Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: dissociation

73 The Effect of Dissociation in Bipolar Disorder: An EEG Power Analysis

Authors: Merve Cebi, Turker Tekin Erguzel, Gokben Hizli Sayar


Understanding the biological mechanisms of dissociation in patients with bipolar disorder is important for developing new treatment approaches for the disorder as well as using the appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, we compared EEG power and coherence values for alpha, theta and beta frequency bands between patients having bipolar disorder with dissociation as compared to the bipolar patients without dissociation. Accordingly, we did not find any statistically significant difference in either the absolute or the relative power between the groups. Coherence values were not found to be statistically different, as well. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the existence of dissociation did not influence electrophysiological correlates in bipolar disorder.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, dissociation, absolute power, coherence

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72 The Investigation of Predictor Affect of Childhood Trauma, Dissociation, Alexithymia, and Gender on Dissociation in University Students

Authors: Gizem Akcan, Erdinc Ozturk


The purpose of the study was to determine some psychosocial variables that predict dissociation in university students. These psychosocial variables were perceived childhood trauma, alexithymia, and gender. 150 (75 males, 75 females) university students (bachelor, master and postgraduate) were enrolled in this study. They were chosen from universities in Istanbul at the education year of 2016-2017. Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used to assess related variables. Demographic Information Form was given to students in order to have their demographic information. Frequency Distribution, Linear Regression Analysis, and t-test analysis were used for statistical analysis. Childhood trauma and alexithymia were found to have predictive value on dissociation among university students. However, physical abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect sub dimensions of childhood trauma and externally-oriented thinking sub dimension of alexithymia did not have predictive value on dissociation. Moreover, there was no significant difference between males and females in terms of dissociation scores of participants.

Keywords: childhood trauma, dissociation, alexithymia, gender

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71 Predictors of Childhood Trauma and Dissociation in University Students

Authors: Erdinc Ozturk, Gizem Akcan


The aim of this study was to determine some psychosocial variables that predict childhood trauma and dissociation in university students. These psychosocial variables were perceived social support, relationship status, gender and life satisfaction. 250 (125 males, 125 females) university students (bachelor, master and postgraduate degree) were enrolled in this study. They were chosen from universities in Istanbul at the education year of 2016-2017. Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale and Relationship Scales Questionnaire were used to assess related variables. Demographic information form was given to students in order to have their demographic information. Frequency distribution, multiple linear regression, and t-test analysis were used for statistical analysis. As together, perceived social support, relationship status and life satisfaction were found to have predictive value on trauma among university students. However, as together, these psychosocial variables did not have predictive value on dissociation. Only, trauma and relationship status had significant predictive value on dissociation. Moreover, there was significant difference between males and females in terms of trauma; however, dissociation scores of participants were not significantly different in terms of gender.

Keywords: childhood trauma, dissociation, perceived social support, relationship status, life satisfaction

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70 Harmonization of Conflict Ahadith between Dissociation and Peaceful Co-Existence with Non-Muslims

Authors: Saheed Biodun Qaasim-Badmusi


A lot has been written on peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims in Islam, but little attention is paid to the conflict between Ahadith relating to dissociation from non-Muslims as a kernel of Islamic faith, and the one indicating peaceful co-existence with them. Undoubtedly, proper understanding of seemingly contradictory prophetic traditions is an antidote to the bane of pervasive extremism in our society. This is what calls for need to shed light on ‘Harmonization of Conflict Ahadith between Dissociation and Peaceful Co-existence with Non-Muslims. It is in view of the above that efforts are made in this paper to collate Ahadith pertaining to dissociation from non-Muslims as well as co-existence with them. Consequently, a critical study of their authenticity is briefly explained before proceeding to analysis of their linguistic and contextual meanings. To arrive at the accurate interpretation, harmonization is graphically applied. The result shows that dissociation from non –Muslims as a bedrock of Islamic faith could be explained in Sunnah by prohibition of participating or getting satisfaction from their religious matters, and anti-Islamic activities. Also, freedom of apostasy, ignoring da`wah with wisdom and seeking non-Muslims support against Muslims are frowned upon in Sunnah as phenomenon of dissociation from non –Muslims. All the aforementioned are strictly prohibited in Sunnah whether under the pretext of enhancing peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims or not. While peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims is evidenced in Sunnah by permissibility of visiting the sick among them, exchange of gift with them, forgiving the wrong among them, having good relationship with non-Muslim neighbours, ties of non-Muslim kinship, legal business transaction with them and the like. Finally, the degree of peaceful co-existence with non-Muslims is determined by their attitude towards Islam and Muslims.

Keywords: Ahadith, conflict, co-existence, non-Muslims

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69 Platform Development for Vero Cell Culture on Microcarriers Using Dissociation-Reassociation Method

Authors: Thanunthon Bowornsakulwong, Charukorn Charukarn, Franck Courtes, Panit Kitsubun, Lalintip Horcharoen


Vero cell is a continuous cell line that is widely used for the production of viral vaccines. However, due to its adherent characteristic, scaling up strategy in large-scale production remains complicated and thus limited. Consequently, suspension-like Vero cell culture processes based on microcarriers have been introduced and employed while also providing increased surface area per volume unit. However, harvesting Vero cells from microcarriers is a huge challenge due to difficulties in cells detaching, lower recovery yield, time-consuming and dissociation agent carry-over. To overcome these problems, we developed a dissociation-association platform technology for detaching and re-attaching cells during subculturing from microcarriers to microcarriers, which will be conveniently applied to seed trains strategies in large scale bioreactors. Herein, Hillex-2 was used to culture Vero cells in serum-containing media using spinner flasks as a scale-down model. The overall confluency of cells on microcarriers was observed using inverted microscope, and the sample cells were daily detached in order to obtain the kinetics data. The metabolites consumption and by-products formation were determined by Nova Biomedical BioprofileFlex.

