Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 151

Search results for: New Delhi

151 In-Situ Redevelopment in Urban India: Two Case Studies from Delhi and Mumbai

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Anjali Sharma

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As cities grow and expand spatially, redevelopment in urban India is beginning to emerge as a new mode of urban expansion sweeping low-income informal settlements. This paper examines the extent and nature of expanding urban frontier before examining implications for the families living in these settlements. Displacement of these families may appear to be an obvious consequence. However, we have conducted ethnographic studies over the past several months in a Delhi slum named Kathputli Colony, Delhi. In depth analysis of the study for this slum appears to present a variegated set of consequences for the residents of informal settlements including loss of livelihoods, dismantling of family ties, and general anxiety arising out of uncertainty about resettlement. Apart from Delhi case study, we also compare and contrast another redevelopment case from Mumbai located at Bhendi Bazar. These examples from the two mega cities of Mumbai and Delhi are analysed to understand and explore expanding urban frontiers and their consequences for informing future public policy.

Keywords: informal settlements, policy, redevelopment, urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
150 Estimation of Desktop E-Wastes in Delhi Using Multivariate Flow Analysis

Authors: Sumay Bhojwani, Ashutosh Chandra, Mamita Devaburman, Akriti Bhogal

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This article uses the Material flow analysis for estimating e-wastes in the Delhi/NCR region. The Material flow analysis is based on sales data obtained from various sources. Much of the data available for the sales is unreliable because of the existence of a huge informal sector. The informal sector in India accounts for more than 90%. Therefore, the scope of this study is only limited to the formal one. Also, for projection of the sales data till 2030, we have used regression (linear) to avoid complexity. The actual sales in the years following 2015 may vary non-linearly but we have assumed a basic linear relation. The purpose of this study was to know an approximate quantity of desktop e-wastes that we will have by the year 2030 so that we start preparing ourselves for the ineluctable investment in the treatment of these ever-rising e-wastes. The results of this study can be used to install a treatment plant for e-wastes in Delhi.

Keywords: e-wastes, Delhi, desktops, estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
149 Urbanization on Green Cover and Groundwater Relationships in Delhi, India

Authors: Kiranmay Sarma

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Recent decades have witnessed rapid increase in urbanization, for which, rural-urban migration is stated to be the principal reason. Urban growth throughout the world has already outstripped the capacities of most of the cities to provide basic amenities to the citizens, including clean drinking water and consequently, they are struggling to get fresh and clean water to meet water demands. Delhi, the capital of India, is one of the rapid fast growing metropolitan cities of the country. As a result, there has been large influx of population during the last few decades and pressure exerted to the limited available water resources, mainly on groundwater. Considering this important aspect, the present research has been designed to study the effects of urbanization on the green cover and groundwater and their relationships of Delhi. For the purpose, four different land uses of the study area have been considered, viz., protected forest area, trees outside forest, maintained park and settlement area. Samples for groundwater and vegetation were collected seasonally in post-monsoon (October), winter (February) and summer (June) at each study site for two years during 2012 and 2014. The results were integrated into GIS platform. The spatial distribution of groundwater showed that the concentration of most of the ions is decreasing from northern to southern parts of Delhi, thus groundwater shows an improving trend from north to south. The depth was found to be improving from south to north Delhi, i.e., opposite to the water quality. The study concludes the groundwater properties in Delhi vary spatially with depending on the types of land cover.

Keywords: groundwater, urbanization, GIS, green cover, Delhi

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148 Analysis of Impact of Air Pollution over Megacity Delhi Due to Agricultural Biomass Burning in the Neighbouring States

Authors: Ankur P. Sati, Manju Mohan

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The hazardous combination of smoke and pollutant gases, smog, is harmful for health. There are strong evidences that the Agricultural waste burning (AWB) in the Northern India leads to adverse air quality in Delhi and its surrounding regions. A severe smog episode was observed over Delhi, India during November 2012 which resulted in very low visibility and various respiratory problems. Very high values of pollutants (PM10 as high as 989 µg m-3, PM2.5 as high as 585 µg m-3 an NO2 as high as 540 µg m-3) were measured all over Delhi during the smog episode. Ultra Violet Aerosol Index (UVAI) from Aura satellite and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are used in the present study along with the output trajectories from HYSPLIT model and the in-situ data. Satellite data also reveal that AOD, UVAI are always at its highest during the farmfires duration in Punjab region of India and the extent of these farmfires may be increasing. It is observed that during the smog episode all the AOD, UVAI, PM2.5 and PM10 values surpassed those of the Diwali period (one of the most polluted events in the city) by a considerable amount at all stations across Delhi. The parameters used from the remote sensing data and the ground based observations at various stations across Delhi are very well in agreement about the intensity of Smog episode. The analysis clearly shows that regional pollution can have greater contributions in deteriorating the air quality than the local under adverse meteorological conditions.

