use is a mobile application. A mobile app is a software program we can download and access directly using our phone. Indonesians are highly mobile centric. They use, on average, 6.7 applications over a 30 day period. This paper is aimed to describe an application that could help to control a sodium valproat administration in children; we call it as D-Epi app. D-Epi app is a downloadable application that can help parents or caregiver alert by a timer-related application to warn whether it is the time to administer the sodium valproat. It works not only as a standard alarm, but also inform important information about the drug and emergency stuffs to do to children with epilepsy. This application could help parents and caregiver to take care a child with epilepsy in Indonesia.

Keywords: application, children, D-Epi, epilepsy

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71 The Interactive Wearable Toy "+Me", for the Therapy of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Preliminary Results

Authors: Beste Ozcan, Valerio Sperati, Laura Romano, Tania Moretta, Simone Scaffaro, Noemi Faedda, Federica Giovannone, Carla Sogos, Vincenzo Guidetti, Gianluca Baldassarre

Abstract:

+me is an experimental interactive toy with the appearance of a soft, pillow-like, panda. Shape and consistency are designed to arise emotional attachment in young children: a child can wear it around his/her neck and treat it as a companion (i.e. a transitional object). When caressed on paws or head, the panda emits appealing, interesting outputs like colored lights or amusing sounds, thanks to embedded electronics. Such sensory patterns can be modified through a wirelessly connected tablet: by this, an adult caregiver can adapt +me responses to a child's reactions or requests, for example, changing the light hue or the type of sound. The toy control is therefore shared, as it depends on both the child (who handles the panda) and the adult (who manages the tablet and mediates the sensory input-output contingencies). These features make +me a potential tool for therapy with children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ND), characterized by impairments in the social area, like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Language Disorders (LD): as a proposal, the toy could be used together with a therapist, in rehabilitative play activities aimed at encouraging simple social interactions and reinforcing basic relational and communication skills. +me was tested in two pilot experiments, the first one involving 15 Typically Developed (TD) children aged in 8-34 months, the second one involving 7 children with ASD, and 7 with LD, aged in 30-48 months. In both studies a researcher/caregiver, during a one-to-one, ten-minute activity plays with the panda and encourages the child to do the same. The purpose of both studies was to ascertain the general acceptability of the device as an interesting toy that is an object able to capture the child's attention and to maintain a high motivation to interact with it and with the adult. Behavioral indexes for estimating the interplay between the child, +me and caregiver were rated from the video recording of the experimental sessions. Preliminary results show how -on average- participants from 3 groups exhibit a good engagement: they touch, caress, explore the panda and show enjoyment when they manage to trigger luminous and sound responses. During the experiments, children tend to imitate the caregiver's actions on +me, often looking (and smiling) at him/her. Interesting behavioral differences between TD, ASD, and LD groups are scored: for example, ASD participants produce a fewer number of smiles both to panda and to a caregiver with respect to TD group, while LD scores stand between ASD and TD subjects. These preliminary observations suggest that the interactive toy +me is able to raise and maintain the interest of toddlers and therefore it can be reasonably used as a supporting tool during therapy, to stimulate pivotal social skills as imitation, turn-taking, eye contact, and social smiles. Interestingly, the young age of participants, along with the behavioral differences between groups, seem to suggest a further potential use of the device: a tool for early differential diagnosis (the average age of a child

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, interactive toy, social interaction, therapy, transitional wearable companion

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70 Evaluating the Characteristics of Paediatric Accidental Poisonings

Authors: Grace Fangmin Tan, Elaine Yiling Tay, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Andrea Wei Ching Yeo

