Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1155

Search results for: child

1155 Child Marriage and the Law in Nigeria

Authors: Kolawole-Amao, Grace Titilayo

Abstract:

Children are the most vulnerable members of the society. The child is a foundation of the society and he/she assures its continuity. Thus, the survival, continuity and the standard of development of human society depends upon the protection, preservation, nurture and development of the child. In other words, the rights of a child must be protected and guaranteed for the assurance of a healthy society. The law is an instrument of social change in any society as well as a potent weapon to combat crime, achieve justice for the people and protect their rights. In Nigeria, child marriage still occurs, though its prevalence varies from one region to another. This paper shall Centre on child rights under the law in Nigeria, child marriage and its impact on the child, obstacles in eliminating child marriages and measures that have been adopted as well as the role of the law and its effect in deterring child marriage in Nigeria.

Keywords: child rights, child marriage, law, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
1154 Role of Family for Grooming a Child: A Protective Step for Vulnerable Child

Authors: Arpita Sabat, Kanaklata Samal

Abstract:

A child is the most innocent being on the earth. It is born innocent but the family, the community, the institution and the world at large always butcher its innocence. This paper aims at the role of family for the development of a child in different ethnic or social groups. Family, in fact, is the nucleus in the growth and development of the child. A child grows up with the idea that a family is the world around him. The child tries to emulate consciously or unconsciously from the surrounding. This imitation has serious impact on the development of the child. It even sometimes cripples or stunts the growth of a mind. It results in the disability of the child. All policies about education or changing of curriculum can not bring about a change in the plight of a child’s life unless there is a serious thinking about the role of a family and the contribution of a family to the development of a child.

Keywords: vulnerable child, grooming, surrounding, role of family

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1153 Girl Child Education: A Veritable Tool to Gender Equality and Empowerment

Authors: Egena Obaje Innocent

Abstract:

In Africa generally and Nigeria in particular one the major setbacks for the girl-child is her deprivation or denial if you like to equal opportunity to education. In most Nigerian communities which are male dominated parents make no pretense of their preference of the male children when it come to the choice of who to send to school between the male and female child. Indeed, certain inhibiting cultural and religious practices are the root cause of this annually. It is against this background that this paper looked at the phenomenon the girl-child education, causes of the negligent its effects on the girl child and nation remedies and conclusion.

Keywords: education, empowerment, girl child, gender equality

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
1152 Root Causes of Child Labour in Hargeisa, Somaliland

Authors: Abdikarim Yusuf

Abstract:

This study uses data from Somalia to analyse child labour using a descriptive and qualitative method. The study set out to identify root causes of child labour in Hargeisa and its implications for children. The study shows that poverty, droughts, family separation, and loss of properties are primary drivers of child labour in Hargeisa. The study found that children work in very difficult jobs such as car wash, casual work, and shoe shining for boys while girls work as housemaids, selling tea, Khat and sometimes are at risk of exploitation such as sexual abuse, rape and harassment. The majority of the parents responded that they don’t know any policy, act or law that protects children. Men showed greater awareness than the women respondents in recognizing child labour as a child rights violation.

Keywords: abuse, child, violence, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1151 Cooperation and Conflict in Child Rearing Practices among Parents in Indian Context

Authors: Jilly John

Abstract:

The paper reports one of the study conducted to explore the dimensions of child rearing practice and effects of power difference among parents on child rearing practices adopted in the families. The first objective investigated dimensions of child rearing practices (a) overprotection (b) disciplinarian, (c) esteem building, (d) normal, (e) harsh (f) ridicule, and (g) rejection. The second objective investigated difference among father and mother on child rearing practices. The results of the study revealed that dimensions of child rearing practices are crucial variables which resulted in form of major deviations in distribution of parents in the seven dimensions. Analysis of objective two revealed that harsh and ridicule dimensions of child rearing practices are significantly different among father and mother. The dimensions are also different when the parents are employed and according to the type of families. Thus the results of the study present the possibility of changed child rearing practices among Indian families in relation to prevalent sociodemographic changes and indicate the necessity to re-examine culture-based explanations on child rearing practices.