Keywords: smog, farmfires, AOD, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
147 Performance Evaluation of Pilot Rotating Biological Contactor for Decentralised Management of Domestic Sewage in Delhi

Authors: T. R. Sreekrishnan, Mukesh Khare, Dinesh Upadhyay

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In a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), the biological film responsible for removal of pollutants is formed on the surface of discs. Evaluation studies of a pilot RBC designed to treat sewage of 150 persons with BOD Loading Rate: 8.2–26.7 g/m2/d, Discharge: 57.6 – 115.2 m3/day, HRT 1.25 – 2.5 hrs, at STP Yamuna Vihar Delhi. Removal of organic materials through use of fixed film reactors such as RBC is accomplished by means of a biological film on the fixed media. May and June in Delhi are dry summer months where the ambient temperature is in the range of 35oC to 45oC. July is a wet monsoon month that receives occasional precipitation, cloud cover, high humidity, with ambient temperature in the range of 30oC to 35oC. The organic and inorganic loads to the RBC employed in this study are actual city sewage conditions. Average in fluent BOD concentrations have been 330 mg/l, 245 mg/l and 160 mg/l and the average COD concentrations have been 670 mg/l, 500 mg/l, and 275 mg/l. The city sewage also has high concentration of ammonia, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS). pH of the city sewage is near neutral. Overall, the substrate conditions of city sewage are conducive for biological treatment though aerobic process. The presentation is a part of the ongoing collaborative research initiative between IIT Delhi and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany which is going on for last 15 years or so in the treatment of sewage waste of Delhi using semi-decentralized treatment system based on Rotating Biological Contactor.

Keywords: Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), COD, BOD, HRT, STP

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
146 Impact of ICT on Efficient Services Providing to Users by LIPs in NCR India

Authors: Mani Gupta

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This study deals with question: i) Whether ICT plays a positive role in improvement of efficiency of LIPs in terms of providing efficient services to the Users in LICs? and ii) Role of finance in terms of required technological logistics and infrastructure for usage of ICT based services to comfort in accessing databases by Users in LICs. This is based on primary data which are collected from various libraries and Information Centers of NCR Delhi. The survey conducted during December 15 and 31, 2010 on 496 respondents across 96 libraries and information centers in NCR Delhi through electronic data collection method. There is positive and emphatic relationship between ICT and its effect on improving the level of efficient services providing by LIPs in LICs in NCR Delhi. This is divided into 6 sub-headings and finally the outcomes.

Keywords: modern globalization, linear correlation, efficient service, internet revolution, logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
145 Urbanization in Delhi: A Multiparameter Study

Authors: Ishu Surender, M. Amez Khair, Ishan Singh

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Urbanization is a multidimensional phenomenon. It is an indication of the long-term process for the shift of economics to industrial from rural. The significance of urbanization in modernization, socio-economic development, and poverty eradication is relevant in modern times. This paper aims to study the urbanization index model in the capital of India, Delhi using aspects such as demographic aspect, infrastructural development aspect, and economic development aspect. The urbanization index of all the nine districts of Delhi will be determined using multiple parameters such as population density and the availability of health and education facilities. The definition of the urban area varies from city to city and requires periodic classification which makes direct comparisons difficult. The urbanization index calculated in this paper can be employed to measure the urbanization of a district and compare the level of urbanization in different districts.

Keywords: multiparameter, population density, multiple regression, normalized urbanization index

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144 Effect of Transit-Oriented Development on Air Quality in Neighborhoods of Delhi

Authors: Smriti Bhatnagar

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This study aims to find if the Transit-oriented planning and development approach benefit the quality of air in neighborhoods of New Delhi. Two methodologies, namely the land use regression analysis and the Transit-oriented development index analysis, are being used to explore this relationship. Land Use Regression Analysis makes use of urban form characteristics as obtained for 33 neighborhoods in Delhi. These comprise road lengths, land use areas, population and household densities, number of amenities and distance between amenities. Regressions are run to establish the relationship between urban form variables and air quality parameters (dependent variables). For the Transit-oriented development index analysis, the Transit-oriented Development index is developed as a composite index comprising 29 urban form indicators. This index is developed by assigning weights to each of the 29 urban form data points. Regressions are run to establish the relationship between the Transit-oriented development index and air quality parameters. The thesis finds that elements of Transit-oriented development if incorporated in planning approach, have a positive effect on air quality. Roads suited for non-motorized transport, well connected civic amenities in neighbourhoods, for instance, have a directly proportional relationship with air quality. Transit-oriented development index, however, is not found to have a consistent relationship with air quality parameters. The reason could this, however, be in the way that the index has been constructed.

Keywords: air quality, land use regression, mixed-use planning, transit-oriented development index, New Delhi

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143 Anthropogenic Impact on Migration Process of River Yamuna in Delhi-NCR Using Geospatial Techniques

Authors: Mohd Asim, K. Nageswara Rao

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The present work was carried out on River Yamuna passing through Delhi- National Capital Region (Delhi-NCR) of India for a stretch of about 130 km to assess the anthropogenic impact on the channel migration process for a period of 200 years with the help of satellite data and topographical maps with integration of geographic information system environment. Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) application was used to quantify river channel migration in ArcGIS environment. The average river channel migration was calculated to be 22.8 m/year for the entire study area. River channel migration was found to be moving in westward and eastward direction. Westward migration is more than 4 km maximum in length and eastward migration is about 4.19 km. The river has migrated a total of 32.26 sq. km of area. The results reveal that the river is being impacted by various human activities. The impact indicators include engineering structures, sand mining, embankments, urbanization, land use/land cover, canal network. The DSAS application was also used to predict the position of river channel in future for 2032 and 2042 by analyzing the past and present rate and direction of movement. The length of channel in 2032 and 2042 will be 132.5 and 141.6 km respectively. The channel will migrate maximum after crossing Okhla Barrage near Faridabad for about 3.84 sq. km from 2022 to 2042 from west to east.