Keywords: dissociation-reassociation, microcarrier, scale up, Vero cell

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68 Adsorbed Probe Molecules on Surface for Analyzing the Properties of Cu/SnO2 Supported Catalysts

Authors: Neha Thakur, Pravin S. More


The interaction of CO, H2 and LPG with Cu-dosed SnO2 catalysts was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). With increasing Cu loading, pronounced and progressive red shifts of the C–O stretching frequency associated with molecular CO adsorbed on the Cu/SnO2 component were observed. This decrease in n(CO) correlates with enhancement of CO dissociation at higher temperatures on Cu promoted SnO2 catalysts under conditions, where clean Cu is almost ineffective. In the conclusion, the capability of our technique is discussed, and a technique for enhancing the sensitivity in our technique is proposed.

Keywords: FTIR, spectroscopic, dissociation, n(CO)

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67 Molecular-Dynamics Study of H₂-C₃H₈-Hydrate Dissociation: Non-Equilibrium Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Niall English


Hydrogen is looked upon as the next-generation clean-energy carrier; the search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been, and is, pursued relentlessly. Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds wherein guest gas molecules like hydrogen are trapped in a host water-lattice framework. These types of materials can be categorised as potentially attractive hosting environments for physical hydrogen storage (i.e., no chemical reaction upon storage). Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of propane-hydrate interfaces with liquid water at 270-300 K, with the propane hydrate containing either one or no hydrogen molecule in each of its small cavities. In addition, two types of hydrate-surface water-lattice molecular termination were adopted, at the hydrate edge with water: a 001-direct surface cleavage and one with completed cages. The geometric hydrate-ice-liquid distinction criteria of Báez and Clancy were employed to distinguish between the hydrate, ice lattices, and liquid-phase. Consequently, the melting temperatures of interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. The different hydrate-edge terminations for the hydrate-water interface led to statistically-significant differences in the observed melting point and dissociation profile: it was found that the clathrate with the planar interface melts at around 280 K, whilst the melting temperature of the cage-completed interface was determined to be circa 270 K.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, clathrate hydrate, molecular dynamics, thermal dissociation

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66 A Case Study of An Artist Diagnosed with Schizophrenia-Using the Graphic Rorschach (Digital version) “GRD”

Authors: Maiko Kiyohara, Toshiki Ito


In this study, we used a psychotherapy process for patient with dissociative disorder and the graphic Rorschach (Digital version) (GRD). A dissociative disorder is a type of dissociation characterized by multiple alternating personalities (also called alternate identity or another identity). "dissociation" is a state in which consciousness, memory, thinking, emotion, perception, behavior, body image, and so on are divided and experienced. Dissociation symptoms, such as lack of memory, are seen, and the repetition of blanks in daily events causes serious problems in life. Although the pathological mechanism of dissociation has not yet been fully elucidated, it is said that it is caused by childhood abuse or shocking trauma. In case of Japan, no reliable data has been reported on the number of patients and prevalence of dissociative disorders, no drug is compatible with dissociation symptoms, and no clear treatment has been established. GRD is a method that the author revised in 2017 to a Graphic Rorschach, which is a special technique for subjects to draw language responses when enforce Rorschach. GRD reduces the burden on both the subject and the examiner, reduces the complexity of organizing data, improves the simplicity of organizing data, and improves the accuracy of interpretation by introducing a tablet computer during the drawing reaction. We are conducting research for the purpose. The patient in this case is a woman in her 50s, and has multiple personalities since childhood. At present, there are about 10 personalities whose main personality is just grasped. The patients is raising her junior high school sons as single parent, but personal changes often occur at home, which makes the home environment inferior and economically oppressive, and has severely hindered daily life. In psychotherapy, while a personality different from the main personality has appeared, I have also conducted psychotherapy with her son. In this case, the psychotherapy process and the GRD were performed to understand the personality characteristics, and the possibility of therapeutic significance to personality integration is reported.

Keywords: GRD, dissociative disorder, a case study of psychotherapy process, dissociation

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65 Thermal Stability of Hydrogen in ZnO Bulk and Thin Films: A Kinetic Monte Carlo Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri


In this work, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method was applied to study the thermal stability of hydrogen in ZnO bulk and thin films. Our simulation includes different possible events such as interstitial hydrogen (Hi) jumps, substitutional hydrogen (HO) formation and dissociation, oxygen and zinc vacancies jumps, hydrogen-VZn complexes formation and dissociation, HO-Hi complex formation and hydrogen molecule (H2) formation and dissociation. The obtained results show that the hidden hydrogen formed during thermal annealing or at room temperature is constituted of both hydrogen molecule and substitutional hydrogen. The ratio of this constituants depends on the initial defects concentration as well as the annealing temperature. For annealing temperature below 300°C hidden hydrogen was found to be constituted from both substitutional hydrogen and hydrogen molecule, however, for higher temperature it is composed essentially from HO defects only because H2 was found to be unstable. In the other side, our results show that the remaining hydrogen amount in sample during thermal annealing depend greatly on the oxygen vacancies in the material. H2 molecule was found to be stable for thermal annealing up to 200°C, VZnHn complexes are stable up to 350°C and HO was found to be stable up to 450°C.

