Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4025

Search results for: waste collection

4025 Current Status and a Forecasting Model of Community Household Waste Generation: A Case Study on Ward 24 (Nirala), Khulna, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Nazmul Haque, Mahinur Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of the research is to determine the quantity of household waste generated and forecast the future condition of Ward No 24 (Nirala). For performing that, three core issues are focused: (i) the capacity and service area of the dumping stations; (ii) the present waste generation amount per capita per day; (iii) the responsibility of the local authority in the household waste collection. This research relied on field survey-based data collection from all stakeholders and GIS-based secondary analysis of waste collection points and their coverage. However, these studies are mostly based on the inherent forecasting approaches, cannot predict the amount of waste correctly. The findings of this study suggest that Nirala is a formal residential area introducing a better approach to the waste collection - self-controlled and collection system. Here, a forecasting model proposed for waste generation as Y = -2250387 + 1146.1 * X, where X = year.

Keywords: eco-friendly environment, household waste, linear regression, waste management

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4024 Conceptual Model of a Residential Waste Collection System Using ARENA Software

Authors: Bruce G. Wilson

Abstract:

The collection of municipal solid waste at the curbside is a complex operation that is repeated daily under varying circumstances around the world. There have been several attempts to develop Monte Carlo simulation models of the waste collection process dating back almost 50 years. Despite this long history, the use of simulation modeling as a planning or optimization tool for waste collection is still extremely limited in practice. Historically, simulation modeling of waste collection systems has been hampered by the limitations of computer hardware and software and by the availability of representative input data. This paper outlines the development of a Monte Carlo simulation model that overcomes many of the limitations contained in previous models. The model uses a general purpose simulation software program that is easily capable of modeling an entire waste collection network. The model treats the stops on a waste collection route as a queue of work to be processed by a collection vehicle (or server). Input data can be collected from a variety of sources including municipal geographic information systems, global positioning system recorders on collection vehicles, and weigh scales at transfer stations or treatment facilities. The result is a flexible model that is sufficiently robust that it can model the collection activities in a large municipality, while providing the flexibility to adapt to changing conditions on the collection route.

Keywords: modeling, queues, residential waste collection, Monte Carlo simulation

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4023 Design of Collection and Transportation System of Municipal Solid Waste in Meshkinshahr City

Authors: Ebrahim Fataei, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Zahra Arabi, Habib farhadi, Mehdi Aalipour Erdi, Seiied Taghi Seiied Safavian

Abstract:

Solid waste production is an integral part of human life and management of waste require full scientific approach and essential planning. The allocation of most management cost to collection and transportation and also the necessity of operational efficiency in this system, by limiting time consumption, and on the other hand optimum collection system and transportation is the base of waste design and management. This study was done to optimize the exits collection and transportation system of solid waste in Meshkinshahr city. So based on the analyzed data of municipal solid waste components in seven zones of Meshkinshahr city, and GIS software, applied to design storage place based on origin recycling and a route to collect and transport. It was attempted to represent an appropriate model to store, collect and transport municipal solid waste. The result shows that GIS can be applied to locate the waste container and determine a waste collection direction in an appropriate way.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management, transportation, optimizing, GIS, Iran

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4022 Moving Towards Zero Waste in a UK Local Authority Area: Challenges to the Introduction of Separate Food Waste Collections

Authors: C. Cole, M. Osmani, A. Wheatley, M. Quddus

Abstract:

EU and UK Government targets for minimising and recycling household waste has led the responsible authorities to research the alternatives to landfill. In the work reported here the local waste collection authority (Charnwood Borough Council) has adopted the aspirational strategy of becoming a “Zero Waste Borough” to lead the drive for public participation. The work concludes that the separate collection of food waste would be needed to meet the two regulatory standards on recycling and biologically active wastes. An analysis of a neighbouring Authority (Newcastle-Under-Lyne Borough Council (NBC), a similar sized local authority that has a successful weekly food waste collection service was undertaken. Results indicate that the main challenges for Charnwood Borough Council would be gaining householder co-operation, the extra costs of collection and organising alternative treatment. The analysis also demonstrated that there was potential offset value via anaerobic digestion for CBC to overcome these difficulties and improve its recycling performance.