Keywords: river migration, remote sensing, river Yamuna, anthropogenic impacts, DSAS, Delhi-NCR

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142 Metropolitan Governance in Statutory Plan Making Process

Authors: Vibhore Bakshi

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This research paper is a step towards understanding the role of governance in the plan preparation process. It addresses the complexities of the peri-urban, historical constructions, politics and policies of sustainability, and legislative frameworks. The paper reflects on the Delhi NCT as one of the classical cases that have happened to witness different structural changes in the master plan around 1981, 2001, 2021, and Proposed Draft 2041. The Delhi Landsat imageries for 1989 and 2018 show an increase in the built-up areas around the periphery of NCT. The peri-urbanization has been a result of increasing in-migration to peri–urban areas of Delhi. The built-up extraction for years 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2018 highlights the growing peri-urbanization on scarce land therefore, it becomes equally important to research the history of the land and its legislative measures. It is interesting to understand the streaks of changes that have occurred in the land of Delhi in accordance with the different master plans and land legislative policies. The process of masterplan process in Delhi has experienced a lot of complexities in juxtaposition to other metropolitan regions of the world. The paper identifies the shortcomings in the current master planning process approach in regard to the stage of the planning process, traditional planning approach, and lagging ICT-based interventions. The metropolitan governance systems across the globe and India depict diversity in the organizational setup and varied dissemination of functions. It addresses the complexity of the peri-urban, historical constructions, politics and policies of sustainability, and legislative frameworks.

Keywords: governance, land provisions, built-up areas, in migration, built up extraction, master planning process, legislative policies, metropolitan governance systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
141 Percentage Change in the Selected Skinfold Measurements of Male Students of University of Delhi Due to Progressive and Constant Load of Physical Training

Authors: Seema Kaushik

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Skinfold measurements provide considerably meaningful and consistent information about subcutaneous fat and its distribution. Physical activities in the form of conditioning and/or training leads to various structural, functional and mechanical changes and numerous training programmes exist for the improvement of physical fitness, however, most of the studies are conducted on foreign soil with foreign population as sample, which may/may not be applicable to the Indian conditions. Moreover, there is not even a single training/ conditioning programme that caters to the need of male students of University of Delhi with regard to various skinfold thickness measurements. Hence, the present study aimed at studying the effect of progressive and constant load training on selected skinfold measurements of male students of University of Delhi in form of percentage change. The sample size for the study was 90 having three groups of male; 30 samples in each group (mean age = 20.04±0.49 years). The variables included triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and calf skinfolds. The experimental design adopted for the study was multi-group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times repeatedly at an interval of 6 weeks, on completion of each of the three meso-cycles. Standard landmarks and protocols were followed to measure the selected variables. Mean, standard deviation and percentage were computed to analyze the data statistically. The study concluded that both the progressive and constant load of physical training bring changes in the skinfold thickness measurements of male students of University of Delhi.

Keywords: constant load, progressive load, physical training, skinfold measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
140 Gendered Mobility: Deep Distributions in Urban Transport Systems in Delhi

Authors: Nidhi Prabha

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Transportation as a sector is one of the most significant infrastructural elements of the ‘urban.' The distinctness of an urban life in a city is marked by the dynamic movements that it enables within the city-space. Therefore it is important to study the public-transport systems that enable and foster mobility which characterizes the urban. It is also crucial to underscore the way one is examining the urban transport systems - either as an infrastructural unit in a strict physical-structural sense or as a structural unit which acts as a prism refracting multiple experiences depending on the location of the ‘commuter.' In the proposed paper, the attempt is to uncover and investigate the assumption of the neuter-commuter by looking at urban transportation in the secondary sense i.e. as a structural unit which is experienced differently by different kinds of commuters, thus making transportation deeply distributed with various social structures and locations like class or gender which map onto the transport systems. To this end, the public-transit systems operating in Urban Delhi i.e. the Delhi Metros and the Delhi Transport Corporation run public-buses are looked at as case studies. The study is premised on the knowledge and data gained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources include data and knowledge collected from fieldwork, the methodology for which has ranged from adopting ‘mixed-methods’ which is ‘Qualitative-then-Quantitative’ as well as borrowing ethnographic techniques. Apart from fieldwork, other primary sources looked at including Annual Reports and policy documents of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) and the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), Union and Delhi budgets, Economic Survey of Delhi, press releases, etc. Secondary sources include the vast array of literature available on the critical nodes that inform the research like gender, transport geographies, urban-space, etc. The study indicates a deeply-distributed urban transport system wherein the various social-structural locations or different kinds of commuters map onto the way these different commuters experience mobility or movement within the city space. Mobility or movement, therefore, becomes gendered or has class-based ramifications. The neuter-commuter assumption is thus challenged. Such an understanding enables us to challenge the anonymity which the ‘urban’ otherwise claims it provides over the rural. The rural is opposed to the urban wherein urban ushers a modern way of life, breaking ties of traditional social identities. A careful study of the transport systems through the traveling patterns and choices of the commuters, however, indicate that this does not hold true as even the same ‘public-space’ of the transport systems allocates different places to different kinds of commuters. The central argument made though the research done is therefore that infrastructure like urban-transport-systems has to be studied and examined as seen beyond just a physical structure. The various experiences of daily mobility of different kinds of commuters have to be taken into account in order to design and plan more inclusive transport systems.

Keywords: gender, infrastructure, mobility, urban-transport-systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
139 Faridabad: Urban Growth Pattern and Opportunities Lies Within

Authors: Rajat Kapoor

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India is a developing country and has experienced a rapid and tumultuous urban growth in the 20th century. The total urban population of the city increased ten-fold between 1901 and 2001. The share of urban population to the total population increased from less than 11 percent to over 28 percent in the same period. Except few examples, most of the Indian cities have grown in a haphazard manner; concentration of population followed by the planning exercises. In this era of global competitiveness and rapid urbanization there is no scope for malpractices in development strategies. It is expected that the Indian cities shall be planned comprehensively and holistically. The study reveals the land transformations the city of Faridabad is witnessing due to development which is largely boosted by the virtue of its location in the Delhi NCR.