Keywords: ZnO, hydrogen, thermal annealing, kinetic Monte Carlo

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64 Sustainable Development in India: Towards a New Paradigm

Authors: Raghav Srivastava, Namrata Ramachandran


Strong sustainability has been, by consensus, imagined as comprising economic and extra-economic variables and cannot be viewed merely in terms of a trade-off between the economic needs of today and the potential left for tomorrow. Specifically, the cultural as well the ecological impacts of development projects on the affected communities should be evaluated, in addition to the economic. In developing and densely populated economies such as India, energy intensive development is seen as a sine qua non – a necessary trade off with ecological conservation. Although social impact assessment has been included as an inalienable part of the Environmental Impact Assessment required to be conducted under Indian law, it seems that the same is unable to meet the ends it seeks to achieve. The dissociation between those bearing the costs of development, and those reaping its benefits, lies at the heart of this failure. This paper attempts to study the various cost–benefit relationships for these minority stakeholders using the proposed Nyamjang Chhu hydroelectric power plant in Tawang District of Arunachal Pradesh (in North-east India) as the chief object of study, and discusses whether the current model of sustainable development is truly sustainable, given the level of social dissociation and disintegration that occurs between affected communities and their environment. The economic allure of hydroelectric projects in the hilly regions of India very rarely results in a proper assessment of their ecological and social externalities. Examining the various issues that have been agitated in the course of litigation over the Nyamjang Chhu hydroelectric project, the authors argue that there is a pressing need to re-evaluate the current Indian model of sustainable development going forward.

Keywords: hydroelectric power, socio-cultural dissociation, sustainable development, trade offs

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63 Dissociation of Hydrophobic Interactions in Whey Protein Polymers: Molecular Characterization Using Dilute Solution Viscometry

Authors: Ahmed S. Eissa


Whey represents about 85-95% of the milk volume and about 55% of milk nutrients. Whey proteins are of special importance in formulated foods due to their rich nutritional and functional benefits. Whey proteins form large polymers upon heating to a temperature greater than the denaturation temperature. Hydrophobic interactions play an important role in building whey protein polymers. In this study, dissociation of hydrophobic interactions of whey protein polymers was done by adding Sodium Dodecyl Sulphonate (SDS). At low SDS concentrations, protein polymers were dissociated to smaller chains, as revealed by dilution solution viscometry (DSV). Interestingly, at higher SDS concentrations, polymer molecules got larger in size. Intrinsic viscosity was increased to many folds when raising the SDS concentration from 0.5% to 2%. Complex molecular arrangement leads to the formation of larger macromolecules, due to micelle formation. The study opens a venue for manipulating and enhancing whey protein functional properties by manipulating the hydrophobic interactions.

Keywords: whey proteins, hydrophobic interactions, SDS

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62 Engineering of Reagentless Fluorescence Biosensors Based on Single-Chain Antibody Fragments

Authors: Christian Fercher, Jiaul Islam, Simon R. Corrie


Fluorescence-based immunodiagnostics are an emerging field in biosensor development and exhibit several advantages over traditional detection methods. While various affinity biosensors have been developed to generate a fluorescence signal upon sensing varying concentrations of analytes, reagentless, reversible, and continuous monitoring of complex biological samples remains challenging. Here, we aimed to genetically engineer biosensors based on single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) that are site-specifically labeled with environmentally sensitive fluorescent unnatural amino acids (UAA). A rational design approach resulted in quantifiable analyte-dependent changes in peak fluorescence emission wavelength and enabled antigen detection in vitro. Incorporation of a polarity indicator within the topological neighborhood of the antigen-binding interface generated a titratable wavelength blueshift with nanomolar detection limits. In order to ensure continuous analyte monitoring, scFv candidates with fast binding and dissociation kinetics were selected from a genetic library employing a high-throughput phage display and affinity screening approach. Initial rankings were further refined towards rapid dissociation kinetics using bio-layer interferometry (BLI) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The most promising candidates were expressed, purified to homogeneity, and tested for their potential to detect biomarkers in a continuous microfluidic-based assay. Variations of dissociation kinetics within an order of magnitude were achieved without compromising the specificity of the antibody fragments. This approach is generally applicable to numerous antibody/antigen combinations and currently awaits integration in a wide range of assay platforms for one-step protein quantification.

Keywords: antibody engineering, biosensor, phage display, unnatural amino acids

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61 Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane

Authors: Peterson Thokozani Ngema, Paramespri Naidoo, Amir H. Mohammadi, Deresh Ramjugernath


Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.