Keywords: England, food waste collections, household waste, local authority

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4021 A Method Development for Improving the Efficiency of Solid Waste Collection System Using Network Analyst

Authors: Dhvanidevi N. Jadeja, Daya S. Kaul, Anurag A. Kandya

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection in a city is performed in less effective manner which results in the poor management of the environment and natural resources. Municipal corporation does not possess efficient waste management and recycling programs because of the complex task involving many factors. Solid waste collection system depends upon various factors such as manpower, number and size of vehicles, transfer station size, dustbin size and weight, on-road traffic, and many others. These factors affect the collection cost, energy and overall municipal tax for the city. Generally, different types of waste are scattered throughout the city in a heterogeneous way that poses changes for efficient collection of solid waste. Efficient waste collection and transportation strategy must be effectively undertaken which will include optimization of routes, volume of waste, and manpower. Being these optimized, the overall cost can be reduced as the fuel and energy requirements would be less and also the municipal waste taxes levied will be less. To carry out the optimization study of collection system various data needs to be collected from the Ahmedabad municipal corporation such as amount of waste generated per day, number of workers, collection schedule, road maps, number of transfer station, location of transfer station, number of equipment (tractors, machineries), number of zones, route of collection etc. The ArcGis Network Analyst is introduced for the best routing identification applied in municipal waste collection. The simulation consists of scenarios of visiting loading spots in the municipality of Ahmedabad, considering dynamic factors like network traffic changes, closed roads due to natural or technical causes. Different routes were selected in a particular area of Ahmedabad city, and present routes were optimized to reduce the length of the routes, by using ArcGis Network Analyst. The result indicates up to 35% length minimization in the routes.

Keywords: collection routes, efficiency, municipal solid waste, optimization

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4020 Geospatial Assessment of Waste Disposal System in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Babawale Akin Adeyemi, Esan Temitayo, Adeyemi Olabisi Omowumi

Abstract:

The paper analyzed waste disposal system in Akure, Ondo State using GIS techniques. Specifically, the study identified the spatial distribution of collection points and existing dumpsite; evaluated the accessibility of waste collection points and their proximity to each other with the view of enhancing better performance of the waste disposal system. Data for the study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained through the administration of questionnaire. From field survey, 35 collection points were identified in the study area. 10 questionnaires were administered around each collection point making a total of 350 questionnaires for the study. Also, co-ordinates of each collection point were captured using a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver which was used to analyze the spatial distribution of collection points. Secondary data used include administrative map collected from Akure South Local Government Secretariat. Data collected was analyzed using the GIS analytical tools which is neighborhood function. The result revealed that collection points were found in all parts of Akure with the highest concentration around the central business district. The study also showed that 80% of the collection points enjoyed efficient waste service while the remaining 20% does not. The study further revealed that most collection points in the core of the city were in close proximity to each other. In conclusion, the paper revealed the capability of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a technique in management of waste collection and disposal technique. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the evaluation of the solid waste management in Akure is highly invaluable for the state waste management board which could also be beneficial to other states in developing a modern day solid waste management system. Further study on solid waste management is also recommended especially for updating of information on both spatial and non-spatial data.

Keywords: assessment, geospatial, system, waste disposal

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4019 Recyclable Household Solid Waste Generation and Collection in Beijing, China

Authors: Tingting Liu, Yufeng Wu, Xi Tian, Yu Gong, Tieyong Zuo

Abstract:

The household solid waste generated by household in Beijing is increasing quickly due to rapid population growth and lifestyle changes. However, there are no rigorous data on the generation and collection of the recyclable household solid wastes. The Beijing city government needs this information to make appropriate policies and plans for waste management. To address this information need, we undertook the first comprehensive study of recyclable household solid waste for Beijing. We carried out a survey of 500 families across sixteen districts in Beijing. We also analyzed the quantities, spatial distribution and categories of collected waste handled by curbside recyclers and permanent recycling centers for 340 of the 9797 city-defined residential areas of Beijing. From our results, we estimate that the total quantity of recyclable household solid waste was 1.8 million tonnes generated by Beijing household in 2013 and 71.6% of that was collected. The main generation categories were waste paper (24.4%), waste glass bottle (23.7%) and waste furniture (14.3%). The recycling rate was varied among different kinds of municipal solid waste. Also based on our study, we estimate there were 22.8 thousand curbside recyclers and 5.7 thousand permanent recycling centers in Beijing. The problems of household solid waste collecting system were inadequacies of authorized collection centers, skewed ratios of curbside recyclers and authorized permanent recycling centers, weak recycling awareness of residents and lack of recycling resources statistics and appraisal system. According to the existing problems, we put forward the suggestions to improve household solid waste management.