Keywords: Delhi NCR, Faridabad, urban growth patterns, India

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138 To Assess the Awareness and Health Seeking Practices Related to Vitamin-A Deficiency Diseases in Urban Slums of Delhi, India

Authors: Dr.Vasundhra Misra, Prof. Praveen Vashist

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Purpose: Vitamin A deficiency prevention programmes are at varying stages of development and implementation in all countries. Vitamin A deficiency has been recognized as a public health issue in developing countries like India. Despite achieving a lot of success a load of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiencies is still high. In this regard, a study was conducted to assess the awareness and health-seeking practices about Vitamin A deficiency diseases among the urban slum population of Delhi, India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the 5 slum clusters from the urban population of South Delhi. A specially designed pre-tested questionnaire schedule was administered. The study sample was comprised of 1552 inhabitants. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34 ± 12.1 years. A total of 1003 (64.6%) participants out of 1552, had heard of night blindness. Awareness of night blindness was more in the elderly age group and also found significant (p < 0.001). Only 31 (3.1%) knew that night blindness is caused due to deficiency of vitamin A. The awareness of vitamin A prophylaxis programme was significantly higher among elder age (p < 0.05) and females (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings highlighted that even though many of the respondents have heard of night blindness but the awareness about causes and treatment was found low in the community. There is a need for efforts directed to enhance community-level counseling and educational programmes.

Keywords: awareness, health-seeking practices, night blindness, vitamin-A deficiency diseases

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137 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain

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Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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136 Impact of Unusual Dust Event on Regional Climate in India

Authors: Kanika Taneja, V. K. Soni, Kafeel Ahmad, Shamshad Ahmad

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A severe dust storm generated from a western disturbance over north Pakistan and adjoining Afghanistan affected the north-west region of India between May 28 and 31, 2014, resulting in significant reductions in air quality and visibility. The air quality of the affected region degraded drastically. PM10 concentration peaked at a very high value of around 1018 μgm-3 during dust storm hours of May 30, 2014 at New Delhi. The present study depicts aerosol optical properties monitored during the dust days using ground based multi-wavelength Sky radiometer over the National Capital Region of India. High Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 500 nm was observed as 1.356 ± 0.19 at New Delhi while Angstrom exponent (Alpha) dropped to 0.287 on May 30, 2014. The variation in the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and real n(λ) and imaginary k(λ) parts of the refractive index indicated that the dust event influences the optical state to be more absorbing. The single scattering albedo, refractive index, volume size distribution and asymmetry parameter (ASY) values suggested that dust aerosols were predominant over the anthropogenic aerosols in the urban environment of New Delhi. The large reduction in the radiative flux at the surface level caused significant cooling at the surface. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (DARF) was calculated using a radiative transfer model during the dust period. A consistent increase in surface cooling was evident, ranging from -31 Wm-2 to -82 Wm-2 and an increase in heating of the atmosphere from 15 Wm-2 to 92 Wm-2 and -2 Wm-2 to 10 Wm-2 at top of the atmosphere.

Keywords: aerosol optical properties, dust storm, radiative transfer model, sky radiometer

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135 Furnishing Ancillary Alternatives for High Speed Corridors and Pedestrian Crossing: Elevated Cycle Track, an Expedient to Urban Space Prototype in New Delhi

Authors: Suneet Jagdev, Hrishabh Amrodia, Siddharth Menon, Abhishek Singh, Mansi Shivhare

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Delhi, the National Capital, has undergone a surge in development rate, consequently engendering an unprecedented increase in population. Over the years the city has transformed into a car-centric infrastructure with high-speed corridors, flyovers and fast lanes. A considerable section of the population is hankering to rehabilitate to the good old cycling days, in order to contribute towards a green environment as well as to maintain their physical well-being. Furthermore, an extant section of Delhi’s population relies on cycles as their primary means of commuting in the city. Delhi has the highest number of cyclists and second highest number of pedestrians in the country. However, the tumultuous problems of unregulated traffic, inadequate space on roads, adverse weather conditions stifle them to opt for cycling. Lately, the city has been facing a conglomeration of problems such as haphazard traffic movement, clogged roads, congestion, pollution, accidents, safety issues, etc. In 1957, Delhi’s cyclists accounted for 36 per cent of trips which dropped down to a mere 4 per cent in 2008. The declining rate is due to unsafe roads and lack of proper cycle lanes. Now as the 10 percent of the city has cycle tracks. There is also a lack of public recreational activities in the city. These conundrums incite the need of a covered elevated cycling bridge track to facilitate the safe and smooth cycle commutation in the city which would also serve the purpose of an alternate urban public space over the cycle bridge reducing the cost as well as the space requirement for the same, developing a user–friendly transportation and public interaction system for urban areas in the city. Based on the archival research methodologies, the following research draws information and extracts records from the data accounts of the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. as well as the Centre for Science and Environment, India. This research will predominantly focus on developing a prototype design for high speed elevated bicycle lanes based on different road typologies, which can be replicated with minor variations in similar situations, all across the major cities of our country including the proposed smart cities. Furthermore, how these cycling lanes could be utilized for the place making process accommodating cycle parking and renting spaces, public recreational spaces, food courts as well as convenient shopping facilities with appropriate optimization. How to preserve and increase the share of smooth and safe cycling commute cycling for the routine transportation of the urban community of the polluted capital which has been on a steady decline over the past few decades.