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Background: While accidental poisonings in children may seem unavoidable, knowledge of circumstances surrounding such incidents and identification of risk factors is important in the development of secondary prevention strategies. Some risk factors include age of the child, lack of adequate supervision and improper storage of substances. The aim of this study is to assess risk factors and circumstances influencing outcomes in these children. Methodology: A retrospective medical record review of all accidental poisoning cases presenting to the Children’s Emergency at National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore between January 2014 and December 2015 was conducted. Information on demographics, poisoning circumstances and clinical outcomes were collected. Results: Ninety-nine of a total of 186 poisoning cases were accidental ingestions, with a mean age of 4.7 (range 0.4 to 18.3 years). The gender distribution is rather equal with 52(52.5%) females and 47(47.5%) males. Seventy-nine (79.8%) were self-administered by the child and in 20 cases (20.2%), the substance was administered erroneously by caregivers 12/20 (60.0%) of whom were given the wrong drug dose while 8/20 (40.0%) were given the wrong substance. Self-administration was associated with presentation to the ED within 12 hours (p=0.027, OR 6.65, 95% CI 1.24-35.72). Notably, 94.9% of the cases involved substances kept within reach of the child. Sixty-nine (82.1%) had the substance kept in the original container, 3(3.6%) in food containers, 8(9.5%) in other containers and 4(4.8%) without a container. Of the 50 cases with information on labelling, 40/50(80.0%) were accurately labelled, 2/50 (4.0%) wrongly labelled, and 8/50 (16.0%) were unlabelled. Implicated substances included personal care products (11.1%), household cleaning products (3.0%), and different classes of drugs such as paracetamol (22.2%), antihistamines (17.2%) and sympathomimetics (8.1%). Children < 3 years of age were 4.8 times more likely to be poisoned by household substances than children >3 years of age (p=0.009, 95% CI 1.48-15.77). Prehospital interventions were more likely to have been done in poisoning with household substances (p=0.005, OR 6.12 95% CI 1.73-21.68). Fifty-nine (59.6%) were asymptomatic, 34 (34.3%) had a Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) grade of 1 (minor) and 6 (6.1%) grade 2 (moderate). Older children were 9.3 times more likely to be symptomatic (p<0.001, 95% CI 3.15-27.25). Thirty (32%) required admission. Conclusion: A significant proportion of accidental poisoning cases were due to medication administration errors by caregivers, which should be preventable. Risk factors for accidental poisoning included lack of adequate caregiver supervision, improper labelling and young age of the child. There is an urgent need to improve caregiver counselling during medication dispensing as well as to educate caregivers on basic child safety measures in the home to prevent future accidental poisonings.

Keywords: accidental, caregiver, paediatrics, poisoning

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69 Relationships between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Well-Being Outcomes among the Elderly and Their Caregivers: A Dyadic Modeling Approach

Authors: Sakkaphat T. Ngamake, Arunya Tuicomepee, Panrapee Suttiwan, Rewadee Watakakosol, Sompoch Iamsupasit

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Generally, 'positive' emotion regulation strategies such as cognitive reappraisal have linked to desirable outcomes while 'negative' strategies such as behavioral suppression have linked to undesirable outcomes. These trends have been found in both the elderly and professional practitioners. Hence, this study sought to investigate these trends further by examining the relationship between two dominant emotion regulation strategies in the literature (i.e., cognitive reappraisal and behavioral suppression) and well-being outcomes among the elderly (i.e., successful aging) and their caregivers (i.e., satisfaction with life), using the actor-partner interdependence model. A total of 150 elderly-caregiver dyads participated in the study. The elderly responded to two measures assessing the two emotion regulation strategies and successful aging while their caregivers responded to the same emotion regulation measure and a measure of satisfaction with life. Two criterion variables (i.e., successful aging and satisfaction with life) were specified as latent variables whereas four predictors (i.e., two strategies for the elderly and two strategies for their caregivers) were specified as observed variables in the model. Results have shown that, for the actor effect, the cognitive reappraisal strategy yielded positive relationships with the well-being outcomes for both the elderly and their caregivers. For the partner effect, a positive relationship between caregivers’ cognitive reappraisal strategy and the elderly’s successful aging was observed. The behavioral suppression strategy has not related to any well-being outcomes, within and across individual agents. This study has contributed to the literature by empirically showing that the mental activity of the elderly’s immediate environment such as their family members or close friends could affect their quality of life.