Keywords: Municipal waste; Recyclable waste; Waste categories; Waste collection

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4018 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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4017 Analysis of the Impacts and Challenges of Conventional Solid Waste Management in Urban Centers of Developing Countries

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, J. Mohammed Umar, U. M. Bashir

Abstract:

Solid waste management continued to be the biggest threat to the sustainability of urban centers of developing countries. Most streets corners of these urban centers are characterized by heaps of uncollected wastes at drains, public spaces and road sides destroying the aesthetic qualities and environmental ecosystems of these cities. Also, harboring disease vectors and rodents putting the health of the populace at risk, thus posing a serious challenge to the municipalities who are in most cases responsible for the solid waste management in these cities. The typical or commonest method adapted by these agencies in dealing with the solid waste management is the conventional approach; focusing mainly on waste collection ,treatment(composting and incineration)and disposal giving little consideration to the 3RS, of waste reduce, re-used and recycled. The resultant consequence being huge budget spending in solid waste management as high as 80% but little collection rate as low as 50%. This paper attempt to analyze the impacts and effects of the conventional solid waste management practices on the stakeholders in solid waste management; the municipal authorities, the communities, formal and informal waste managers, the NGOs and CBOs and suggests appropriate measures that would lessen the effects.

Keywords: conventional waste management, solid waste, waste stakeholders, developing countries

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4016 Benefit Of Waste Collection Route Optimisation

Authors: Bojana Tot, Goran BošKović, Goran Vujić

Abstract:

Route optimisation is a process of planning one or multiple routes, with the purpose of minimizing overall costs, while achieving the highest possible performance under a set of given constraints. It combines routing or route planning, which is the process of creating the most cost-effective route by minimizing the distance or travelled time necessary to reach a set of planned stops, and route scheduling, which is the process of assigning an arrival and service time for each stop, with drivers being given shifts that adhere to their working hours. The objective of this paper is to provide benefits on the implementation of waste collection route optimisation and thus achieve economic efficiency for public utility companies, better service for citizens and positive environment and health.

Keywords: waste management, environment, collection route optimisation, GIS

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4015 GeoWeb at the Service of Household Waste Collection in Urban Areas

Authors: Abdessalam Hijab, Eric Henry, Hafida Boulekbache

Abstract:

The complexity of the city makes sustainable management of the urban environment more difficult. Managers are required to make significant human and technical investments, particularly in household waste collection (focus of our research). The aim of this communication is to propose a collaborative geographic multi-actor device (MGCD) based on the link between information and communication technologies (ICT) and geo-web tools in order to involve urban residents in household waste collection processes. Our method is based on a collaborative/motivational concept between the city and its residents. It is a geographic collaboration dedicated to the general public (citizens, residents, and any other participant), based on real-time allocation and geographic location of topological, geographic, and multimedia data in the form of local geo-alerts (location-specific problems) related to household waste in an urban environment. This contribution allows us to understand the extent to which residents can assist and contribute to the development of household waste collection processes for a better protected urban environment. This suggestion provides a good idea of how residents can contribute to the data bank for future uses. Moreover, it will contribute to the transformation of the population into a smart inhabitant as an essential component of a smart city. The proposed model will be tested in the Lamkansa sampling district in Casablanca, Morocco.