Keywords: bicycle track, prototype, road safety, urban spaces

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134 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Fog Over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Anu Rani Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva

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The aim of the paper is to analyze the characteristics of winter fog in terms of its trend and spatial-temporal variability over Indo-Gangetic plains. The study reveals that during last four and half decades (1971-2015), an alarming increasing trend in fog frequency has been observed during the winter months of December and January over the study area. The frequency of fog has increased by 118.4% during the peak winter months of December and January. It has also been observed that on an average central part of IGP has 66.29% fog days followed by west IGP with 41.94% fog days. Further, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) decomposition and Mann-Kendall variation analysis are used to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of winter fog. The findings have significant implications for the further research of fog over IGP and formulate robust strategies to adapt the fog variability and mitigate its effects. The decision by Delhi Government to implement odd-even scheme to restrict the use of private vehicles in order to reduce pollution and improve quality of air may result in increasing the alarming increasing trend of fog over Delhi and its surrounding areas regions of IGP.

Keywords: fog, climatology, spatial variability, temporal variability

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133 Technical Option Brought Solution for Safe Waste Water Management in Urban Public Toilet and Improved Ground Water Table

Authors: Chandan Kumar

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Background and Context: Population growth and rapid urbanization resulted nearly 2 Lacs migrants along with families moving to Delhi each year in search of jobs. Most of these poor migrant families end up living in slums and constitute an estimated population of 1.87 lacs every year. Further, more than half (52 per cent) of Delhi’s population resides in places such as unauthorized and resettled colonies. Slum population is fully dependent on public toilet to defecate. In Public toilets, manholes either connected with Sewer line or septic tank. Septic tank connected public toilet faces major challenges to dispose of waste water. They have to dispose of waste water in outside open drain and waste water struck out side of public toilet complex and near to the slum area. As a result, outbreak diseases such as Malaria, Dengue and Chikungunya in slum area due to stagnated waste water. Intervention and Innovation took place by Save the Children in 21 Public Toilet Complexes of South Delhi and North Delhi. These public toilet complexes were facing same waste water disposal problem. They were disposing of minimum 1800 liters waste water every day in open drain. Which caused stagnated water-borne diseases among the nearest community. Construction of Soak Well: Construction of soak well in urban context was an innovative approach to minimizing the problem of waste water management and increased water table of existing borewell in toilet complex. This technique made solution in Ground water recharging system, and additional water was utilized in vegetable gardening within the complex premises. Soak well had constructed with multiple filter media with inlet and safeguarding bed on surrounding surface. After construction, soak well started exhausting 2000 liters of waste water to raise ground water level through different filter media. Finally, we brought a change in the communities by constructing soak well and with zero maintenance system. These Public Toilet Complexes were empowered by safe disposing waste water mechanism and reduced stagnated water-borne diseases.

Keywords: diseases, ground water recharging system, soak well, toilet complex, waste water

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132 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari

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The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India. This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: biogas, green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity, batch system

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131 Variation in Carboxylesterase Activity in Spodoptera litura Fabricious (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) Populations from India

Authors: V. Karuppaiah, J. C. Padaria, C. Srivastava

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The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fab (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest various field and horticulture crops in India. Pest had virtually developed resistance to all commonly used insecticides. Enhanced detoxification is the prime mechanism that is dictated by detoxification different enzymes and carboxylesterase is one of the major enzyme responsible development of resistance. In India, insecticide resistance studies on S. litura are mainly deployed on detoxification enzymes activity and investigation at gene level alteration i.e. at nucleotide level is very merger. In the present study, we collected the S. litura larvae from three different cauliflower growing belt viz., IARI, New Delhi (Delhi), Palari, Sonepat (Haryana) and Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) to study the role of carboxylesterase activity and its gene level variation The CarE activity was measured using UV-VIS spectrophotometer with 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. The elevated activity of CarE was observed in Sonepat strain (28.09 ± 0.09 µmol/min/mg of protein) followed by Delhi (26.72 ± 0.04 µmol/min/mg of protein) and Varanasi strain (10.00 ± 0.44 µmol/min/mg of protein) of S. litura. The genomic DNA was isolated from 3rd instar larvae and CarE gene was amplified using a primer sequence, F:5’tccagagttccttgtcaggcac3’; R:5’ctgcatcaagcatgtctc3. CarE gene, about 500bp was partially amplified, sequenced and submitted to NCBI (Accession No. KF835886, KF835887 and KF835888). The sequence data revealed polymorphism at nucleotide level in all the three strains and gene found to have 88 to 97% similarity with previous available nucleotide sequences of S. litura, S. littoralis and S. exiqua. The polymorphism at the nucleotide level could be a reason for differential activity of carboxylesterase enzymes among the strains. However, investigation at gene expression level would be useful to analyze the overproduction of carboxylesterase enzyme.