Keywords: emotion regulation, caregiver, older adult, well-being

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68 Study of the Influence of Non Genetic Factors Affecting over Nutrition Students in Ayutthaya Province, Thailand

Authors: Thananyada Buapian

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Overnutrition is emerging as a morbid disease in developing and Westernized countries. Because of its comorbidity diseases, it is cost-effective to prevent and manage this disease earlier. In Thailand, this alarming disease has long been studied, but the prevalence is still higher than that in the past. Physicians should recognize it well and have a definite direction to face and combat this dangerous disease. Rapid changes in the tremendous figure of overnutrition students indicate that genetic factors are not the primary determinants since human genes have remained unchanged for a century. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overnutrition students and to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting over nutrition students. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted. A two-stage sampling was adopted. Respondents included 1,850 students in grades 4 to 6 in Ayutthaya Province. An anthropometric measurement and questionnaire were developed. Childhood over nutrition was defined as a weight-for-height Z-score above +2SD of NCHS/WHO references. About thirty three percent of the children were over nutrition in Ayutthaya province. Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that 8 statistically significant non genetic factors explain the variation of childhood over nutrition by 18 percent. Sex is the prime factor to explain the variation of childhood over nutrition, followed by duration of light physical activities, duration of moderate physical activities, having been breastfed, the presence of a healthy role model of the caregiver, number of siblings, birth order, and occupation of the caregiver, respectively. Non genetic factors, especially the subjects’ demographic and physical activities, as well as the caregivers’ background and family environment, should be considered in viable approach to remedy this health imbalance in children.

Keywords: non genetic factors, non-genetic, over nutrition, over nutrition students

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67 Validating the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CPQOL-Child) Questionnaire for Use in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi, Gopi Kitnasamy

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Background: The potentially high level of physical need and dependency experienced by children with cerebral palsy could affect the quality of life (QOL) of the child, the caregiver and his/her family. Poor QOL in children with cerebral palsy is associated with the parent-child relationship, limited opportunities for social participation, limited access to healthcare services, psychological well-being and the child's physical functioning. Given that children experiencing disabilities have little access to remedial support with an inequitable service across districts in Sri Lanka, and given the impact of culture and societal stigma, there may be differing viewpoints across respondents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Tamil version of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CPQOL-Child) Questionnaire. Design: An instrument development and validation study. Methods: Forward and backward translations of the CPQOL-Child were undertaken by a team comprised of a physiotherapist, speech and language therapist and two linguists for the primary caregiver form and the child self-report form. As part of a pilot phase, the Tamil version of the CPQOL was completed by 45 primary caregivers with children with cerebral palsy and 15 children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS level 3-4). In addition, the primary caregivers commented on the process of filling in the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity were undertaken. Results: The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were high. A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between limited motor skills and poor QOL. The Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire was at 0.95.Similarities and divergences were found between the two groups of respondents. The child respondents identified limited motor skills as associated with physical well-being and autonomy. Akin to this, the primary caregivers associated the severity of motor function with limitations of physical well-being and autonomy. The trend observed was that QOL was not related to the level of impairment but connected to environmental factors by the child respondents. In addition to this, the main concern among primary caregivers about the child's future and on the child's lack of independence was not fully captured by the QOL questionnaire employed. Conclusions: Although the initial results of the CPQOL questionnaire show high test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the instrument, it does not fully reflect the socio-cultural realities and primary concerns of the caregivers. The current findings highlight the need to take child and caregiver perceptions of QOL into account in clinical practice and research. It strongly indicates the need for culture-specific measures of QOL.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, CPQOL, culture, quality of life

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66 Comparing the Effects of Systemic Family Intervention on End Stage Renal Disease: Families of Different Modalities