Keywords: association, desalination, electrolytes, promoter

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60 Study of Exciton Binding Energy in Photovoltaic Polymers and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

Authors: Ho-Wa Li, Sai-Wing Tsang


The excitonic effect in organic semiconductors plays a key role in determining the electronic devices performance. Strong exciton binding energy has been regarded as the detrimental factor limiting the further improvement in organic photovoltaic cells. To the best of our knowledge, only limited reported can be found in measuring the exciton binding energy in organic photovoltaic materials. Conventional sophisticated approach using photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and IPES) would limit the wide access of the investigation. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to study the electrical and optical quantum efficiencies of a series of conjugated photovoltaic polymer, fullerene and non-fullerene materials. Quantitative values of the exciton binding energy in those prototypical materials were obtained with concise photovoltaic device structure. And the extracted binding energies have excellent agreement with those determined by the conventional photoemission technique. More importantly, our findings can provide valuable information on the excitonic dissociation in the first excited state. Particularly, we find that the high binding energy of some non-fullerene acceptors limits the combination of polymer acceptors for efficiency exciton dissociation. The results bring insight into the engineering of excitonic effect for the development of efficient organic photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: organic photovoltaics, quantum efficiency, exciton binding energy, device physics

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59 Preventing Neurodegenerative Diseases by Stabilization of Superoxide Dismutase by Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Danish Idrees, Vijay Kumar, Samudrala Gourinath


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The use of small molecules has been shown to stabilize the SOD1 dimer and preventing its dissociation and aggregation. In this study, we employed molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to study the interactions between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds. In order to explore the noncovalent interaction between SOD1 and natural polyphenolic compounds, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed to gain insights into the binding modes and free energies of SOD1-polyphenolic compounds. MM/PBSA methods were used to calculate free energies from obtained MD trajectories. The compounds, Hesperidin, Ergosterol, and Rutin showed the excellent binding affinity in micromolar range with SOD1. Ergosterol and Hesperidin have the strongest binding affinity to SOD1 and was subjected to further characterization. Biophysical experiments using Circular Dichroism and Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy results show that the binding of these two compounds can stabilize SOD1 dimer and inhibit the aggregation of SOD1. Molecular simulation results also suggest that these compounds reduce the dissociation of SOD1 dimers through direct interaction with the dimer interface. This study will be helpful to develop other drug-like molecules which may have the effect to reduce the aggregation of SOD1.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, molecular dynamics simulation, surface plasmon resonance, superoxide dismutase

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58 Influence of La0.1Sr0.9Co1-xFexO3-δ Catalysts on Oxygen Permeation Using Mixed Conductor

Authors: Y. Muto, S. Araki, H. Yamamoto


The separation of oxygen is one key technology to improve the efficiency and to reduce the cost for the processed of the partial oxidation of the methane and the condensation of the carbon dioxide. Particularly, carbon dioxide at high concentration would be obtained by the combustion using pure oxygen separated from air. However, the oxygen separation process occupied the large part of energy consumption. Therefore, it is considered that the membrane technologies enable to separation at lower cost and lower energy consumption than conventional methods. In this study, it is examined that the separation of oxygen using membranes of mixed conductors. Oxygen permeation through the membrane is occurred by the following three processes. At first, the oxygen molecules dissociate into oxygen ion at feed side of the membrane, subsequently, oxygen ions diffuse in the membrane. Finally, oxygen ions recombine to form the oxygen molecule. Therefore, it is expected that the membrane of thickness and material, or catalysts of the dissociation and recombination affect the membrane performance. However, there is little article about catalysts for the dissociation and recombination. We confirmed the performance of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.0O3-δ (LSC) based catalyst which was commonly used as the dissociation and recombination. It is known that the adsorbed amount of oxygen increase with the increase of doped Fe content in B site of LSC. We prepared the catalysts of La0.1Sr0.9Co0.9Fe0.1O3-δ(C9F1), La0.1Sr0.9Co0.5Fe0.5O3-δ(C5F5) and La0.1Sr0.9Co0.3Fe0.7O3-δ(C7F3). Also, we used Pr2NiO4 type mixed conductor as a membrane material. (Pr0.9La0.1)2(Ni0.74Cu0.21Ga0.05)O4+δ(PLNCG) shows the high oxygen permeability and the stability against carbon dioxide. Oxygen permeation experiments were carried out using a homemade apparatus at 850 -975 °C. The membrane was sealed with Pyrex glass at both end of the outside dense alumina tubes. To measure the oxygen permeation rate, air was fed to the film side at 50 ml min-1, helium as the sweep gas and reference gas was fed at 20 ml min-1. The flow rates of the sweep gas and the gas permeated through the membrane were measured using flow meter and the gas concentrations were determined using a gas chromatograph. Then, the permeance of the oxygen was determined using the flow rate and the concentration of the gas on the permeate side of the membrane. The increase of oxygen permeation was observed with increasing temperature. It is considered that this is due to the catalytic activities are increased with increasing temperature. Another reason is the increase of oxygen diffusivity in the bulk of membrane. The oxygen permeation rate is improved by using catalyst of LSC or LSCF. The oxygen permeation rate of membrane with LSCF showed higher than that of membrane with LSC. Furthermore, in LSCF catalysts, oxygen permeation rate increased with the increase of the doped amount of Fe. It is considered that this is caused by the increased of adsorbed amount of oxygen.

