Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4632

Search results for: cancer patients

4632 The Impact of Prior Cancer History on the Prognosis of Salivary Gland Cancer Patients: A Population-based Study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database

Authors: Junhong Li, Danni Cheng, Yaxin Luo, Xiaowei Yi, Ke Qiu, Wendu Pang, Minzi Mao, Yufang Rao, Yao Song, Jianjun Ren, Yu Zhao

Abstract:

Background: The number of multiple cancer patients was increasing, and the impact of prior cancer history on salivary gland cancer patients remains unclear. Methods: Clinical, demographic and pathological information on salivary gland cancer patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2017, and the characteristics and prognosis between patients with a prior cancer and those without prior caner were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used for the analysis of prognosis. A risk score model was established to exam the impact of treatment on patients with a prior cancer in different risk groups. Results: A total of 9098 salivary gland cancer patients were identified, and 1635 of them had a prior cancer history. Salivary gland cancer patients with prior cancer had worse survival compared with those without a prior cancer (p<0.001). Patients with a different type of first cancer had a distinct prognosis (p<0.001), and longer latent time was associated with better survival (p=0.006) in the univariate model, although both became nonsignificant in the multivariate model. Salivary gland cancer patients with a prior cancer were divided into low-risk (n= 321), intermediate-risk (n=223), and high-risk (n=62) groups and the results showed that patients at high risk could benefit from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, and those at intermediate risk could benefit from surgery. Conclusion: Prior cancer history had an adverse impact on the survival of salivary gland cancer patients, and individualized treatment should be seriously considered for them.

Keywords: prior cancer history, prognosis, salivary gland cancer, SEER

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4631 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta

Abstract:

The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: lung, cancer, patients, Nepal

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4630 The Model Development of Caregiver Skills for the End of Life’s Cancer Patients

Authors: Chaliya Wamaloon, Malee Chaisaena, Nusara Prasertsri

Abstract:

Informal caregivers providing home-based palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care to people with advanced cancer is needed, however, there has not been develop caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. The aim of this research was to study the model development of caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. Mixed methods research was conducted in 3 phases. All subjects were in Ubon Rathchathani Cancer Hospital including 30 EOL cancer patient caregivers, 30 EOL cancer patients, and 111 health care professionals who provided care for the EOL cancer patients and 30 EOL target participants who had been trained to be cancer patient caregivers. The research tools were questionnaires, semi structured interviews, and caregiver skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, and content analysis. The result from this study showed the model development of caregiver skills for cancer patients consisted of 9 domains skills: 1. monitoring, 2. interpreting, 3. making decisions, 4. taking action, 5. making adjustments, 6. providing hands-on care, 7. accessing resources, 8. working together with the ill patients, and 9. navigating the healthcare system. The model composed of skills development curriculum for cancer patient caregivers, Manual of palliative care for caregivers, diary of health care records for cancer patients, and the evaluation model of development of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients. The results of the evaluation in the development model of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients showed that the caregivers were satisfied with the model of development for caregiver skills at a high level. The comparison of the caregiver skills before and after obtaining the development of caregivers skills revealed that it improved at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

Keywords: caregiver, caregiver skills, cancer patients, end of life

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4629 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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4628 Estimation of Serum Levels of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Safa Safdar

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a type of cancer which is developed by the formation of a tumor on the breast. This tumor invades and causes different electrolyte imbalance. The present study was designed to measure the serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels and to check the frequency of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in breast cancer patients. Serum calcium and phosphorous levels of fifty breast cancer women of 18-70 years of age group and fifty healthy women of same age group were measured by using semi-automated chemistry analyzer ( Humalyzer 3000, Human, Germany ). Significant variation in these levels was observed. The mean calcium value in BC patients was higher 9.398 mg/dl as compared to controls which were 8.694 mg/dl. Whereas the mean value of inorganic phosphorus level was lower 4.060 mg/dl in BC patients as compared to controls having 4.456 mg/dl. In this study, the frequency of hypercalcemia in Breast cancer patients was 10% i.e. only 10 out of 50 Breast cancer patients were suffering from hypercalcemia. Whereas the frequency of hypophosphatemia in this study was only 2 % i.e. only 1 out of 50 patients was suffering from hypophosphatemia. Thus it is concluded that there is a significant change in serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients as the disease progresses. So, this study will be helpful for the clinicians to maintain serum calcium and phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients and also preventing them from further complications.