Keywords: child rearing practices, dimensions of child rearing, difference among parents, Indian families

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1150 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

Abstract:

Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability; cultural practices, religious rights, and social standards place girls in a position where they are catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. This paper will present how some of these rights are violated and how they establish the need for change.

Keywords: child marriage, forced child marriage, children's rights, religious rights, cultural rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
1149 Modeling Child Development Factors for the Early Introduction of ICTs in Schools

Authors: K. E. Oyetade, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

One of the fundamental characteristics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been the ever-changing nature of continuous release and models of ICTs with its impact on the academic, social, and psychological benefits of its introduction in schools. However, there seems to be a growing concern about its negative impact on students when introduced early in schools for teaching and learning. This study aims to design a model of child development factors affecting the early introduction of ICTs in schools in an attempt to improve the understanding of child development and introduction of ICTs in schools. The proposed model is based on a sound theoretical framework. It was designed following a literature review of child development theories and child development factors. The child development theoretical framework that fitted to the best of all child development factors was then chosen as the basis for the proposed model. This study hence found that the Jean Piaget cognitive developmental theory is the most adequate theoretical frameworks for modeling child development factors for ICT introduction in schools.

Keywords: child development factors, child development theories, ICTs, theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
1148 A Case Study on Improving Language Skills of Preschoolers by Parent-Child Reading

Authors: Hoi Yan Lau

Abstract:

In Hong Kong, most families have working parents, and the primary caregivers of young children are helpers. This leads to a lack of interaction and language expression in children’s home environment, which affects their language development. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of parent-child reading in improving young children’s language skills. A 4-year-old girl and her mother are recruited to a 3 months’ parent-child reading program. There is a total of 26 reading sessions which target to enhance the parent’s skill of parent-child reading and to assess the child’s language ability. At the same time, the child’s use of language in normal classroom settings is analyzed by anecdotal records. It is shown that the parent is able to use more and better guiding questions during parent-child reading after this program, which in turn leads to more and longer response of the child during the reading sessions. The child also has an increase in Mean Length of Utterance and has a higher frequency of using complete sentences when interacting with other classmates in the classroom. It is worthwhile to further investigate the inclusion of promoting parent-child reading to enhance children’s language development in preschool curriculum planning.

Keywords: Hong Kong, language skills, parent-child reading, preschoolers

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1147 Child Mental Abuse: An Unseen Scar

Authors: Ian C. Padgett

Abstract:

Future of society is built on the foundations built by the parents of today and how they raise their children. Strong foundations are made by accepting environments, good morals, and sound educations. Child abuse is a harm that immediately corrupts a child and everything that could do for society. Every child is a segment of modern society and future society, every child corrupted is a segment of society corrupted. Physical abuse is a clear abuse that leaves bruises and can traumatize a child for life, it can leave scars but effect a child’s mind for life. Another form of abuse, however, still impacts a child for life but with no scars to be seen. Child mental abuse directly targets children’s minds to control, manipulate, and belittle them. It becomes close to impossible to escape as there is no clear law defining mental abuse, the parent manipulates the child to stay quiet, and finally the child must come to terms that there parent is harming them. Society does not react to mental and physical abuse in the same manner. In a society that works to protect it future and it children, mental abuse is given a strange lack of attention. In order to protect children, all forms of abuse must be treated and given attention to. Mental abuse comes in many forms and can be extremely hard to spot, unlike physical abuse, but can still lead to the trauma other abuse can cause. While no abuse is worse than others, mental abuse should not be treated like it is nonexistent.

Keywords: Abuse Awareness, Child Mental Abuse, Effects of Abuse, Societal Issues

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
1146 The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

Abstract:

The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.