Keywords: membrane separation, oxygen permeation, K2NiF4-type structure, mixed conductor

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57 Bioavailability of Zinc to Wheat Grown in the Calcareous Soils of Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Muhammed Saeed Rasheed


Knowledge of the zinc and phytic acid (PA) concentrations of staple cereal crops are essential when evaluating the nutritional health of national and regional populations. In the present study, a total of 120 farmers’ fields in Iraqi Kurdistan were surveyed for zinc status in soil and wheat grain samples; wheat is the staple carbohydrate source in the region. Soils were analysed for total concentrations of phosphorus (PT) and zinc (ZnT), available P (POlsen) and Zn (ZnDTPA) and for pH. Average values (mg kg-1) ranged between 403-3740 (PT), 42.0-203 (ZnT), 2.13-28.1 (POlsen) and 0.14-5.23 (ZnDTPA); pH was in the range 7.46-8.67. The concentrations of Zn, PA/Zn molar ratio and estimated Zn bioavailability were also determined in wheat grain. The ranges of Zn and PA concentrations (mg kg⁻¹) were 12.3-63.2 and 5400 – 9300, respectively, giving a PA/Zn molar ratio of 15.7-30.6. A trivariate model was used to estimate intake of bioaccessible Zn, employing the following parameter values: (i) maximum Zn absorption = 0.09 (AMAX), (ii) equilibrium dissociation constant of zinc-receptor binding reaction = 0.680 (KP), and (iii) equilibrium dissociation constant of Zn-PA binding reaction = 0.033 (KR). In the model, total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) (mg d⁻¹) as a function of total daily nutritional PA (mmole d⁻¹) and total daily nutritional Zn (mmole Zn d⁻¹) was estimated assuming an average wheat flour consumption of 300 g day⁻¹ in the region. Consideration of the PA and Zn intake suggest only 21.5±2.9% of grain Zn is bioavailable so that the effective Zn intake from wheat is only 1.84-2.63 mg d-1 for the local population. Overall results suggest available dietary Zn is below recommended levels (11 mg d⁻¹), partly due to low uptake by wheat but also due to the presence of large concentrations of PA in wheat grains. A crop breeding program combined with enhanced agronomic management methods is needed to enhance both Zn uptake and bioavailability in grains of cultivated wheat types.

Keywords: phosphorus, zinc, phytic acid, phytic acid to zinc molar ratio, zinc bioavailability

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56 Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation Under Notation Changes

Authors: R. Henry, J-B. Paulin, St. Fauchille, Ph. Delord, K. Benkirane, A. Brunel


In this paper, the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation, the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. The application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating

Keywords: CDS, computation, CVA, Greek crisis, interest rate swap, maturity, rating, swap

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55 Epigenetic Modification Observed in Yeast Chromatin Remodeler Ino80p

Authors: Chang-Hui Shen, Michelle Esposito, Andrew J. Shen, Michael Adejokun, Diana Laterman


The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes is critical to genomic compaction, yet it can leave gene promoters inaccessible to activator proteins or transcription machinery and thus prevents transcriptional initiation. Both chromatin remodelers and histone acetylases (HATs) are the two main transcription co-activators that can reconfigure chromatin structure for transcriptional activation. Ino80p is the core component of the INO80 remodeling complex. Recently, it was shown that Ino80p dissociates from the yeast INO1 promoter after induction. However, when certain HATs were deleted or mutated, Ino80p accumulated at the promoters during gene activation. This suggests a link between HATs’ presence and Ino80p’s dissociation. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that Ino80p can be acetylated. To determine if Ino80p can be acetylated, wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells carrying Ino80p engineered with a double FLAG tag (MATa INO80-FLAG his3∆200 leu2∆0 met15∆0 trp1∆63 ura3∆0) were grown to mid log phase, as were non-tagged wild type (WT) (MATa his3∆200 leu2∆0 met15∆0 trp1∆63 ura3∆0) and ino80∆ (MATa ino80∆::TRP1 his3∆200 leu2∆0 met15∆0 trp1∆63 ura3∆0) cells as controls. Cells were harvested, and the cell lysates were subjected to immunoprecipitation (IP) with α-FLAG resin to isolate Ino80p. These eluted IP samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Subsequently, the blots were probed with the α-FLAG and α-acetyl lysine antibodies, respectively. For the blot probed with α-FLAG, one prominent band was shown in the INO80-FLAG cells, but no band was detected in the IP samples from the WT and ino80∆ cells. For the blot probed with the α-acetyl lysine antibody, we detected acetylated Ino80p in the INO80-FLAG strain while no bands were observed in the control strains. As such, our results showed that Ino80p can be acetylated. This acetylation can explain the co-activator’s recruitment patterns observed in current gene activation models. In yeast INO1, it has been shown that Ino80p is recruited to the promoter during repression, and then dissociates from the promoter once de-repression begins. Histone acetylases, on the other hand, have the opposite pattern of recruitment, as they have an increased presence at the promoter as INO1 de-repression commences. This Ino80p recruitment pattern significantly changes when HAT mutant strains are studied. It was observed that instead of dissociating, Ino80p accumulates at the promoter in the absence of functional HATs, such as Gcn5p or Esa1p, under de-repressing processes. As such, Ino80p acetylation may be required for its proper dissociation from the promoters. The remodelers’ dissociation mechanism may also have a wide range of implications with respect to transcriptional initiation, elongation, or even repression as it allows for increased spatial access to the promoter for the various transcription factors and regulators that need to bind in that region. Our findings here suggest a previously uncharacterized interaction between Ino80p and other co-activators recruited to promoters. As such, further analysis of Ino80p acetylation not only will provide insight into the role of epigenetic modifications in transcriptional activation, but also gives insight into the interactions occurring between co-activators at gene promoters during gene regulation.