Keywords: serum analysis, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, hpercalcemia hypophosphatemia

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4627 Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India

Authors: Alka Yadav, Mayank Jain, Rajan Saxena, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, mismatch repair protein, immunohitochemistry, clinicopathological correlation

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4626 The Impact of Web Based Education on Cancer Patients’ Clinical Outcomes

Authors: F. Arıkan, Z. Karakus

Abstract:

Cancer is a widespread disease in the world and is the third reason of deaths among the chronic diseases. Educating patients and caregivers has a vital role for empowering them in managing disease and treatment's symptoms. Informing of the patients about their disease and treatment process decreases patient's distress and decisional conflicts, improves wellbeing of them, increase success of the treatment and survival. In this era, technological education methods are used for patients that have different chronic disease. Many studies indicated that especially web based patient education such as chronic obstructive lung disease; heart failure is more effective than printed materials. Web based education provide easiness to patients while they are reaching health services. It also has more advantages because of it decreases health cost and requirement of staff. It is thought that web based education may be beneficial method for cancer patient's empowerment in coping with the disease's symptoms. The aim of the study is evaluate the effectiveness of web based education for cancer patients' clinical outcomes.

Keywords: cancer patients, e-learning, nursing, web based education

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4625 Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation in Tissue and Blood of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Association with Survival

Authors: Ashraf Ali, Kriti Upadhyay, Puja Sohal, Anant Mohan, Randeep Guleria

Abstract:

Background: Gene silencing by aberrant promoter hypermethylation is common in lung cancer and is an initiating event in its development. Aim: To evaluate the gene promoter hypermethylation frequency in serum and tissue of lung cancer patients. Method: 95 newly diagnosed untreated advance stage lung cancer patients and 50 cancer free matched controls were studied. Bisulfite modification of tissue and serum DNA was done; modified DNA was used as a template for methylation-specific PCR analysis. Survival was assessed for one year. Results: Of 95 patients, 82% were non-small cell lung cancer (34% squamous cell carcinoma, 34% non-small cell lung cancer and 14% adenocarcinoma) and 18% were small cell lung cancer. Biopsy revealed that tissue of 89% and 75% of lung cancer patients and 85% and 52% of controls had promoter hypermethylated for MGMT (p=0.35) and p16(p<0.001) gene, respectively. In serum, 33% and 49% of lung cancer patients and 28% and 43% controls were positive for MGMT and p16 gene. No significant correlation was found between survival and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion: High gene promoter methylation frequency of p16 gene in tissue biopsy may be linked with early stages of carcinogenesis. Appropriate follow-up is required for confirmation of this finding.

Keywords: lung cancer, MS- PCR, methylation, molecular biology

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4624 Incidence of Anaemia in Female Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Fatima Abu Baker Hamad

Abstract:

Anaemia is a public health problem that affects population in both rich and poor countries. Although the primary cause is iron deficiency, it is seldom present in isolation. More frequently it coexists with a number of other causes, such as malaria, parasitic infection, nutritional deficiencies and hemoglobin apathies. That was the people in Sudan suffered from it .Anaemia has a high prevalence in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to find the incidence of anaemia in new cases of Sudanese female breast patients attending the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Gezira University, Sudan. The study was performed on 250 female breast cancer patients, the age range was (20-70) years and the mean age was 45.99±0.82. The hemoglobin level was measured by SYSMEX-KX2lM.As result 144(58.8) of patients presented with anaemia, between moderate to severe. Forty four (17.6%) of the patients were found to be under weight, 31 of them were anaemic. While 105(42%) of the patients were overweight and obese, 52 of them were anaemic. The incidence of anaemia in newly diagnosed Sudanese female breast cancer patients presented at NCI is association presentation with advance disease stage. Also it is related to age, state of nutrition and social economic factors. Early cancer detection which leads to effective treatment and reduced complication of diseases included anaemia is recommended.

Keywords: anaemia, breast cancer, stages of disease, malaria

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4623 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

Abstract:

The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, Uganda

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4622 Knowledge of Pap Smear Test and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid in Cervical Cancer Patients in Manado

Authors: Eric Ng, Freddy W. Wagey, Frank M. M. Wagey

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries. The main causes are the lack of prevention programs and effective therapy, as well as the lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness for early detection. The Pap smear test and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) allow the cervical lesion to be detected so that progression to cervical cancer can be avoided. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of Pap smear test and VIA in cervical cancer patients. Methodology: A total of 67 cervical cancer patients in Manado who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the month of November 2019-January 2020 with a questionnaire about the respondents' knowledge relating to Pap smear test and VIA. Questionnaire data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Knowledge of pap smear among cervical cancer patients were good in 9 respondents (13.4%), moderate in 20 respondents (29.9%), and bad in 38 respondents (56.7%), whereas the knowledge of VIA was good in 13 respondents (19.4%), moderate in 15 respondents (22.4%), and bad in 39 respondents (58.2%). Conclusion: Majority of cervical cancer patients in Manado still had bad knowledge about Pap smear tests and VIA.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, pap smear test, visual inspection with acetic acid