Keywords: child adoption, family law, legal protection, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
1145 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar

Abstract:

This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1144 The Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students from Only-Child Families: A National Survey in China

Authors: Jiashu Shen

Abstract:

This study aims at exploring the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Chinese college students from the 'one-child' families compared with those with siblings. This study utilized the data from the 'National College Student Survey on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2019'. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between the 'only-child' and their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors (RSB) stratified by sex and home regions, respectively. Compared with students with siblings, the 'only-child' students scored higher in sex-related knowledge (only-child students: 4.49 ± 2.28, students with siblings: 3.60 ± 2.27). Stronger associations between only-child and more liberal sexual attitudes were found in urban areas, including the approval of premarital sexual intercourse (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.50-1.65) and multiple sexual partners (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.72-1.99). For risky sexual behaviors, being only-child is more likely to use condoms in first sexual intercourse, especially among male students (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-0.80). Only-child students are more likely to have more sexual knowledge, more liberal sexual attitude, and less risky sexual behavior. Further health policy and sex education should focus more on students with siblings.

Keywords: attitudes and behaviors, only-child students, sexual knowledge, students with siblings

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1143 Criminal Protection Objectivity of the Child's Right to Life and Physical and Psychological Safety

Authors: Hezha Hewa, Taher Sur

Abstract:

Nowadays, child affairs is a matter of both national and international interests. This issue is regarded a vital topic for various scientific fields across ages, and for all the communities without exception. However, the nature of child caring may vary due to the verities in science perspectives. So, considering child's affairs from different perspectives is helpful to have a complementary image about this matter. The purpose behind selecting this topic is to keep a balance between the victim on the one hand, and the guardian and the offender on the other hand, (i.e.) to avoid any kind of excessiveness either in the protection of the child and its rights not in the punishment of the offender. This is achieved through considering various legal materials in the Iraqi legislation and in the comparative legislations that are concerned with the child's issue and the extent to which the child makes use of these rights. The scope of this study involves the crimes that are considered as aggressions against the child's right to life, and the crimes that are dangerous to their physical and psychological safety. So, this study comprehensively considers the intentional murder of child, child murder to avoid disgrace, child kidnapping, child abandonment, physical abuse for the sake of punishment or not, child circumcision, verbal violence, and abstaining from leaving a child with a person who has the right of custody. This study ends with the most significant concluding points that have been derived throughout this study, which are: Unlike the Iraqi legislation, the Egyptian legislation defines the child in the Article 2 of the Child Law No. 12 of 1996 amended by the Law No. 126 of 2008 that the child is a person who does not exceed 18 years of age. Some legislation does not provide special criminal protection for child intentional murder, as in the Iraqi and the Egyptian legislation. However, some others have provided special criminal protection for a child, as in French and Syrian legislations. Child kidnapping is regarded as one of the most dangerous crimes that affects the child and the family as well, as it may expose the child's life to danger or to death. The most significant recommendations from the researcher are: The Iraqi legislation is recommended to take the necessary measures to establish a particular legislation for the child by including all the legal provisions that are associated with this weak creature, and make use of the Egyptian legislator’s experience as a pioneer in this respect. Both the Iraqi legislation and the Egyptian legislation are recommended to enact special laws to protect a child from the crimes of intentional murder, as the crime of child murder is currently subjected to the same provisions consider for adult murder.

Keywords: child, criminal, penal, law, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1142 Emotion Regulation in Young Adult Relationships in Relation to Parenting Styles

Authors: Taylor Brown

Abstract:

The parent-child attachment bond begins early, often before the birth of the child. Both father and mother begin to form a bond with their child by selecting a name, preparing for the birth, etc. The biological mother carries the child and often breastfeeds the infant after birth. While fathers play an important role in caring for the child as well, the mother is traditionally seen as the caregiver with the primary role of caring for her baby. These core ideas could include how to form bonds, how to communicate emotions, and even how to create and maintain relationships. Mothers tend to shape their children’s minds based on their own. Studies have even shown that when mothers stroke their children’s bodies with their fingers, the child does calm down more than most other methods. The bond between mother and child is one that happens immediately and strengthens over time. This attachment affects the child’s overall development. The mother-child attachment style is directly linked to a multitude of patterns in adolescents, and later on, adults. The researcher believes that the subsequent patterns of communication in romantic relationships are included in the multitude. Awareness of these patterns and their effects could improve experiences in romantic relationships during young adulthood.