Keywords: carboxylesterase, CarE gene, nucleotide polymorphism, insecticide resistance, spodoptera litura

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130 Study of Isoprene Emissions in Biogenic ad Anthropogenic Environment in Urban Atmosphere of Delhi: The Capital City of India

Authors: Prabhat Kashyap, Krishan Kumar

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Delhi, the capital of India, is one of the most populated and polluted city among the world. In terms of air quality, Delhi’s air is degrading day by day & becomes worst of any major city in the world. The role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) is not much studied in cities like Delhi as a culprit for degraded air quality. They not only play a critical role in rural areas but also determine the atmospheric chemistry of urban areas as well. Particularly, Isoprene (2-methyl 1,3-butadiene, C5H8) is the single largest emitted compound among other BVOCs globally, that influence the tropospheric ozone chemistry in urban environment as the ozone forming potential of isoprene is very high. It is mainly emitted by vegetation & a small but significant portion is also released by vehicular exhaust of petrol operated vehicles. This study investigates the spatial and temporal variations of quantitative measurements of isoprene emissions along with different traffic tracers in 2 different seasons (post-monsoon & winter) at four different locations of Delhi. For the quantification of anthropogenic and biogenic isoprene, two sites from traffic intersections (Punjabi Bagh & CRRI) and two sites from vegetative locations (JNU & Yamuna Biodiversity Park) were selected in the vicinity of isoprene emitting tree species like Ficus religiosa, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus species etc. The concentrations of traffic tracers like benzene, toluene were also determined & their robust ratios with isoprene were used to differentiate anthropogenic isoprene with biogenic portion at each site. The ozone forming potential (OFP) of all selected species along with isoprene was also estimated. For collection of intra-day samples (3 times a day) in each season, a pre-conditioned fenceline monitoring (FLM) carbopack X thermal desorption tubes were used and further analysis was done with Gas chromatography attached with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the study proposed that the ambient air isoprene is always higher in post-monsoon season as compared to winter season at all the sites because of high temperature & intense sunlight. The maximum isoprene emission flux was always observed during afternoon hours in both seasons at all sites. The maximum isoprene concentration was found to be 13.95 ppbv at Biodiversity Park during afternoon time in post monsoon season while the lower concentration was observed as low as 0.07 ppbv at the same location during morning hours in winter season. OFP of isoprene at vegetation sites is very high during post-monsoon because of high concentrations. However, OFP for other traffic tracers were high during winter seasons & at traffic locations. Furthermore, high correlation between isoprene emissions with traffic volume at traffic sites revealed that a noteworthy share of its emission also originates from road traffic.

Keywords: biogenic VOCs, isoprene emission, anthropogenic isoprene, urban vegetation

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129 Biopics in Hindi Film Industry and the Youth Perception

Authors: Divyani Redhu, Sachin Bharti

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India, as a nation, has always been known for its concept of ‘Unity in Diversity’, and the same ideology can very well be witnessed in the kind of cinema that is produced in India. From mythological films in the beginning to historical films and from comedy to the all-entertaining commercial ‘masala’ films, the Indian film industry has time and again catered its viewers with varied flavors on screen. Needless to say that for a film industry which stood at a total value of 183.2 billion in the year 2019 as per the Statista Portal 2020, there is no dearth of viewers and at the same time, to cater to the needs of a humongous viewer base, variety in content needs to be offered. Particularly looking at the filmography of the Hindi film industry of the last decade, undoubtedly, the genre that has risen like a shining star is that of Biopics. Hindi cinema’s never-ending fascination with the biopic has grown stronger and become more evident in recent times. The success of biographical films like Jodha Akbar, The Dirty Picture, Mary Kom, Bajirao Mastani, Neerja, Aligarh, Azhar, etc. seems to have truly reinforced the industry’s faith and put Bollywood on a biopic spree. From films on the lives of sportspersons to those of the actors, gangsters, social workers, historical figures, and extraordinary citizens, the industry has left no stone unturned till now. Also, many more biopics are in the pipeline slated to be released soon. Also, when the film viewers are concerned, India is known as the youngest nation in the world where youth constituted about 34% of the country’s population in 2019, making India the country with maximum young people. Thus, the attempt of the researchers is to understand the perception of youth (15-24 years of age as per the UN) towards the biopic films. The above-mentioned study would be quantitative in nature. For the same, a survey would be conducted in the capital city of India, i.e., Delhi. The tool of the survey would be a questionnaire, and the number of respondents would be 200. The results derived from the study would focus on the film viewing preferences of youth in Delhi, the popularity of biopic films among the youth, reasons for watching biopic films and their overall perception about the same, etc.

Keywords: biopics, Delhi, Hindi cinema, India, youth

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128 Association of Work Pattern with the Well-Being and Happiness: Evidence from Married Women Working in Delhi, India

Authors: Kanchan Negi

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Background: Modern work culture has driven demands for people to work long hours and weekends and take work to home at times. Research on the health effects of these exhaustive temporal work patterns is scant or contradictory. This study examines the relationship between work patterns and well-being (including happiness) in a sample of working women. Method: Primary data of 360 currently married women working in the education, health, banking and IT sector in Delhi, India, were analysed. Logistic regression was used to estimate physical and psychological well-being and happiness across work characteristics. Results: Relative to 35–40 hours/week, working longer related to poor well-being (ß=0.75, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.39). Compared with not working weekends, working most or all weekends is related to poor physical (ß=0.34, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.61) and psychological well-being (ß=0.50, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.79). Rigid work patterns (ß=0.17, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.42) are also related to poor well-being. Conclusion: Decreased well-being and unhappiness are significantly linked to strenuous and rigid work patterns, suggesting that modern work culture may contribute to poor well-being. Flexible timings, compensatory holidays, work-from-home, and daycare facilities for young ones must be welcomed by companies to ease the dual burden of homemakers and career makers.