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4621 Palliative Performance Scale Differences between Patients Referred by Specialized Cancer Center and General Hospitals to the Palliative Care Center in Kuwait

Authors: Khalid Al Saleh, Najlaa AlSayed

Abstract:

Background: Palliative care is changing from just ‘end of life care’ to care delivered earlier in the disease course. Metanalysis showed that Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) is associated with increased length of survival. The Palliative Care Center (PCC) in Kuwait is the only stand-alone center in Eastern Mediterranean Region with a capacity of 92 beds. We compared clinical characteristics between patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center and general hospitals in Kuwait to PCC. Method: A cross Sectional survey was conducted since the opening of PCC in January 2011 to June 2013. Patients’ data on demographics, type of the cancer, PPS score and referring hospital were collected and analyzed. Results: Total number of the patients was 142. Mean age was 61.05±14.79 years, 66 patients (47.1%) were males and 74 (52.9%) were females. The most common cancers in males were lung (n=18, 27.3%) followed by head and neck cancers (n=8, 12.1%) and brain tumors (n=7, 10.6%) while in females, the most common cancers were breast cancer (n=12, 16.7%) followed by ovarian cancer (n=10, 13.9%) and Cancer Colon (n=8, 11.1%). Patients with PPS score 30% were 27.9% (n=39), 40% in 40.7% (n=57), and 50% in 17.1% (n=24) respectively. Patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center had significantly higher portion of patients with PPS score > 30% (73.4%, n=94), compared to patients coming from general hospitals (33.3%, n=4), P value= 0.007. Conclusion: There is significant difference in PPS scores between patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center compared to patients referred from general hospitals. We encourage that all cancer patients should be treated in Specialized Cancer Centers and earlier involvement of Palliative Care Centers to achieve better survival. Training workshops are needed for health care professionals working in general hospitals to raise awareness about earlier referral of patients to palliative care services.

Keywords: palliative care, kuwait, performance scale differences, pps score, specialized hospitals

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4620 Comparative Study of Music-Therapy Types on Anxiety in Early Stage Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Farnaz Dehkhoda

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This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of active and receptive music-therapy on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. 184 young adult patients, who were diagnosed with early stage cancer and were undergoing treatment, were divided into three groups. Two groups received music therapy as a parallel treatment and the third group was control group. In active music-therapy, a music specialist helped the patients to play guitar and sing. In the receptive music-therapy, patients preferred pre-recorded music played by MP3 player. The level of anxiety was measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory as pre-test and post-test. ANCOVA revealed that both types of music-therapy reduced anxiety level of patients and the active music-therapy intervention found to be more effective. The results suggest that music-therapy can be applied as an intervention method contemporary with cancer medical treatment, for improving quality of life in cancer patients by reducing their anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Music-therapy

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4619 Compare Anxiety, Stress, Depression, andAttitude towards Death among Breast CancerPatient Undergoing Mastectomy and Breast-Conserving

Authors: Mitra JahangirRad, Sheida Sodagar, Maryam Bahrami Hidaji

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This study was conducted with the aim of comparing anxiety, stress, depression and attitude towards death among patients with breast cancer who have undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. The study method is causal-comparative. Statistical population was all patients with breast cancer referring to Medical Center of Panjom Azar Hospital in Gorgan or oncologists' offices in this city within eight months. They were selected using purposive sampling. Sample size of this study was 45 patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy and 70 patients under breast-conserving surgery. Measurement tools in this study were depression, anxiety, and stress scale (Dass-21) as well as Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR). Results of this study in hypotheses investigation showed that anxiety, stress and depression among patients with breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery is significantly different. However, their attitudes towards death do not differ. From these findings, it can be concluded that although most patients with breast cancer encounter many psychological problems, patients undergoing mastectomy experience more anxiety, stress and depression relative to patients with breast-conserving surgery and it seems that they need more supportive therapy.