Keywords: acetylation, chromatin remodeler, epigenetic modification, Ino80p

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54 Reduction of Nitrogen Monoxide with Carbon Monoxide from Gas Streams by 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/Activated Carbon

Authors: K. L. Pan, M. B. Chang


Nitrogen oxides (NOₓ) is regarded as one of the most important air pollutants. It not only causes adverse environmental effects but also harms human lungs and respiratory system. As a post-combustion treatment, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) possess the highest NO removal efficiency ( ≥ 85%), which is considered as the most effective technique for removing NO from gas streams. However, injection of reducing agent such as NH₃ is requested, and it is costly and may cause secondary pollution. Reduction of NO with carbon monoxide (CO) as reducing agent has been previously investigated. In this process, the key step involves the NO adsorption and dissociation. Also, the high performance mainly relies on the amounts of oxygen vacancy on catalyst surface and redox ability of catalyst, because oxygen vacancy can activate the N-O bond to promote its dissociation. Additionally, perfect redox ability can promote the adsorption of NO and oxidation of CO. Typically, noble metals such as iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) are used as catalyst for the reduction of NO with CO; however, high cost has limited their applications. Recently, transition metal oxides have been investigated for the reduction of NO with CO, especially CuₓOy, CoₓOy, Fe₂O₃, and MnOₓ are considered as effective catalysts. However, deactivation is inevitable as oxygen (O₂) exists in the gas streams because active sites (oxygen vacancies) of catalyst are occupied by O₂. In this study, Cu-Ce-Fe-Co is prepared and supported on activated carbon by impregnation method to form 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon catalyst. Generally, addition of activated carbon on catalyst can bring several advantages: (1) NO can be effectively adsorbed by interaction between catalyst and activated carbon, resulting in the improvement of NO removal, (2) direct NO decomposition may be achieved over carbon associated with catalyst, and (3) reduction of NO could be enhanced by a reducing agent over carbon-supported catalyst. Therefore, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon may have better performance for reduction of NO with CO. Experimental results indicate that NO conversion achieved with 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon reaches 83% at 150°C with 300 ppm NO and 10,000 ppm CO. As temperature is further increased to 200°C, 100% NO conversion could be achieved, implying that 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon prepared has good activity for the reduction of NO with CO. In order to investigate the effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO, 1-5% O₂ are introduced into the system. The results indicate that NO conversions still maintain at ≥ 90% with 1-5% O₂ conditions at 200°C. It is worth noting that effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO could be significantly improved as carbon is used as support. It is inferred that carbon support can react with O₂ to produce CO₂ as O₂ exists in the gas streams. Overall, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon is demonstrated with good potential for reduction of NO with CO, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), carbon monoxide (CO), reduction of NO with CO, carbon material, catalysis

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53 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Some Amino Acids by Peroxodisulphate

Authors: Abdelmahmod Saad


In this study two amino acids were chosen (DL.alanine,DL.serine) to determine their effect on dissociation of S2O8-2 ino. As the reaction was very slow, Ag+ ino was used as a catalyst. The kinetics measurement showed that the reactions in both cases were found in the first order with respect to S2O8-2, half order with respect to Ag+ and zero order with respect to substrates. Mechanisms were proposed for these reactions according to the determined orders. The energy of activation (AE) was determined for each reaction, and was found to by 30.50 k JmoI-1 in case of DL. Serine and 24.40 k JmoI-1 in case of DL.alanine.

Keywords: mechanism, oxidation, amino acids, peroxodisulphate

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52 Implication of Fractal Kinetics and Diffusion Limited Reaction on Biomass Hydrolysis