Keywords: emotion regulation, parenting, maternal, attachment, romantic

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1141 Associations between Parental Divorce Process Variables and Parent-Child Relationships Quality in Young Adulthood

Authors: Klara Smith-Etxeberria

Abstract:

main goal of this study was to analyze the predictive ability of some variables associated with the parental divorce process alongside attachment history with parents on both, mother-child and father-child relationship quality. Our sample consisted of 173 undergraduate and vocational school students from the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. All of them belonged to a divorced family. Results showed that adequate maternal strategies during the divorce process (e.g.: stable, continuous and positive role as a mother) was the variable with greater predictive ability on mother-child relationships quality. In addition, secure attachment history with mother also predicted positive mother-child relationships. On the other hand, father-child relationship quality was predicted by adequate paternal strategies during the divorce process, such as his stable, continuous and positive role as a father, along with not badmouthing the mother and promoting good mother-child relationships. Furthermore, paternal negative emotional state due to divorce was positively associated with father-child relationships quality, and both, history of attachment with mother and with father predicted father-child relationships quality. In conclusion, our data indicate that both, paternal and maternal strategies for children´s adequate adjustment during the divorce process influence on mother-child and father-child relationships quality. However, these results suggest that paternal strategies during the divorce process have a greater predictive ability on father-child relationships quality, whereas maternal positive strategies during divorce determine positive mother-child relationships among young adults.

Keywords: father-child relationships quality, mother-child relationships quality, parental divorce process, young adulthood

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
1140 Case Study of Child Labour in Pakistan

Authors: Ahmad Ali Ansari, Hassan Arshad, Basharat Hussani, Adnan Raza, Ahmad Ali Khan

Abstract:

Child labor is a kind of an issue which was found all over the world, but now the first world countries like countries in Europe and America (USA) got hold of it up to a large extent but Underdeveloped or the developing countries including Pakistan are still a victim of this issue. The following attempt has been made in this research article to figure out the main reasons of child labor in underdeveloped countries especially in Pakistan and also some of the issues are discussed which are hindering the solution of child labor in Pakistan. In this research we interviewed 70 working children in the area of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Taxila and Hatar who belonged to the different parts of the country and figured out the basic causes of the child labor in Pakistan, what are its bad effects on the young one who is a victim of it and we also put a light on what the government of Pakistan is doing in this context and what the government still have to do.

Keywords: child labour, Pakistan, case study, underdeveloped countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
1139 Adopting Home Nursing as a Remedy for Child Labour in Nigeria

Authors: T. O. Adeoye

Abstract:

In Nigeria prior to the arrival of the colonial masters, there used to be good family relationship, things were done through cooperation and community effort, even training and upbringing of a child was the responsibility of every member of the community. The advent of western education and civilization brought about movement of youths from rural to urban areas. Hence the tie that binds the village life is broken, community as a whole is no more responsible for the upbringing or home training of her children any more. The study investigates adoption of home nursing as a remedy for child labour in Nigeria, considered challenges like poverty, broken homes and illiteracy among others. For the purpose of verification, a survey in form of an opinion poll was conducted by means of interview using questionnaires for about 3000 respondents. However, out of the respondents that were interviewed as regard parental poverty and its resultant effect on a child only 14.2% of the respondent strongly disagreed that children work on the street because their parents are poor. The study shows that possible solutions of effective ways of controlling child labour is home nursing and also promoting and advocating for the policies against child labour in Nigeria.