Authors: Fenni Sim

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Background: The application of systemic family therapy approaches to community health cases have not gathered traction. In National Kidney Foundation, Singapore, the belief is that community support has great potential in helping End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) patients manage the demands of their treatment regime, whether Hemodialysis (HD) or Peritoneal Dialysis(PD) and sustain them on the treatment. However, the current community support does not include family interventions and is largely nursing based. Although nursing support is well provided to patients, and their family members in issues related to treatment and compliance, complex family issues and dynamics arising from caregiver strain or pre-dialysis relationship strain might deter efforts in managing the challenges of the treatment. Objective: The objective of the study is to understand the potential scope of work provided by a social worker who is trained in systemic family therapy and the effects of these interventions. Methodology: 3 families on HD and 3 families on PD who have been receiving family intervention for the past 6 months would be chosen for the study. A qualitative interview would be conducted to review the effectiveness for the family. Scales such as SCORE-15, PHQ-9, and Zarit Burden were used to measure family functioning, depression, and caregiver’s burden for the families. Results: The research is still in preliminary phase. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of family intervention for families with multiple stressors on different treatment modalities who might have different needs and challenges. Nursing support needs to be complemented with family-based support to manage complex family issues in order to achieve better health outcomes and improved family coping.

Keywords: complementing nursing support, end stage renal failure, healthcare, systemic approaches

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65 An Investigation into the Decision-Making Process of Choosing Long-Term Care Services in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Ching Liu

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Background: Family numbers usually take responsibility for taking care of their elderly relatives, especially parents. Caring for a patient with chronic diseases is a stressful experience, which makes carers suffer physical and mental health stress, difficulties maintaining family relationships and issues in participating in the labor market, which may lower their quality of life (QoL). The issue of providing care to relatives with chronic illness has been widely explored in Taiwan, but most studies focus on the need for full-time caregivers. Objective: The main goal of this study was to examine the topic of working carers involved in the decision-making process of LTC services and to explore what affects working carers considering when they choose the care services for their disabled, elderly relatives. Method: A total of 7 working caregivers were enrolled in this study. A face-to-face and semi-structured in-depth qualitative interview study were conducted to explore the caregivers' perspectives. Results: Working carers have a positive experience of using LTC service because it allows them to kill two birds with one stone, continue employment, and care for an elderly disabled relative. However, working carers have still been struggling to find friendly community-based LTC services. There were no longer available community services that could be used with the illness condition of patients getting worse. As such, patients have to be cared for at home, which might increase the caregiver burden of carers. Conclusion: Working family caregivers suffer from heavy physical and psychological burdens as they not only have to maintain their employment but care for elderly disabled relatives; however, the current support provided is insufficient. The design of services should consider working carers' employment situation and need rather than the only caring situation of patients at home.

Keywords: family caregiver, Long-term care, work-life balance, decision-making

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64 Coping with the Stress and Negative Emotions of Care-Giving by Using Techniques from Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius

Authors: Arsalan Memon

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There are many challenges that a caregiver faces in average everyday life. One such challenge is coping with the stress and negative emotions of caregiving. The Stoics (i.e. Lucius Annaeus Seneca [4 B.C.E. - 65 C.E.], Epictetus [50-135 C.E.], and Marcus Aurelius [121-180 C.E.]) have provided coping techniques that are useful for dealing with stress and negative emotions. This paper lists and explains some of the fundamental coping techniques provided by the Stoics. For instance, some Stoic coping techniques thus follow (the list is far from exhaustive): a) mindfulness: to the best of your ability, constantly being aware of your thoughts, habits, desires, norms, memories, likes/dislikes, beliefs, values, and of everything outside of you in the world (b) constantly adjusting one’s expectations in accordance with reality, c) memento mori: constantly reminding oneself that death is inevitable and that death is not to be seen as evil, and d) praemeditatio malorum: constantly detaching oneself from everything that is so dear to one so that the least amount of suffering follows from the loss, damage, or ceasing to be of such entities. All coping techniques will be extracted from the following original texts by the Stoics: Seneca’s Letters to Lucilius, Epictetus’ Discourses and the Encheiridion, and Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations. One major finding is that the usefulness of each Stoic coping technique can be empirically tested by anyone in the sense of applying it one’s own life especially when one is facing real-life challenges. Another major finding is that all of the Stoic coping techniques are predicated upon, and follow from, one fundamental principle: constantly differentiate what is and what is not in one’s control. After differentiating it, one should constantly habituate oneself in not controlling things that are beyond one’s control. For example, the following things are beyond one’s control (all things being equal): death, certain illnesses, being born in a particular socio-economic family, etc. The conclusion is that if one habituates oneself by practicing to the best of one’s ability both the fundamental Stoic principle and the Stoic coping techniques, then such a habitual practice can eventually decrease the stress and negative emotions that one experiences by being a caregiver.