Keywords: happiness, well-being, work pattern, working women

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127 A Case Study of Psycho-Social Status of Rohingya Women Refugees Settled in Delhi

Authors: Fizza Saghir

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Rohingyas are an ethnic minority of predominantly Buddhist-Myanmar. Living in ghettos in Rakhine, one of the poorest states of Myanmar, for decades, they have been marginalized, discriminated, deprived of the basic amenities and have faced ghastly violations of their rights- politically, socially, economically and culturally. In 2012, in violence that, erupted between ethnic Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims, hundreds of Rohingyas were slayed and many more displaced. The state does not recognize them as ‘citizens’ and the military and police have constantly persecuted and pushed them to either migrate to other countries like India, Bangladesh or else die of deprivation. Amidst the deadly violence, Rohingya women are the most vulnerable. Many of them have faced sexual abuse and gender-based violence. Minimalistic to insignificant studies have been done on the plight of Rohingya women refugees in context of India. Thus, this paper focuses on psycho-social status of Rohingya women refugees settled in Delhi, India. The research study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. It was explorative in nature and used non-probability sampling, purposive sampling, in particular. A sample size of 30 Rohingya women refugees was interviewed out of the universe of 45 Rohingya refugee families living in Kalindi Kunj Refugee Camp of Delhi. Case studies were developed. The paper explores the psychological and social status of the respondents along with a deep understanding of their issues and concerns. Moreover, it assesses the impact of violence and migration on respondents. It was found that Rohingya women refugees are deeply and severely affected by a violent past, an insecure present and an uncertain future. Major problems they face in Delhi, India are finding employment, lack of identity cards to avail government services, language barrier, lack of health and education facilities. All they desire is peace and shelter in India. Besides, recommendations and suggestions have been given to various stakeholders of the forced mass migration of Rohingya refugees which includes, Government of Myanmar, Government of India, other bordering nations of Myanmar, international NGOs and media and the Rohingya community, itself. Only an immediate, peaceful and continuous dialogue process can help resolve the issue of exodus of Rohingyas. Countries, including India, must come together to help the Rohingyas who are in need of urgent humanitarian aid and assistance.

Keywords: dialogue process, ethnic minority, forced mass migration, impact of violence and migration, psycho-social status, Rohingya women refugees, sexual abuse

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126 Impact of Reproductive Technologies on Women's Lives in New Delhi: A Study from Feminist Perspective

Authors: Zairunisha

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This paper is concerned with the ways in which Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) affect women’s lives and perceptions regarding their infertility, contraception and reproductive health. Like other female animals, nature has ordained human female with the biological potential of procreation and becoming mother. However, during the last few decades, this phenomenal disposition of women has become a technological affair to achieve fertility and contraception. Medical practices in patriarchal societies are governed by male scientists, technical and medical professionals who try to control women as procreator instead of providing them choices. The use of ARTs presents innumerable waxed ethical questions and issues such as: the place and role of a child in a woman’s life, freedom of women to make their choices related to use of ARTs, challenges and complexities women face at social and personal levels regarding use of ARTs, effect of ARTs on their life as mothers and other relationships. The paper is based on a survey study to explore and analyze the above ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) by women in New Delhi, the capital of India. A rapid rate of increase in fertility clinics has been noticed recently. It is claimed that these clinics serve women by using ARTs procedures for infertile couples and individuals who want to have child or terminate a pregnancy. The study is an attempt to articulate a critique of ARTs from a feminist perspective. A qualitative feminist research methodology has been adopted for conducting the survey study. An attempt has been made to identify the ways in which a woman’s life is affected in terms of her perceptions, apprehensions, choices and decisions regarding new reproductive technologies. A sample of 18 women of New Delhi was taken to conduct in-depth interviews to investigate their perception and response concerning the use of ARTs with a focus on (i) successful use of ARTs, (ii) unsuccessful use of ARTs, (iii) use of ARTs in progress with results yet to be known. The survey was done to investigate the impact of ARTs on women’s physical, emotional, psychological conditions as well as on their social relations and choices. The complexities and challenges faced by women in the voluntary and involuntary (forced) use of ARTs in Delhi have been illustrated. A critical analysis of interviews revealed that these technologies are used and developed for making profits at the cost of women’s lives through which economically privileged women and individuals are able to purchase services from lesser ones. In this way, the amalgamation of technology and cultural traditions are redefining and re-conceptualising the traditional patterns of motherhood, fatherhood, kinship and family relations within the realm of new ways of reproduction introduced through the use of ARTs.

Keywords: reproductive technologies, infertilities, voluntary, involuntary

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125 Analysis of User Complaints and Preferences by Conducting User Surveys to Ascertain the Need for Change in Current Design of Helmets

Authors: Pratham Baheti, Rohan Sanghi, Aditya Gupta

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In the largely populated city of New Delhi, India, there are a lot of people that travel by two-wheelers. Majority of the people wear helmets while traveling and know how important it is to wear helmets for their safety. Still, the number of deaths because of road accidents involving two-wheelers is significant. We had conducted a survey by traveling within and in the outskirts of Delhi so as to see the variation in data and in the opinion of people towards helmet being a safety device rather than to escape the traffic police. We conducted a survey at traffic junctions and crossings of all the stakeholders and collected feedback on the Helmet scenario in India. According to the survey, the possible reason for these deaths is that the people, being unaware of helmet safety standards (ISI standards for helmets), buy helmets with fake ISI mark from unauthorized helmet sellers for a cheap price. Also, for the people who do not wear a helmet at all or wear a helmet just because it is a law, the reasons that they do not want to wear a helmet is heavyweight, lack of ventilation, inconvenience due to a strap, and hair problems. To address all these problems, we are designing a helmet with reduced weight and also working on the Helmet’s retention system and ventilation. We plan to provide this product at a cheap cost whilst maintaining the ISI standards so that a larger section of the population would be able to afford the helmet.