Keywords: anxiety, breast cancer, depression, death, mastectomy

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4618 Importance of Prostate Volume, Prostate Specific Antigen Density and Free/Total Prostate Specific Antigen Ratio for Prediction of Prostate Cancer

Authors: Aliseydi Bozkurt

Abstract:

Objectives: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign disease, and prostate cancer (PC) is malign disease of the prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-bx) is one of the most important diagnostic tools in PC diagnosis. Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider prostate specific antigen density (PSAD), f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Method: We retrospectively studied 269 patients who had a prostate specific antigen (PSA) score of 4 or who had suspected rectal examination at any PSA level and received TRUS-bx between January 2015 and June 2018 in our clinic. TRUS-bx was received by 12 experienced urologists with 12 quadrants. Prostate volume was calculated prior to biopsy together with TRUS. Patients were classified as malignant and benign at the end of pathology. Age, PSA value, prostate volume in transrectal ultrasonography, corpuscle biopsy, biopsy pathology result, the number of cancer core and Gleason score were evaluated in the study. The success rates of PV, PSAD, and f/tPSA were compared in all patients and those with PSA 2.5-10 ng/mL and 10.1-30 ng/mL tp foresee prostate cancer. Result: In the present study, in patients with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PV cut-off value was 43,5 mL (n=42 < 43,5 mL and n=102 > 43,5 mL) while in those with PSA 10.1-30 ng/mL prostate volüme (PV) cut-off value was found 61,5 mL (n=31 < 61,5 mL and n=36 > 61,5 mL). Total PSA values in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml were found lower (6.0 ± 1.3 vs 6.7 ± 1.7) than that with PV < 43,5 mL, this value was nearly significant (p=0,043). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, no significant difference was found (p=0,117) in terms of total PSA values between the group with PV < 61,5 mL and that with PV > 61,5 mL. In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in patients with PV < 43,5 mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower compared to the group with PV > 43,5 mL (0.21 ± 0.09 vs 0.26 ± 0.09 p < 0.001 ). Similarly, in the group with PSA value of 10.1-30 ng/mL, f/t PSA value was found significantly lower in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.16 ± 0.08 vs 0.23 ± 0.10 p=0,003). In the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, PSAD value in patients with PV < 43,5 mL was found significantly higher compared to those with PV > 43,5 mL (0.17 ± 0.06 vs 0.10 ± 0.03 p < 0.001). Similarly, in the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL PSAD value was found significantly higher in patients with PV < 61,5 mL (0.47 ± 0.23 vs 0.17 ± 0.08 p < 0.001 ). The biopsy results suggest that in the group with PSA 2.5-10 ng/ml, in 29 of the patients with PV < 43,5 mL (69%) cancer was detected while in 13 patients (31%) no cancer was detected. While in 19 patients with PV > 43,5 mL (18,6%) cancer was found, in 83 patients (81,4%) no cancer was detected (p < 0.001). In the group with PSA value 10.1-30 ng/mL, in 21 patients with PV < 61,5 mL (67.7%) cancer was observed while only in10 patients (32.3%) no cancer was seen. In 5 patients with PV > 61,5 mL (13.9%) cancer was found while in 31 patients (86.1%) no cancer was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Identifying men at increased risk for having a biopsy detectable prostate cancer should consider PSA, f/t PSA Ratio, an estimate of prostate volume. Prostate volume in PC was found lower.

Keywords: prostate cancer, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen, free/total PSA ratio

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4617 Spatio- Temporal Gender Based Patterns of Lung Cancer in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, 2008-2012

Authors: Rubab Z. Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt, Isma Younis, Aamer G. Mufti

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Worldwide lung cancer 1.61 million cases were seen in both genders. Lung carcinoma is the major cause of both morbidity and mortality in the world. Purpose of the present study was to describe the spatio- temporal trends of lung cancer in both genders. A retrospective study was conducted. Total 1498 patients of lung carcinoma were examined. Only lung cancer patients from all over the Punjab were included in the present study. MS Excel 2010 was used for data tabulation and calculation while the Arc GIS version 9.3 was used for geographical representation of the data. 1498 cases of Lung cancer were found from 2008-2012. The number of male patients was 1236 and female was 262. Majority of the patients were from Lahore districts with 807 patients. Lung cancer was more prevalent in male as compared to female in our region. Increase in the prevalence of lung cancer was prominently seen in the most populated and industrial areas of the Punjab province. Time trend of five years showed fluctuation in the lung cancer incidence during the study period.