Authors: Sibashish Baksi, Ujjaini Sarkar, Sudeshna Saha


In the present study, hydrolysis of Pinus roxburghi wood powder was carried out with Viscozyme, and kinetics of the hydrolysis has been investigated. Finely ground sawdust is submerged into 2% aqueous peroxide solution (pH=11.5) and pretreated through autoclaving, probe sonication, and alkaline peroxide pretreatment. Afterward, the pretreated material is subjected to hydrolysis. A chain of experiments was executed with delignified biomass (50 g/l) and varying enzyme concentrations (24.2–60.5 g/l). In the present study, 14.32 g/l of glucose, along with 7.35 g/l of xylose, have been recovered with a viscozyme concentration of 48.8 g/l and the same condition was treated as optimum condition. Additionally, thermal deactivation of viscozyme has been investigated and found to be gradually decreasing with escalated enzyme loading from 48.4 g/l (dissociation constant= 0.05 h⁻¹) to 60.5 g/l (dissociation constant= 0.02 h⁻¹). The hydrolysis reaction is a pseudo first-order reaction, and therefore, the rate of the hydrolysis can be expressed as a fractal-like kinetic equation that communicates between the product concentration and hydrolytic time t. It is seen that the value of rate constant (K) increases from 0.008 to 0.017 with augmented enzyme concentration from 24.2 g/l to 60.5 g/l. Greater value of K is associated with stronger enzyme binding capacity of the substrate mass. However, escalated concentration of supplied enzyme ensures improved interaction with more substrate molecules resulting in an enhanced de-polymerization of the polymeric sugar chains per unit time which eventually modifies the physiochemical structure of biomass. All fractal dimensions are in between 0 and 1. Lower the value of fractal dimension, more easily the biomass get hydrolyzed. It can be seen that with increased enzyme concentration from 24.2 g/l to 48.4 g/l, the values of fractal dimension go down from 0.1 to 0.044. This indicates that the presence of more enzyme molecules can more easily hydrolyze the substrate. However, an increased value has been observed with a further increment of enzyme concentration to 60.5g/l because of diffusional limitation. It is evident that the hydrolysis reaction system is a heterogeneous organization, and the product formation rate depends strongly on the enzyme diffusion resistances caused by the rate-limiting structures of the substrate-enzyme complex. Value of the rate constant increases from 1.061 to 2.610 with escalated enzyme concentration from 24.2 to 48.4 g/l. As the rate constant is proportional to Fick’s diffusion coefficient, it can be assumed that with a higher concentration of enzyme, a larger amount of enzyme mass dM diffuses into the substrate through the surface dF per unit time dt. Therefore, a higher rate constant value is associated with a faster diffusion of enzyme into the substrate. Regression analysis of time curves with various enzyme concentrations shows that diffusion resistant constant increases from 0.3 to 0.51 for the first two enzyme concentrations and again decreases with enzyme concentration of 60.5 g/l. During diffusion in a differential scale, the enzyme also experiences a greater resistance during diffusion of larger dM through dF in dt.

Keywords: viscozyme, glucose, fractal kinetics, thermal deactivation

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51 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee


In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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50 Nondestructive Natural Gas Hydrate Production by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Ahn Yun-Ho, Hyery Kang, Koh Dong-Yeun, Huen Lee


In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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49 Chemical and Vibrational Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Viscous Flow around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui


Hypersonic flows around spatial vehicles during their reentry phase in planetary atmospheres are characterized by intense aerothermodynamics phenomena. The aim of this work is to analyze high temperature flows around an axisymmetric blunt body taking into account chemical and vibrational non-equilibrium for air mixture species and the no slip condition at the wall. For this purpose, the Navier-Stokes equations system is resolved by the finite volume methodology to determine the flow parameters around the axisymmetric blunt body especially at the stagnation point and in the boundary layer along the wall of the blunt body. The code allows the capture of shock wave before a blunt body placed in hypersonic free stream. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure the numerical convergence.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, viscous flow, chemical kinetic, dissociation, finite volumes, frozen and non-equilibrium flow

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48 A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study of Hydrocarbon Combustion on Metal Surfaces

Authors: Abas Mohsenzadeh, Mina Arya, Kim Bolton


Catalytic combustion of hydrocarbons is an important technology developed to produce energy with minimum pollutant formation. The catalyst plays a key role in this process which operates at lower temperatures compared to conventional flame combustion. The energetics of the direct combustion of hydrocarbons (CH → C + H) on a series of metal surfaces including Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt, Pd, Ni, Fe and Co were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) and transition state scaling (TSS) correlations were proposed based on DFT calculations on the Ag, Au, Al, Cu, Rh, Pt and Pd surfaces. These correlations were then used to estimate the energetics on Fe, Ni and Co surfaces. Results showed that the estimated reaction and activation energies by BEP and TSS correlations on Fe, Ni and Co surfaces are in an excellent agreement with those obtained by DFT calculations. Therefore these correlations can be efficiently used to predict energetics of similar reactions on these surfaces without doing computationally costly transition state calculations. It was found that the activation barrier for CH dissociation follows the order Ag ˃ Au ˃ Al ˃ Cu ˃ Pt ˃ Pd ˃ Ni > Co > Rh > Fe. Also, BEP (with R2 value of 0.96) and TSS correlations (with R2 value of 0.99) support the results.

Keywords: BEP, DFT, hydrocarbon combustion, metal surfaces, TSS

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47 A Density Functional Theory Study of Metal-Porphyrin Graphene for CO2 Hydration

Authors: Manju Verma, Parag A. Deshpande


Electronic structure calculations of hydrogen terminated metal-porphyrin graphene were carried out to explore the catalytic activity for CO2 hydration reaction. A ruthenium atom was substituted in place of carbon atom of graphene and ruthenium chelated carbon atoms were replaced by four nitrogen atoms in metal-porphyrin graphene system. Ruthenium atom created the active site for CO2 hydration reaction. Ruthenium-porphyrin graphene followed the mechanism of carbonic anhydrase enzyme for CO2 conversion to HCO3- ion. CO2 hydration reaction over ruthenium-porphyrin graphene proceeded via the elementary steps: OH- formation from H2O dissociation, CO2 bending in presence of nucleophilic attack of OH- ion, HCO3- ion formation from proton migration, HCO3- ion desorption by H2O addition. Proton transfer to yield HCO3- ion was observed as a rate limiting step from free energy landscape.