Keywords: safety, survey, ISI marks, stakeholders, helmet

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124 Evaluating the Challenges of Large Scale Urban Redevelopment Projects for Central Government Employee Housing in Delhi

Authors: Parul Kapoor, Dheeraj Bhardwaj

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Delhi and other Indian cities accommodate thousands of Central Government employees in housing complexes called ‘General Pool Residential Accommodation’ (GPRA), located in prime parcels of the city. These residential colonies are now undergoing redevelopment at a massive scale, significantly impacting the ecology of the surrounding areas. Essentially, these colonies were low-rise, low-density planned developments with a dense tree cover and minimal parking requirements. But with increasing urbanisation and spike in parking demand, the proposed built form is an aggregate of high-rise gated complexes, redefining the skyline of the city which is a huge departure from the mediocre setup of Low-rise Walk-up apartments. The complexity of these developments is further aggravated by the need for parking which necessitates cutting huge number of trees to accommodate multiple layers of parking beneath the structures thus sidelining the authentic character of these areas which is laden with a dense tree cover. The aftermath of this whole process is the generation of a huge carbon footprint on the surrounding areas, which is unaccounted for, in the planning and design practice. These developments are currently planned as mix-use compounds with large commercial built-up spaces which have additional parking requirements over and above the residential parking. Also, they are perceived as gated complexes and not as neighborhood units, thus project isolated images of high-rise, dense systems with little context to the surroundings. The paper would analyze case studies of GPRA Redevelopment projects in Delhi, and the lack of relevant development control regulations which have led to abnormalities and complications in the entire redevelopment process. It would also suggest policy guidelines which can establish comprehensive codes for effective planning of these settlements.

Keywords: gated complexes, GPRA Redevelopment projects, increased densities, huge carbon footprint, mixed-use development

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123 Association between Occupational Characteristics and Well-Being: An Exploratory Study of Married Working Women in New Delhi, India

Authors: Kanchan Negi

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Background: Modern and urban occupational culture have driven demands for people to work long hours and weekends and take work to home at times. Research on the health effects of these exhaustive temporal work patterns is scant or contradictory. This study examines the relationship between work patterns and wellbeing in a sample of women living in the metropolitan hub of Delhi. Method: This study is based on the data collected from 360 currently married women between age 29 and 49 years, working in the urban capital hub of India, i.e., Delhi. The women interviewed were professionals from the education, health, banking and information and technology (IT) sector. Bivariate analysis was done to study the characteristics of the sample. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the physical and psychological wellbeing across occupational characteristics. Results: Most of the working women were below age 35 years; around 30% of women worked in the education sector, 23% in health, 21% in banking and 26% in the IT sector. Over 55% of women were employed in the private sector and only 36% were permanent employees. Nearly 30% of women worked for more than the standard 8 hours a day. The findings from logistic regression showed that compared to women working in the education sector, those who worked in the banking and IT sector more likely to have physical and psychological health issues (OR 2.07-4.37, CI 1.17-4.37); women who bear dual burden of responsibilities had higher odds of physical and psychological health issues than women who did not (OR 1.19-1.85 CI 0.96-2.92). Women who worked for more than 8 hours a day (OR 1.15, CI 1.01-1.30) and those who worked for more than five days a week (OR 1.25, CI 1.05-1.35) were more likely to have physical health issues than women who worked for 6-8 hours a day and five days e week, respectively. Also, not having flexible work timings and compensatory holidays increased the odds of having physical and psychological health issues among working women (OR 1.17-1.29, CI 1.01-1.47). Women who worked in the private sector, those employed temporarily and who worked in the non-conducive environments were more likely to have psychological health issues as compared to women in the public sector, permanent employees and those who worked in a conducive environment, respectively (OR 1.33-1.67, CI 1.09-2.91). Women who did not have poor work-life balance had reduced the odds of psychological health issues than women with poor work-life balance (OR 0.46, CI 0.25-0.84). Conclusion: Poor wellbeing significantly linked to strenuous and rigid work patterns, suggesting that modern and urban work culture may contribute to the poor wellbeing of working women. Noticing the recent decline in female workforce participation in Delhi, schemes like Flexi-timings, compensatory holidays, work-from-home and daycare facilities for young ones must be welcomed; these policies already exist in some private sector firms, and the public sectors companies should also adopt such changes to ease the dual burden as homemaker and career maker. This could encourage women in the urban areas to readily take up the jobs with less juggle to manage home and work.

Keywords: occupational characteristics, urban India, well-being, working women

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122 Effect of Cap and Trade Policies for Carbon Emission Reduction on Delhi Households

Authors: Vikram Singh

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This paper aims to take into account carbon tax or cap-and-trade legislation to manage Delhi carbon emissions after a post-Kyoto treaty. This report estimated the influence of the carbon taxes or rebate/compensation cost at the household level. Here, the three possible scenarios will help to comprehend the difference between a straightforward compensation/rebate, and two clearly denoting progressive formula. The straightforward compensation is basically minimizing the regressive applications that will bears on cost. On the other hand, both the progressive formula will generate extra revenue, which will help for feasibility of more efficient, vehicles, appliances and buildings in the low-income household. For the hypothetical case of carbon price $40/tonne, low-income household for both urban and rural region could experience price burden up to 5% and 9% on their income as compared to 3% and 7% for high-income household respectively. The survey report also shown that carbon emission due low-income household are primarily by the substantive requirement like housing and transportation whereas almost 40% emission due to high-income household are by luxurious and non-essential items. The equal distribution of revenue cum incentives will not completely overcome high-income household’s investment in inessential items. However, it will merely help in investing their income in energy efficient and less carbon intensive items. Therefore, the rebate distribution on per capita basis instead on per households will benefit more especially large families at low-income group.

Keywords: household emission, carbon credit, carbon intensity, green house gas emission, carbon generation based insentives

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