Keywords: child abuse, child labour, psychological problem, Street children

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
1138 Parental Separation and 'the Best Interests of the Child' at International Law: Guidance for Nation States in the 21st Century

Authors: Cassandra Seery

Abstract:

During the twentieth century, the notion of child rights at the international level began with the League of Nations’ Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1924, culminating in the development and adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (‘the Convention’) in 1989. A key foundation of child rights lies in the development of the ‘best interests of the child’ principle and its subsequent incorporation into domestic legislation across the globe. This principle has become a key concept in child rights protection and has become a widely recognized principle in the protection of child rights. However, despite its status as the primary operating standard in child and family law and its ‘deepening hold in domestic and international instruments’, the meaning of the ‘best interests of the child’ principle has been criticised as open-ended and vague. This paper explores the evolution and development of the principle in the context of parental separation at international law throughout the 21st century and identifies opportunities for the Nation States to further improve legislative responses in associated child protection cases. An extensive review of relevant United Nations documentation (including instruments, resolutions and comments, jurisprudence, reports, guidelines and policies, training materials and so forth) explores: (i) what progress has been made to further develop the principle at the international level with regard to parental separation; and (ii) what developments participating the Nation States should consider as part of future legal and social policy reforms in this space. It will highlight opportunities for improvement and explore the benefit and relevance of international approaches for the Nation States moving forward.

Keywords: international human rights, best interests of the child, legal and social policy, child rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
1137 Trends of Code-Mixing in a Bilingual Nigerian Child: An Investigation of a Three-Year-Old Child

Authors: Salamatu Sani

Abstract:

This study is an investigation of how code-mixing manifests in the language development of a Nigerian child, especially in the Hausa speaking environment. It is hinged on the fact that the environment influences the first language acquired by a child regardless of the cultural and/or linguistic background of the parents. The child under investigation has been subjected to close monitoring on her speech hitherto. It is a longitudinal study covering a period of twelve months (January 2018 to December 2018); that was when the subject was between twenty-four and thirty months of age. The speeches have been recorded by means of a tape recorder, video, and a diary. The study employs as a theoretical framework, emergentism, which is an eclectic of the behaviourist and the mentalist theories to the study of language development, for analysis. This is in agreement with the positions of Skinner and Watson. Sequel to this investigation, it was discovered the environment is a major factor that influences the exposure of a child to a language more than the other factors and that, if a child is exposed to more than one language, there is a great tendency for such a child to code-mix and code-switch in her speech production. The child under investigation, in spite of the linguistic background of her parents, speaks the Hausa Language much better than the other languages around her though with remarkable code-mixing with other languages around her such as English and Ebira languages. The study concludes that although a child is born with the innate ability to acquire a particular language, the environment plays a key role to trigger the innate ability and consequently, the child is exposed to the acquisition of the dominant language around her at a particular given time.

Keywords: bilingual, code-mixing, emergentism, environment, Hausa

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1136 Public Perception on Child Street Hawking in Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Anyaogu, E. U. M. Igbo

Abstract:

This study examines the public view on child street hawking in Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria, its causes and effect on the child participant and society at large. The study tends to investigate the influence of socioeconomic status on child street hawking. The current situation reflects a chronic urban poverty, which disposed of parents/guardians to send their children and wards of school age to income yielding activities. A social survey research design was employed to select the respondents. A total of 1,108 questionnaires were administered to the respondents of 18 years and above and 1,038 were retrieved. Also, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted in the study area. The findings revealed that child street hawking is on the increase and a serious threat to social cohesion and national security. The study also revealed that poverty is a major cause of child street hawking. The study recommends that government should create job opportunities for urban dwellers, as well as provide social amenities and also put up poverty alleviation/eradication programmes for the people.