Keywords: care-giving, coping techniques, negative emotions, stoicism, stress

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63 Caregiver’s Perception Regarding Diagnosis Disclosure to Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Resource-Limited Settings: Observational Study from India

Authors: Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar

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Background: With a better understanding of HIV pathogenesis and availability of antiretroviral therapy more children are growing and entering in teenage group; informing children of their own HIV status has become an important aspect of long-term disease management. There is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in a resource-limited setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 among a dyads of 156 HIV-infected children and their caregivers, those were visiting pediatric clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. The study protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee. After taking written informed consent; pretested structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers during routine clinic visits. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV infection status among children and their perception regarding disclosure was collected. Mean and frequencies were calculated and chi-square and logistic regression test were applied. Results: The mean age of children was 8.4 ±3.45 years. Among them 73.7% were male and 39.1% were orphans. Among 156 enrolled children, 74.4% (n=116) were of ≥ 6 years and were assessed for disclosure. Only 18.1% (n=21) children had been informed of their HIV status. Of those under 9 years, 6.4% knew their status, whereas 18.4% of 9-11 years and 35.5% of 12-14 years children knew they had HIV. Awareness among males (23.3%) was higher than females (3.3%). Both age and sex of child were significantly (p<0.01) associated with disclosure status. Other factors favoring disclosure were orphan-hood, non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.01-7.12), ART initiation (OR = 4.21; 95% CI 1.03-6.98), and caregiver educated beyond primary level (OR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.26). Repeated enquiry regarding the visit to clinic was the most common reason (66.6%) for disclosure. In 52.4% children disclosure was done with the involvement of other family members. 82.5% caregivers felt the age of > 10 years is appropriate for disclosing the HIV infection status to the child. Conclusion: Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status.

Keywords: HIV, children, India, disclosure

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62 Social Factors That Contribute to Promoting and Supporting Resilience in Children and Youth following Environmental Disasters: A Mixed Methods Approach

Authors: Caroline McDonald-Harker, Julie Drolet

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Abstract— In the last six years Canada In the last six years Canada has experienced two major and catastrophic environmental disasters– the 2013 Southern Alberta flood and the 2016 Fort McMurray, Alberta wildfire. These two disasters resulted in damages exceeding 12 billion dollars, the costliest disasters in Canadian history. In the aftermath of these disasters, many families faced the loss of homes, places of employment, schools, recreational facilities, and also experienced social, emotional, and psychological difficulties. Children and youth are among the most vulnerable to the devastating effects of disasters due to the physical, cognitive, and social factors related to their developmental life stage. Yet children and youth also have the capacity to be resilient and act as powerful catalyst for change in their own lives and wider communities following disaster. Little is known, particularly from a sociological perspective, about the specific factors that contribute to resilience in children and youth, and effective ways to support their overall health and well-being. This paper focuses on the voices and experiences of children and youth residing in these two disaster-affected communities in Alberta, Canada and specifically examines: 1) How children and youth’s lives are impacted by the tragedy, devastation, and upheaval of disaster; 2) Ways that children and youth demonstrate resilience when directly faced with the adversarial circumstances of disaster; and 3) The cumulative internal and external factors that contribute to bolstering and supporting resilience among children and youth post-disaster. This paper discusses the characteristics associated with high levels of resilience in 183 children and youth ages 5 to 17 based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained through a mix methods approach. Child and youth participants were administered the Children and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) in order to examine factors that influence resilience processes including: individual, caregiver, and context factors. The CYRM-28 was then supplemented with qualitative interviews with children and youth to contextualize the CYRM-28 resiliency factors and provide further insight into their overall disaster experience. Findings reveal that high levels of resilience among child and youth participants is associated with both individual factors and caregiver factors, specifically positive outlook, effective communication, peer support, and physical and psychological caregiving. Individual and caregiver factors helped mitigate the negative effects of disaster, thus bolstering resilience in children and youth. This paper discusses the implications that these findings have for understanding the specific mechanisms that support the resiliency processes and overall recovery of children and youth following disaster; the importance of bridging the gap between children and youth’s needs and the services and supports provided to them post-disaster; and the need to develop resiliency processes and practices that empower children and youth as active agents of change in their own lives following disaster. These findings contribute to furthering knowledge about pragmatic and representative changes to resources, programs, and policies surrounding disaster response, recovery, and mitigation.