Keywords: districts, gender, lung cancer trends, Punjab province of Pakistan

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4616 Epidemiology of Bladder Malignancy in Patients Treated with Urethral Resection in Kurdistan Province

Authors: Heshmatollah Sofimajidpour, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli

Abstract:

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world and the fourth most common cancer in men in Iran, and the second most common genitourinary cancer after prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bladder malignancy in patients treated with transurethral resection in Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. In this cross-sectional study, data was extracted from321 medical records of patients with bladder malignancy treated by urethral resection. Patients 'information, including age, sex, place of residence, occupation, smoking history, histopathology, disease stage, and type of treatment, were extracted from patients' medical records from 2012-2017. The frequency and percentage of each variable were calculated using Stata software Ver. 14 and analyzed. The results of this study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of the age of the subjects was 65.6 ± 14 years. 264 people (82.2%) were men, and 247 people (76.9%) lived in the city. In terms of smoking and family history, 172 patients (53.6%) and 20 patients (6.2%) were reported, respectively. Most people were diagnosed with Transitional Cell carcinoma, and 210 patients (65.4%) were diagnosed with stage 1, and 8 patients (2.5%) were diagnosed with stage 4 of the disease. Regarding the type of treatment, TURBT was reported in 207 patients (64.5%), and TURBT and BCG in the bladder were reported in 74 patients (23%). The incidence of bladder cancer is increasing, although this increase may be due to improved cancer registration systems, as well as the use of new diagnostic methods and increased patient awareness, the risk of bladder cancer is increasing due to lifestyle changes, job encounters, and other risk factors. Therefore planning and identifying the causes of this cancer can be helpful in preventing it.

Keywords: epidemiology, bladder malignancy, transurethral resection, urinary tract, kurdistan, iran

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4615 Hematological Changes in Oral Cancer Patients with Smokable and Chewable Tobacco

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch

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Objective: To analyze hematological changes in patients of oral cancer with history of smokable and chewable tobacco use, and to compare them with healthy controls. Study Design: Descriptive type of study survey. Setting: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LUMHS, Jamshoro. Study Period: One year July, 2013 to July, 2014. Subject and Methods: Histopathologically confirmed hundred cases of oral cancer with the history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco were selected to analyze the hematological variation. Inclusion Criteria: Histopathologically diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma, with history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco. Exclusion Criteria: Patient with any systemic medically compromising problem, terminally ill patients, radio or chemotherapeutically treated patients, patients with metastasis to lungs or any distant metastasis, patients with the history of more than one well-defined etiological factor involved. Results: There were 73% patients of oral cancer reported with anemic. Significantly lower values of Hb, platelet, and higher mean values of ESR, TLC, and were observed in both groups of oral cancer patients; tobacco smokers and tobacco chewers as compared to non-smokers healthy controls. There was more decline in the level of haemoglobin and incline in the level of ESR observed in tobacco chewer oral cancer patients as compared to tobacco smokers patients, while TLC was more observed in smokers. Conclusion: Oral cancer patients with a history of chewable/smokable tobacco have likely worse hematological profile, which increases the anesthetic and surgical challenges for maxillofacial surgeons, which have a significant impact on treatment planning as well.

Keywords: oral cancer, hematological variations, tobacco, smokers

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4614 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

Abstract:

Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

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4613 Cancer Patients' Quality of Life and Fatigue: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study were to correlate Jordanian cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue with selected variables (age, sex, religion, marital status, level of education, type of cancer, number of people living in the same household, type of radiotherapy, dose of radiotherapy, and hemoglobin level). Background: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain devastating agents that altered patients’ normal lives. Methods: A correlational design was used in this study to 80 cancer patients and required radiotherapy treatment using a convenience sampling procedure. Results: No significant differences were found in the relationship between quality of life scores and selected variables. A significant negative relationship was found between quality of life scores and the side effects of radiotherapy treatment. Significant positive relationships were found between fatigue scores measured by Piper Fatigue Scale and cancer complications, and radiotherapy side effects. Conclusion: Cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue are affected by radiotherapy’s side effects and cancer complications. Implications for Nursing: Nurses should try to prevent and manage the negative side effects of radiotherapy and complications of cancer. Such an initiative would serve to design specific nursing interventions that have the potential to help patients enjoy their lives and perform their activities.

Keywords: cancer patients, piper fatigue scale, fatigue, quality of life, radiotherapy

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4612 Utilization of Acupuncture in Palliative Care for Cancer Patients