Keywords: Aba Urban, child street hawking, dangers, disposition, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
1135 Child Homicide Victimization and Community Context: A Research Note

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

Abstract:

Among serious crimes, child homicide is a rather rare event. However, the killing of children stirs up a special type of emotion in society that pales other criminal acts. This study examines the relevancy of three possible community-level explanations for child homicide: social deprivation, female empowerment, and social isolation. The social deprivation hypothesis posits that child homicide results from lack of resources in communities. The female empowerment hypothesis argues that a higher female status translates into a higher level of capability to prevent child homicide. Finally, the social isolation hypothesis regards child homicide as a result of lack of social connectivity. Child homicide data, aggregated by US postal ZIP codes in California from 1990 to 1999, were analyzed with a negative binomial regression. The results of the negative binomial analysis demonstrate that social deprivation is the most salient and consistent predictor among all other factors in explaining child homicide victimization at the ZIP-code level. Both social isolation and female labor force participation are weak predictors of child homicide victimization across communities. Further, results from the negative binomial regression show that it is the communities with a higher, not lower, degree of female labor force participation that are associated with a higher count of child homicide. It is possible that poor communities with a higher level of female employment have a lesser capacity to provide the necessary care and protection for the children. Policies aiming at reducing social deprivation and strengthening female empowerment possess the potential to reduce child homicide in the community.

Keywords: child homicide, deprivation, empowerment, isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
1134 Competency-Based Social Work Practice and Challenges in Child Case Management: Studies in the Districts Social Welfare Services, Malaysia

Authors: Sopian Brahim, Mohd Suhaimi Mohamad, Ezarina Zakaria, Norulhuda Sarnon

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the practical experience of child welfare case workers and professionalism in the child case management in Malaysia. This paper discusses the specific social work practice competency and challenges faced by child caseworkers in the fieldwork. This research is qualitative with Grounded Theory approach. Four sessions of Focused Group Discussion (FGD) have been conducted involving a total of 27 caseworkers (child protector and probation officers) in the Klang Valley. The study found that the four basic principles of knowledge in child case management namely: 1. Knowledge in child case management, 2. Professional values of caseworkers towards children, 3. skills in managing cases, and 4. Culturally competence practice in child case managemenr. In addition, major challenges faced in the child case management are the capacity and commitment of the family in children's rehabilitation program, the credibility of the case worker are being challenge and challenges in support system from intra and inter-agency. This study is important for policy makers to take into account the capacity and needs of the child's case worker in accordance with national social work competency framework thereby improving case management services for children more systematically in line with national standards.

Keywords: social work practice, child case management, competency-based knowledge, professionalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1133 Using a Strength Based Approach to Teaching Children with Special Needs

Authors: Eunice Tan

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to look at an alternative to the approach and methodologies of working with a child with special needs. The strength-based approach to education embodies a paradigm shift. It is a strategy to move away from a deficit-based methodology which inadvertently may lead to an extensive list of things that the child cannot do or is unable to do. Today, many parents of individuals with special needs are focused on the individual’s deficits rather than on his or her strengths. Even when parents recognise and identify their child’s savant strengths to be valuable and wish to develop their abilities, they face the challenge that there are insufficient programs committed to supporting the development and improvement of such abilities. What is a strength-based approach in education? A strength-based approach in education focuses on students' positive qualities and contributions to class instead of the skills and abilities they may not have. Many schools are focused on the child’s special educational needs rather than the whole child. Parents interviewed have said that they have to engage external tutors to help hone in on their child’s interests and strengths. The strength-based approach to writing statements encourages educators to find out: • What a child can do • What a child can do when he or she is given educational support • Learning more about children with special needs and their strengths and talents will broaden our understanding of how we can help them with language acquisition, social skills, as well as self-help and independence skills.

Keywords: special needs, strengths, and talents, alternative educational approach, strength based approach

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1132 Child Marriages in Africa: Using a Rights-Based Approach to Protect the Girl-Child in Nigeria

Authors: Foluke Abimbola

Abstract:

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child has been signed and ratified by several countries due to the concern about various abuses and crimes committed against children both locally and internationally. It is a shame that in view of the peculiar hardships being experienced by children today, the natural right to childhood has to be protected by a vast array of laws and international conventions. 194 countries have so far acceded to and ratified the convention on the Rights of a Child while some countries such as Nigeria have enacted the convention as a domestic law, yet child abuse is still rampant not only in Nigeria but all over the world. In Nigeria, the Child Rights Act was passed into law in 2003, with its provisions similar to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. Despite the age of marriage provided in the Nigerian Child’s Rights Act 2003, many communities still practice child marriages to the detriment of the girl-child. Cases where these children have to withdraw from school as a result of these unripe marriages abound. Unfortunately, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 appears to indirectly support early marriages for girls in section 29 (4) where it states that a woman who is married is deemed to be of full age whereas ‘full age’ as a general term in the Constitution is from 18 years old and above. Section 29 (4) may thus be interpreted to mean that a girl of 12 years old, if married, is deemed to be of ‘full-age.’ In view of these discrepancies which continue to justify this unwholesome practice, this paper shall proffer solutions to this unlawful act and make recommendations to existing institutions, using a rights-based approach, on how to prevent and/or substantially reduce this practice. A comparative analysis with other African countries will be adopted in order to conduct a research for effective policies that may be implemented for the protection of these girls. Thus, this paper will further examine the issue of child marriage which is still quite rampant in African countries particularly in Nigeria which also affects the girl-child’s right to an education. Such children are in need of special protection and this paper will recommend ways in which state institutions, particularly in Nigeria, may be able to introduce policies to curb incidences of child marriage and child sexual abuse while proffering strategies for the prevention of these crimes.

Keywords: child abuse, child marriages, child rights, constitutions, child rights, the girl-child

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1131 Child Soldier in Africa: A Big Challenge to Human Right

Authors: Adegboyega Adeolapo Ola, Gerelene Jagganath

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges of human right in the world, especially African states is the use of child soldiers in armed conflict, constituting a major source of destruction of lives and properties. Mostly, they are in developing countries with the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, the abduction and employment of children as soldiers is a form of exploitative labour that is tantamount to slavery. Since the end of cold war, Child soldier has increased in Africa countries like Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Uganda. This study examines the main cause of the recruitment and use of child soldiers and its challenges to human right. It further assesses the role of international regional bodies and various governments in curbing child soldiers with a view to proffer suggestions on how to address some of the resultant threat of human right. The study posits that the control of small arms and light weapons is essential in curtailing the spread of child soldier and abuse of human right. This hopefully should result in the sustainability of human/child right in African continent. It is a recommendation of this study that, in order to sustain human right in the region, all Africa leaders, government and regional bodies; such as African Union, Economic Community of West African States, South African Development Community among others, should cooperate and work together to address the issue of illicit small arms, which could eventually lead to child soldier.

Keywords: arms control, child soldier, human right, small arms

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
1130 Teaching Children With Differential Learning Needs By Understanding Their Talents And Interests

Authors: Eunice Tan

Abstract:

The purpose of this presentation is to look at an alternative to the approach and methodologies of working with special needs. The strength-based approach to education embodies a paradigm shift. It is a strategy to move away from a deficit-based methodology which inadvertently may lead to an extensive list of things that the child cannot do or is unable to do. Today, many parents of individuals with special needs are focused on the child’s deficits rather than on his or her strengths. Even when parents Recognise and identify their child’s strengths to be valuable and wish to develop their abilities, they face the challenge that there are insufficient programs committed to supporting the development and improvement of such abilities. What is a strength-based approach in education? A strength-based approach in education focuses on students' positive qualities and contributions to class instead of the skills and abilities they may not have. Many schools are focused on the child’s special educational needs rather than the whole child. Parents interviewed have said that they have to engage external tutors to help hone in on their child’s interests and strengths.