Keywords: information and communication technologies, ICTs, GeoWeb, geo-collaboration, city, inhabitant, waste, collection, environment

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4014 Facilitating Waste Management to Achieve Sustainable Residential Built Environments

Authors: Ingy Ibrahim El-Darwish, Neveen Youssef Azmy

Abstract:

The endowment of a healthy environment can be implemented by endorsing sustainable fundamentals. Design of sustainable buildings through recycling of waste, can reduce health problems, provide good environments and contribute to the aesthetically pleasing entourage. Such environments can help in providing energy-saving alternatives to consolidate the principles of sustainability. The poor community awareness and the absence of laws and legislation in Egypt for waste management specifically in residential areas have led to an inability to provide an integrated system for waste management in urban and rural areas. Many problems and environmental challenges face the Egyptian urban environments. From these problems, is the lack of a cohesive vision for waste collection and recycling for energy-saving. The second problem is the lack public awareness of the short term and long term vision of waste management. Bad practices have adversely affected the efficiency of environmental management systems due to lack of urban legislations that codify collection and recycling of residential communities in Egyptian urban environments. Hence, this research tries to address residents on waste management matters to facilitate legislative process on waste collection and classification within residential units and outside them in a preparation phase for recycling in the Egyptian urban environments. In order to achieve this goal, one of the Egyptian communities has been addressed, analyzed and studied. Waste collection, classification, separation and access to recycling places in the urban city are proposed in preparation for a legislation ruling and regulating the process. Hence, sustainable principles are to be achieved.

Keywords: recycling, residential buildings, sustainability, waste

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4013 Durham Region: How to Achieve Zero Waste in a Municipal Setting

Authors: Mirka Januszkiewicz

Abstract:

The Regional Municipality of Durham is the upper level of a two-tier municipal and regional structure comprised of eight lower-tier municipalities. With a population of 655,000 in both urban and rural settings, the Region is approximately 2,537 square kilometers neighboring the City of Toronto, Ontario Canada to the east. The Region has been focused on diverting waste from disposal since the development of its Long Term Waste Management Strategy Plan for 2000-2020. With a 54 percent solid waste diversion rate, the focus now is on achieving 70 percent diversion on the path to zero waste using local waste management options whenever feasible. The Region has an Integrated Waste Management System that consists of a weekly curbside collection of recyclable printed paper and packaging and source separated organics; a seasonal collection of leaf and yard waste; a bi-weekly collection of residual garbage; and twice annual collection of intact, sealed household batteries. The Region also maintains three Waste Management Facilities for residential drop-off of household hazardous waste, polystyrene, construction and demolition debris and electronics. Special collection events are scheduled in the spring, summer and fall months for reusable items, household hazardous waste, and electronics. The Region is in the final commissioning stages of an energy from the waste facility for residual waste disposal that will recover energy from non-recyclable wastes. This facility is state of the art and is equipped for installation of carbon capture technology in the future. Despite all of these diversion programs and efforts, there is still room for improvement. Recent residential waste studies revealed that over 50% of the residual waste placed at the curb that is destined for incineration could be recycled. To move towards a zero waste community, the Region is looking to more advanced technologies for extracting the maximum recycling value from residential waste. Plans are underway to develop a pre-sort facility to remove organics and recyclables from the residual waste stream, including the growing multi-residential sector. Organics would then be treated anaerobically to generate biogas and fertilizer products for beneficial use within the Region. This project could increase the Region’s diversion rate beyond 70 percent and enhance the Region’s climate change mitigation goals. Zero waste is an ambitious goal in a changing regulatory and economic environment. Decision makers must be willing to consider new and emerging technologies and embrace change to succeed.

Keywords: municipal waste, residential, waste diversion, zero waste

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4012 Technologies in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Towns

Authors: Gargi Ghosh

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an obligatory function of the local self-government as per the Indian constitution, and this paper gives a glimpse of the system in Indian towns focusing on its present state and use of technology in the system. The paper analyses the MSWM characteristics in 35 towns in the southern state of Karnataka. The lifestyle in these towns was found to be very sustainable with minimal disposal and considerable reuse. Average per capita waste generated in the towns ranged from 300 gm/person to 500 gm/person. The waste collection efficiency varied from 60% to 80%. The waste shows equal share of organic and non-organic waste composition with a low calorific value. Lack of capacity of the municipal body in terms of manpower, assets & knowledge and social consciousness were found to be two major issues in the system. Technical solutions in use in India at present are composting, organic re-reprocessing, bio-methanation, waste to energy etc. The tonnage of waste generated ranged from 8 TPD to 80 TPD. The feasibility of technology has been analysed in the context of the above characteristics. It was found that low calorific value and mixed nature of waste made waste to energy and bio methanation processes unsuitable. Composting – windrow and closed door was found best to treat the bulk of the waste. Organic–re-processors was planned for phase 2 of MSWM program in the towns with effective implementation of segregation at source. GPS and RFID technology was recommended for monitoring the collection process and increasing accountability of the citizens for effective implementation.