Keywords: ruthenium-porphyrin graphene, CO2 hydration, carbonic anhydrase, heterogeneous catalyst, density functional theory

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46 Study of Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on Polylactic Acid and Vegetal Reinforcements

Authors: Manel Hannachi, Mustapha Nechiche, Said Azem


This study focuses on biodegradable materials made from Poly-lactic acid (PLA) and vegetal reinforcements. Three materials are developed from PLA, as a matrix, and : (i) olive kernels (OK); (ii) alfa (α) short fibers and (iii) OK+ α mixture, as reinforcements. After processing of PLA pellets and olive kernels in powder and alfa stems in short fibers, three mixtures, namely PLA-OK, PLA-α, and PLA-OK-α are prepared and homogenized in Turbula®. These mixtures are then compacted at 180°C under 10 MPa during 15 mn. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examinations show that PLA matrix adheres at surface of all reinforcements and the dispersion of these ones in matrix is good. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses highlight an increase of PLA inter-reticular distances, especially for the PLA-OK case. These results are explained by the dissociation of some molecules derived from reinforcements followed by diffusion of the released atoms in the structure of PLA. This is consistent with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis results.

Keywords: alfa short fibers, biodegradable composite, olive kernels, poly-lactic acid

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45 Origin of Hydrogen Bonding: Natural Bond Orbital Electron Donor-Acceptor Interactions

Authors: Mohamed Ayoub


We perform computational investigation using density functional theory, B3LYP with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set followed by natural bond orbital analysis (NBO), which provides best single “natural Lewis structure” (NLS) representation of chosen wavefunction (Ψ) with natural resonance theory (NRT) to provide an analysis of molecular electron density in terms of resonance structures (RS) and weights (w). We selected for the study a wide range of gas phase dimers (B…HA), with hydrogen bond dissociation energies (ΔEB…H) that span more than two orders of magnitude. We demonstrate that charge transfer from a donor Lewis-type NBO (nB:) to an acceptor non-Lewis-type NBO (σHA*) is the primary cause for H-bonding not classical electrostatic (dipole-dipole or ionic). We provide a variety of structure, and spectroscopic descriptors to support the conclusion, such as IR frequency shift (ΔνHA), H-bond penetration distance (ΔRB..H), bond order (bB..H), charge-transfer (CTB→HA) and the corresponding donor-acceptor stabilization energy (ΔE(2)).

Keywords: natural bond orbital, hydrogen bonding, electron donor, electron acceptor

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44 Electrochemical Activity of NiCo-GDC Cermet Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operated in Methane

Authors: Kamolvara Sirisuksakulchai, Soamwadee Chaianansutcharit, Kazunori Sato


Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been considered as one of the most efficient large unit power generators for household and industrial applications. The efficiency of an electronic cell depends mainly on the electrochemical reactions in the anode. The development of anode materials has been intensely studied to achieve higher kinetic rates of redox reactions and lower internal resistance. Recent studies have introduced an efficient cermet (ceramic-metallic) material for its ability in fuel oxidation and oxide conduction. This could expand the reactive site, also known as the triple-phase boundary (TPB), thus increasing the overall performance. In this study, a bimetallic catalyst Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was combined with Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ (GDC) to be used as a cermet anode (NiCo-GDC) for an anode-supported type SOFC. The synthesis of Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was carried out by ball milling NiO and Co3O4 powders in ethanol and calcined at 1000 °C. The Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ was prepared by a urea co-precipitation method. Precursors of Gd(NO₃)₃·6H₂O and Ce(NO₃)₃·6H₂O were dissolved in distilled water with the addition of urea and were heated subsequently. The heated mixture product was filtered and rinsed thoroughly, then dried and calcined at 800 °C and 1500 °C, respectively. The two powders were combined followed by pelletization and sintering at 1100 °C to form an anode support layer. The fabrications of an electrolyte layer and cathode layer were conducted. The electrochemical performance in H₂ was measured from 800 °C to 600 °C while for CH₄ was from 750 °C to 600 °C. The maximum power density at 750 °C in H₂ was 13% higher than in CH₄. The difference in performance was due to higher polarization resistances confirmed by the impedance spectra. According to the standard enthalpy, the dissociation energy of C-H bonds in CH₄ is slightly higher than the H-H bond H₂. The dissociation of CH₄ could be the cause of resistance within the anode material. The results from lower temperatures showed a descending trend of power density in relevance to the increased polarization resistance. This was due to lowering conductivity when the temperature decreases. The long-term stability was measured at 750 °C in CH₄ monitoring at 12-hour intervals. The maximum power density tends to increase gradually with time while the resistances were maintained. This suggests the enhanced stability from charge transfer activities in doped ceria due to the transition of Ce⁴⁺ ↔ Ce³⁺ at low oxygen partial pressure and high-temperature atmosphere. However, the power density started to drop after 60 h, and the cell potential also dropped from 0.3249 V to 0.2850 V. These phenomena was confirmed by a shifted impedance spectra indicating a higher ohmic resistance. The observation by FESEM and EDX-mapping suggests the degradation due to mass transport of ions in the electrolyte while the anode microstructure was still maintained. In summary, the electrochemical test and stability test for 60 h was achieved by NiCo-GDC cermet anode. Coke deposition was not detected after operation in CH₄, hence this confirms the superior properties of the bimetallic cermet anode over typical Ni-GDC.

Keywords: bimetallic catalyst, ceria-based SOFCs, methane oxidation, solid oxide fuel cell

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