Keywords: differential learning needs, special needs, instructional style, talents

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1129 Role of Social Workers in Juvenile Justice Board as a Child Protection Mechanism for Children in Conflict with Law

Authors: Ida D. Souza, Lena Ashok

Abstract:

Every child has a fundamental right to be protected and it is only a safe, supported child who can effectively cope with difficult circumstances and lead a happy childhood. The vulnerability of children has increased due to emerging lifestyles, raising cost of living, higher expectations from adults, parental and care-giver stress /burn-out and a general raise in demand for services for children. A major area of concern is the rise of juvenile crimes in the overall crimes committed in the country. The UNCRC 1989 and JJ Act 2000 enables the structures to handle the juvenile children in care and concern in its real terms. One of the mechanisms to protect the children is the JJB a justice system. The aim is to hold a child culpable (guilty) for offence they committed, not through punishment, but counseling the child to understand their actions and persuade them away from such deviated activities in the future. The JJB consists of two social workers and a judicial magistrate and one of whom should be a woman. This study aims at understanding the role of social workers in best practices in deciding the best course of action for the rehabilitation of the child. Two case studies were carried out through in-depth interviews with the social worker member of the JJB of two Udupi and Mangalore districts. The best practices reported in which children are being allowed to express themselves in a child friendly environment and in the best interest of the child. The study highlighted team work to be very effective in understanding the child in their reformation.

Keywords: child protection, best practices, juvenile justice, reformation teamwork

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1128 Habitual Residence and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction

Authors: Molshree A. Sharma

Abstract:

As a result of globalization, it is increasingly common for people to live in different parts of the world. However there is a corresponding rise of international family law issues and competing jurisdictions. The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abduction is a multilateral treaty that provides an expeditious method to return a child to their country of habitual residence when ‘internationally abducted’ by a parent from one member country to another. Specifically, the Convention provides a protocol for expeditious return of the child to their habitual residence unless there is a valid exception, the most common being that return would result in an intolerable situation or cause grave risk of harm to the child. This paper analyzes case law from various signatory countries including the United States, highlighting the differences in interpretation of key terms under the Convention, as well as case law in non-Hague signatory countries, with a focus on India and the Middle East.

Keywords: best interest of the child, grave risk of harm, habitual residence, well-settled

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1127 Short and Long Term Effects of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Behaviors

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Over the last fifty years, maternal sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families have been a priority for researchers. For this reason, attachment-based interventions have been implemented and been shown to be effective in enhancing child development. Most of the time, child outcomes are measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child development shortly after the intervention ended and one-year post-intervention. Methods: Over the seventy-two mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, forty-two were included in this study: 24 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 18 dyads who did not. Intervention and none intervention dyads were matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, the reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex, and family status. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured 3 and 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children were respectively 45 and 54 months old. Findings: Independent-sample t-tests were conducted to compare scores between the two groups and the two data collection times. In general, on differences observed between the two groups three months after the intervention ended, just a few of them were still present nine months later. Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggests that the effects of attachment-based intervention observed three months following the intervention are not lasting for most of them. Those results inform us of the importance of considering the possibility to offer more attachment-based intervention sessions for those highly vulnerable families.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child behaviors, child protective services, highly vulnerable families

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1126 The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Child Abuse in South Korea: Focused on the Moderating Effects of Patriarchal Attitude and Informal Social Control

Authors: Hye Lin Yang, Clifton R. Emery

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of intimate partner violence on child abuse, whether patriarchal attitude and informal social control moderate the relationship between intimate partner violence and child abuse. This study was conducted with data from The Seoul Families and Neighborhoods Study (SFNS). The SFNS is a representative random probability 3-stage cluster sample of 541 cohabiting couples in Seoul, South Korea collected in 2012. To verify research models, Random effect analysis were used. All analyses were performed using the Stata program. Results: Crucial findings are the following. First, intimate partner violence showed a significantly positive relationship with Child abuse. Second, there are significant moderating effects of informal social control on intimate partner violence - child abuse. Third, there are significant moderating effects of patriarchal attitude on intimate partner violence - child abuse. In other words, Patriarchal attitude is a significant risk factor of child abuse and informal social control is a significant Protection factor of child abuse. Based on results, the policy and practical implications for preventing child abuse, promoting informal social control were discussed.

Keywords: Intimate partner violence, child abuse, informal social control, patriarchal attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 176