Keywords: children and youth, disaster, environment, resilience

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61 Patients' Quality of Life and Caregivers' Burden of Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Si Jen Yeen, Sara Lew

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evolving layers of complexity. Both motor and non-motor symptoms of PD may affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). Life expectancy for an individual with Parkinson’s disease depends on the level of care the individual has access to, can have a direct impact on length of life. Therefore, improvement of the QoL is a significant part of therapeutic plans. Patients with PD, especially those who are in advanced stages, are in great need of assistance, mostly from their family members or caregivers in terms of medical, emotional, and social support. The role of a caregiver becomes increasingly important with the progression of PD, the severity of motor impairment and increasing age of the patient. The nature and symptoms associated with PD can place significant stresses on the caregivers’ burden. As the prevalence of PD is estimated to more than double by 2030, it is important to recognize and alleviate the burden experienced by caregivers. This study focused on the impact of the clinical features on the QoL of PD patients, and of their caregivers. This study included PD patients along with their caregivers and was undertaken at the Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Association from June 2016 to November 2016. Clinical features of PD patients were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society revised Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS); the Hoehn and Yahr Staging of Parkinson's Disease were used to assess the severity and Parkinson's disease activities of daily living scale were used to assess the disability of Parkinson’s disease patients. QoL of PD patients was measured using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The revised version of the Zarit Burden Interview assessed caregiver burden. At least one of the clinical features affected PD patients’ QoL, and at least one of the QoL domains affected the caregivers’ burden. Clinical features ‘Saliva and Drooling’, and ‘Dyskinesia’ explained 29% of variance in QoL of PD patients. The QoL domains ‘stigma’, along with ‘emotional wellbeing’ explained 48.6% of variance in caregivers’ burden. Clinical features such as saliva, drooling and dyskinesia affected the QoL of PD patients. The PD patients’ QoL domains such as ‘stigma’ and ‘emotional well-being’ influenced their caregivers’ burden.

Keywords: carers, quality of life, clinical features, Malaysia

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60 Role of Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease Trials: Impact on Trial Planning, Patient Recruitment and Retention

Authors: Kohkan Shamsi

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Background: MRI and PET are now extensively utilized in Alzheimer's disease (AD) trials for patient eligibility, efficacy assessment, and safety evaluations but including imaging in AD trials impacts site selection process, patient recruitment, and patient retention. Methods: PET/MRI are performed at baseline and at multiple follow-up timepoints. This requires prospective site imaging qualification, evaluation of phantom data, training and continuous monitoring of machines for acquisition of standardized and consistent data. This also requires prospective patient/caregiver training as patients must go to multiple facilities for imaging examinations. We will share our experience form one of the largest AD programs. Lesson learned: Many neurological diseases have a similar presentation as AD or could confound the assessment of drug therapy. The inclusion of wrong patients has ethical and legal issues, and data could be excluded from the analysis. Centralized eligibility evaluation read process will be discussed. Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) were observed in amyloid-β trials. FDA recommended regular monitoring of ARIA. Our experience in ARIA evaluations in large phase III study at > 350 sites will be presented. Efficacy evaluation: MRI is utilized to evaluate various volumes of the brain. FDG PET or amyloid PET agents has been used in AD trials. We will share our experience about site and central independent reads. Imaging logistic issues that need to be handled in the planning phase will also be discussed as it can impact patient compliance thereby increasing missing data and affecting study results. Conclusion: imaging must be prospectively planned to include standardizing imaging methodologies, site selection process and selecting assessment criteria. Training should be transparently conducted and documented. Prospective patient/caregiver awareness of imaging requirement is essential for patient compliance and reduction in missing imaging data.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, ARIA, MRI, PET, patient recruitment, retention

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