Authors: Jui-Hung Hung, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Modern medicine highly emphasizes the importance of palliative treatment. The inception of palliative and hospice care recently developed into the concept of caring for the patients’ and families’ physical, psychological and spiritual problems. There are several benefits related to palliative care such as reducing medical expenses, decreasing patients’ suffer, and supporting patient go through the finale of the life. Nowadays, in Taiwan, over 60-70% terminal cancer patients were covered in hospice care, and the coverage rate increased annually. Acupuncture is a well-known therapy used more than thousand years to relieve symptoms of cancer patient. Many reports showed that, even in the Western society, many reputable medical centers can provide Acupuncture therapy for patients. Accordingly, using Acupuncture for cancer patient care is a global trend. There are increased evidences indicate that Acupuncture can relieve the symptoms for cancer patients including pain, reduce the dosage of anesthetic, improve the cancer-related fatigue, relieve the chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, ease anxiety mood and even improving the quality of life. Furthermore, some trials show that Acupuncture may help relieve xerostomia, hot flash, sleep disorders, and some GI discomfort and so on. Acupuncture therapy has many advantages for clinical use with effective, low-cost, minimal side effect, suitable for cancer patients and even for elderly population. Especially in nowadays, there are more diversified challenges in modern medicine, all of them will make the higher medical budget. We suggest that Acupuncture will be one of methods for palliative care for cancer patients.

Keywords: Acupuncture, cancer, integrative medicine, palliative care

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4611 Significance of Tridimensional Volume of Tumor in Breast Cancer Compared to Conventional TNM Stage

Authors: Jaewoo Choi, Ki-Tae Hwang, Eunyoung Ko

Abstract:

Backgrounds/Aims: Patients with breast cancer are currently classified according to TNM stage. Nevertheless, the actual volume would be mis-estimated, and it would bring on inappropriate diagnosis. Tridimensional volume-stage derived from the ellipsoid formula was presented as useful measure. Methods: The medical records of 480 consecutive breast cancer between January 2001 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups according to tumor volume by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the ranges of each volume-stage were that V1 was below 2.5 cc, V2 was exceeded 2.5 and below 10.9 cc, and V3 was exceeded 10.9 cc. We analyzed outcomes of volume-stage and compared disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between size-stage and volume-stage with variant intrinsic factor. Results: In the T2 stage, there were patients who had a smaller volume than 4.2 cc known as maximum value of T1. These findings presented that patients in T1c had poorer DFS than T2-lesser (mean of DFS 48.7 vs. 51.8, p = 0.011). Such is also the case in OS (mean of OS 51.1 vs. 55.3, p = 0.006). The cumulative survival curves for V1, V2 compared T1, T2 showed similarity in DFS (HR 1.9 vs. 1.9), and so did it for V3 compared T3 (HR 3.5 vs. 2.6) significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tumor volume had good feasibility on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. We proposed that volume-stage should be considered for an additional stage indicator, particularly in early breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, tridimensional volume of tumor, TNM stage, volume stage

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4610 Use of Nutritional Screening Tools in Cancer-Associated Malnutrition

Authors: Meryem Saban Guler, Saniye Bilici

Abstract:

Malnutrition is a problem that significantly affects patients with cancer throughout the course of their illness, and it may be present from the moment of diagnosis until the end of treatment. We searched electronic databases using key terms such as ‘malnutrition in cancer patients’ or ‘nutritional status in cancer’ or ‘nutritional screening tools’ etc. Decline in nutritional status and continuing weight loss are associated with an increase in number and severity of complications, impaired quality of life and decreased survival rate. Nutrition is an important factor in the treatment and progression of cancer. Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to nutritional depletion due to the combined effects of the malignant disease and its treatment. With increasing incidence of cancer, identification and management of nutritional deficiencies are needed. Early identification of malnutrition, is substantial to minimize or prevent undesirable outcomes throughout clinical course. In determining the nutritional status; food consumption status, anthropometric methods, laboratory tests, clinical symptoms, psychosocial data are used. First-line strategies must include routine screening and identification of inpatients or outpatients at nutritional risk with the use of a simple and standardized screening tool. There is agreement among international nutrition organizations and accredited health care organizations that routine nutritional screening should be a standard procedure for every patient admitted to a hospital. There are f management of all cancer patients therefore routine nutritional screening with validated tools can identify cancer patients at risk.

Keywords: cancer, malnutrition, nutrition, nutritional screening

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4609 Enquiry into Psychological and Psychosocial Aspects in Cancer Care: Cancer Diseases Hospital, Zambia

Authors: Mubita Namuyamba

Abstract:

Despite an increase in the number of cancer programs and partnerships in cancer care provision, the burden of cancer in Zambia is increasingly having a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates. The increase in cancer morbidity and mortality rates has given rise to psychological and psycho social implications (PPsI) in cancer care. Cancer patients, care givers and health care providers are faced with a multitude of PPsIs in cancer care that mainly impact negatively on the management of cancer patients. The study adopted a case study design and was purposively conducted at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka (Zambia) after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethics committee. The sample for this study included 70 cancer patients, 20 care givers and 5 hospital staff (4 nurses and 1 doctor). Data was collected using interviews guides, focus group discussion guides and questionnaires respectively. The qualitative data was analysed thematically. The various psychological and psychosocial challenges that conspire to deter the provision of effective cancer care nursing and improved methods of minimizing the psychological and psychosocial implications in cancer care are the products of this study.

Keywords: case study, enquiry, psychological and psycho social aspects, Zambia

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4608 Integrated Social Support through Social Networks to Enhance the Quality of Life of Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: B. Thanasansomboon, S. Choemprayong, N. Parinyanitikul, U. Tanlamai

Abstract:

Being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, the patients as well as their caretakers are affected physically and mentally. Although the medical systems in Thailand have been attempting to improve the quality and effectiveness of the treatment of the disease in terms of physical illness, the success of the treatment also depends on the quality of mental health. Metastatic breast cancer patients have found that social support is a key factor that helps them through this difficult time. It is recognized that social support in different dimensions, including emotional support, social network support, informational support, instrumental support and appraisal support, are contributing factors that positively affect the quality of life of patients in general, and it is undeniable that social support in various forms is important in promoting the quality of life of metastatic breast patients. However, previous studies have not been dedicated to investigating their quality of life concerning affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to develop integrated social support through social networks to improve the quality of life of metastatic breast cancer patients in Thailand.

Keywords: social support, metastatic breath cancer, quality of life, social network

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4607 Culturally Adapting Videos to Involve Nigerian Patients with Cancer in Clinical Trials

Authors: Abiola Falilat Ibraheem, Akinyimika Sowunmi, Valerie Otti

Abstract:

Background: Introduction of innovative cancer clinical trials to Nigeria is a critical step in addressing global inequities of cancer burden. Low health and clinical trial literacy among Nigerian patients have been sighted as a significant barrier to ensuring that patients enrolled in clinical trials are truly informed. Video intervention has been shown to be the most proactive method to improving patient’s clinical trial knowledge. In the US, video interventions have been successful at improving education about cancer clinical trials among minority patients. Thus, this study aimed to apply and adapt video interventions addressing attitudinal barriers peculiar to Nigerian patients. Methods: A hospital-based representative mixed-method study was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) from July to December 2020, comprising of cancer patients aged 18 and above. Patients were randomly selected during every clinic day, of which 63 patients volunteered to participate in this study. We first administered a cancer literacy survey to determine patients’ knowledge about clinical trials. For patients who had prior knowledge, a pre-intervention test was administered, after which a 15-minute video (attitudes and intention to enroll in therapeutic clinical trials (AIET)) to improve patients’ knowledge, perception, and attitudes towards clinical trials was played, and then ended by administering a post-intervention test to the patients. For patients who had no prior knowledge, the AIET video was played for them, followed by the post-intervention test. Results: Out of 63 patients sampled, 43 (68.3%) had breast cancer. On average, patients agreed to understand their cancer diagnosis and treatment very well. 84.1% of patients had never heard about cancer clinical trials, and 85.7% did not know what cancer clinical trials were. There was a strong positive relationship (r=0.916) between the pretest and posttest, which means that the intervention improved patients’ knowledge, perception, and attitudes about cancer clinical trials. In the focus groups, patients recommended adapting the video in Nigerian settings and representing all religions in order to address trust in local clinical trialists. Conclusion: Due to the small size of patients, change in clinical trial knowledge was not statistically significant. However, there is a trend suggesting that culturally adapted video interventions can be used to improve knowledge and perception about cancer clinical trials.

Keywords: clinical trials, culturally targeted intervention, patient education, video intervention

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4606 An Assessment of Sexual Informational Needs of Breast Cancer Patients in Radiation Oncology

Authors: Li Hoon Lim, Nur Farhanah Said, Katie Simmons, Eric Pei Ping Pang, Sharon Mei Mei Wong

Abstract:

Background and Purpose: Research regarding the sexual impact of breast cancer treatment on Asian women is both sensitive and scarce. This study aims to assess and evaluate the sexual health needs and concerns of breast cancer radiotherapy patients. It is hoped that awareness will be increased and an appropriate intervention can be developed to address the needs of future breast cancer patients. Methods: 110 consecutive unselected breast cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Questionnaires were administered once for patient undergoing radiotherapy to the breast. This study employed an anonymous questionnaire; any breast radiotherapy patient who can read English can voluntarily receive and complete the survey. The questionnaire consisted of items addressing demographics, potential informational needs, and educational preferences. Results: Patients’ interest to address sexual concerns decreases with age (p=0.024). Coherently, sexual concerns of patients are reported to decrease with age (p=0.015) where 70% of all respondents below age 50 [age 20-29 (60%); 30-39 (56.3%); 40-49(55.1%)] have started to have sexual concerns regarding their treatment effects on their sexual health. Patients who underwent breast conservation surgery (42.2%) and reconstruction surgery (83.3%) were more likely to have concerns about sexual health versus patients who underwent mastectomy (36.7%) (p=0.032). 74.2% of patients with sexual concern regardless of age would initiate conversation with their healthcare providers (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results showed a staggering interest of female patients wanting information on this area which would not only boost their confidence and body image but also address concerns of the effect of breast radiotherapy on sexual health during their treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast radiotherapy, sexual health, sexual impact

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4605 CAM Use and Its Association with Quality of Life in a Sample of Lebanese Breast Cancer Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Farah Naja, Romy Abi Fadel, Yasmin Aridi, Aya Zarif, Dania Hariri, Mohammad Alameddine, Anas Mugharbel, Maya Khalil, Zeina Nahleh, Arafat Tfayli

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and determinants of CAM use among breast cancer patients in Beirut, Lebanon. A secondary objective is to evaluate the association between CAM use and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 180 breast cancer patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut. In a face to face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, breast cancer condition, and CAM use. The assessment of QOL was carried using the FACT-B Arabic version. Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis was 40%. CAM use was negatively associated with age, treatment at a philanthropic hospital and positively associated with having an advanced stage of disease. The most commonly used CAM was ‘Special food’ followed by ‘Herbal teas’. Only 4% of CAM users cited health care professionals as influencing their choice of CAM. One in four patients disclosed CAM use to their treating physician. There was no significant association between CAM use and QOL. The use of CAM therapies among breast cancer patients is prevalent in Lebanon. Efforts should be dedicated at educating physicians to discuss CAM use with their patients and advising patients to disclose of their use with their physicians.

Keywords: breast cancer , complementary medicine, alternative medicine, lebanon , quality of life

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4604 Prevalence and Determinants of the Use of CAM and Its Association with Quality of Life in a Sample of Lebanese Breast Cancer Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Farah Naja, Romy Abi Fadel, Yasmin Aridi, Aya Zarif, Dania Hariri, Mohammad Alameddine, Anas Mugharbel, Maya Khalil, Zeina Nahleh, Arafat Tfayli

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence and determinants of CAM use among breast cancer patients in Beirut, Lebanon. A secondary objective is to evaluate the association between CAM use and quality of life (QOL). A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 180 breast cancer patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut. In a face to face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, breast cancer condition, and CAM use. The assessment of QOL was carried using the FACT-B Arabic version. Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis was 40%. CAM use was negatively associated with age, treatment at a philanthropic hospital and positively associated with having an advanced stage of disease. The most commonly used CAM was ‘Special food’ followed by ‘Herbal teas’. Only 4% of CAM users cited health care professionals as influencing their choice of CAM. One in four patients disclosed CAM use to their treating physician. There was no significant association between CAM use and QOL. The use of CAM therapies among breast cancer patients is prevalent in Lebanon. Efforts should be dedicated at educating physicians to discuss CAM use with their patients and advising patients to disclose of their use with their physicians.

Keywords: breast cancer, complementary and aLternative medicine, Lebanon, quality of life

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4603 Local and Systemic Complications after Resection of Rectal Cancer in the Department of General and Abdominal Surgery University Clinical Center Maribor between 2004 and 2014

Authors: Nuhi Arslani, Stojan Potrc, Timotej Mikuljan

Abstract:

Background: In Department of Abdominal and General Surgery of University Medical Centre Maribor, we treated 578 patients for rectal cancer between 2004 and 2014. During and after treatment we especially concentrated on monitoring local and systemic complications. Methods: For analysis, we used data gathered from preoperative diagnostic tests, reports gathered during operation, reports from the pathohistologic review, and reports on complications after surgery and follow up. Results: In the case of 573 (out of 578) patients (99.1%) we performed resection. R0 was achieved in 551 patients (96,1%). R1 was achieved in 8 patients (1,4%). R2 was achieved in 14 patients (2,4%). Local complications were reported in 78 (13.5%) patients and systemic complications were reported in 68 (11.7%). We would like to point out the low number of local and systemic complications. Conclusions: With advances in surgical techniques, with a multimodal-multidisciplinary approach and with the use of total mesorectal excision we experienced a significant improvement in reducing the number of local and systemic complications in patients with rectal cancer. However, there still remains the question for truly optimal care for each patient with rectal cancer and his quality of life after surgical treatment.

Keywords: local complications, rectal cancer, resection, systemic complications

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