Keywords: solid waste management, Indian towns, waste management technology, waste charateristics

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4011 Development of Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for Industrial Estates of Pakistan

Authors: Mehak Masood

Abstract:

This paper aims to design an integrated solid waste management plan for industrial estates taking Sundar Industrial Estate as case model. The issue of solid waste management is on the rise in Pakistan especially in the industrial sector. In this regard, the concept of development and establishment of industrial estates is gaining popularity nowadays. Without proper solid waste management plan it is very difficult to manage day to day affairs of industrial estates. An industrial estate contains clusters of different types of industrial units. It is necessary to identify different types of solid waste streams from each industrial cluster within the estate. In this study, Sundar Industrial Estate was taken as a case model. Primary and secondary data collection, waste assessment, waste segregation and weighing and field surveys were essential elements of the study. Wastes from each industrial process were identified and quantified. Currently 130 industries are in production but after full colonization of industries this number would reach 385. Elaborated process flow diagrams were made to characterize the recyclable and non-recyclables waste. From the study it was calculated that about 12354.1 kg/captia/day of solid waste is being generated in Sundar Industrial Estate. After the full colonization of the industrial estate, the estimated quantity will be 4756328.5 kg/captia/day. Furthermore, solid waste generated from each industrial sector was estimated. Suggestions for collection and transportation are given. Environment friendly solid waste management practices are suggested. If an effective integrated waste management system is developed and implemented it will conserve resources, create jobs, reduce poverty, conserve natural resources, protect the environment, save collection, transportation and disposal costs and extend the life of disposal sites. A major outcome of this study is an integrated solid waste management plan for the Sundar Industrial Estate which requires immediate implementation.

Keywords: integrated solid waste management plan, industrial estates, Sundar Industrial Estate, Pakistan

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4010 Gender Perception on Food Waste within the Household and Community: Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

Authors: Gumilar Hadiningrat, Stewart Barr, Jo Little

Abstract:

In Indonesia, the majority of those who manage food waste are women. It is Indonesian culture that women act as household managers. Therefore, women as household managers hold an important role in reducing food waste within households. Meanwhile, in the community, women’s organisations are some of the most active organisations dealing with food waste. Food waste has an increasing profile and is the subject of much global attention and have economic, social and environmental impacts. Reducing food waste will improve future food availability in the context of global population growth and increasing resource scarcity. The aim of this research is to investigate women’s experience and understanding of dealing with food waste in the household and in the community. The research will use an inductive approach using in-depth qualitative methods. In terms of data collection, two methods will be used - questionnaire and interviews. All in all, it could be claimed that women, both within the household and the community in Indonesia, hold an important role in dealing with food waste.

Keywords: community waste management, food waste, gender, household waste, waste management

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4009 Environmental Risk Assessment of Mechanization Waste Collection Scheme in Tehran

Authors: Amin Padash, Javad Kazem Zadeh Khoiy, Hossein Vahidi

Abstract:

Purpose: The mechanization system for the urban services was implemented in Tehran City in the year 2004 to promote the collection of domestic wastes; in 2010, in order to achieve the objectives of the project of urban services mechanization and qualitative promotion and improve the urban living environment, sustainable development and optimization of the recyclable solid wastes collection systems as well as other dry and non-organic wastes and conformity of the same to the modern urban management methods regarding integration of the mechanized urban services contractors and recycling contractors and in order to better and more correct fulfillment of the waste separation and considering the success of the mechanization plan of the dry wastes in most of the modern countries. The aim of this research is analyzing of Environmental Risk Assessment of the mechanization waste collection scheme in Tehran. Case Study: Tehran, the capital of Iran, with the population of 8.2 million people, occupies 730 km land expanse, which is 4% of total area of country. Tehran generated 2,788,912 ton (7,641 ton/day) of waste in year 2008. Hospital waste generation rate in Tehran reaches 83 ton/day. Almost 87% of total waste was disposed of by placing in a landfill located in Kahrizak region. This large amount of waste causes a significant challenge for the city. Methodology: To conduct the study, the methodology proposed in the standard Mil-St-88213 is used. This method is an efficient method to examine the position in opposition to the various processes and the action is effective. The method is based on the method of Military Standard and Specialized in the military to investigate and evaluate options to locate and identify the strengths and weaknesses of powers to decide on the best determining strategy has been used. Finding and Conclusion: In this study, the current status of mechanization systems to collect waste and identify its possible effects on the environment through a survey and assessment methodology Mil-St-88213, and then the best plan for action and mitigation of environmental risk has been proposed as Environmental Management Plan (EMP).

Keywords: environmental risk assessment, mechanization waste collection scheme, Mil-St-88213

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4008 Assessment of Barriers Preventing Recycling Practices among Bars and Eateries in Central South Africa

Authors: Jana Vermaas, Carien Denner

Abstract:

Waste has become a global issue and the management regarding it a priority. Some of the main problems in South Africa (SA) include: (1) the lack of information and education, (2) waste collection services, (3) reusing and recycling is not encouraged, (4) illegal dumping, and the biggest problem of all (5) the lack of waste related regulations and enforcement by the government and municipalities. In SA, there are provinces such as Gauteng and the Western Cape that have some recycling programs in place, but nothing yet in the central part of the country. By identifying the barriers preventing these businesses from recycling, the local municipalities and recycling services could create a solution. Owners or employees of eateries and bars completed a self-administered questionnaire. Information were obtained on knowledge of recycling, participation in recycling and to which extent, barriers that prevent them from recycling and motives that would encourage recycling. The data obtained from the questionnaire indicated that most (98%) participants knew only the basics, that recycling is a process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. Further knowledge questions indicated that individuals were not educated about recycling as almost half (49%) of the participants believe that they can’t reuse plastic bottles. They do not understand which items of their waste could be re-used or recycled. They had limited knowledge about the recycling opportunities or practices in the area. Only a small number (34%) were involved in recycling or sustainable practices. Many did not even know of any collection services or buy-back centres in their vicinity. Most of the participants (94%) indicated that they would be willing to recycle if it would have a financial benefit. Many also stated that they would be more willing to recycle if the recyclable waste will be collected from their establishment, on a regular basis. The enforcement of recycling by municipalities or government by awarding fines for waste offenders was indicated as a significant motive. It could be concluded that the most significant barrier is knowledge and lack of information. These businesses do not comprehend the impact that they can have with their recycling contributions, not only on the environment, but also on the consumers that they serve. Another barrier is the lack of collection services. There are currently no government or municipal services for the collection of recyclable waste. All waste are taken to landfills. Many of the larger recycling initiatives and companies do not reach as far as central SA. Therefore, the buy-back component of recycling is not present.

Keywords: eateries, recycling, sustainable practices, waste

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4007 Municipal Solid Waste Management Characteristics and Management Challenges in Bauchi Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, Bashir Usman Mohammed, Mohammed Umar Jamil

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management constitutes a serious problem bedeviling environmental protection agencies in many cities of developing countries. Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria. The general feature is characterized by inefficient, insufficient and irrational collection and improper disposal alternatives. The consequent environmental effects of these problems depict clogged city drains, uncollected heap of waste on road sides of residential areas, vacant plots and uncompleted buildings and highways. This contributes immensely to flooding in the city. The major challenges facing the state environmental protection agency includes; lack of collection and disposal points, technical and institutional arrangements, financial resources and general attitude of the serving public among others. The study suggested a comprehensive and integrated approach to the solid waste management which recognizes and incorporates the interventionist role of the state government, the private formal and informal waste management operators and the serving public.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, bauchi metropolitan area, environmental protection agency, solid waste management, waste disposal

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4006 Innovative Waste Management Practices in Remote Areas

Authors: Dolores Hidalgo, Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín, Francisco Corona

Abstract:

Municipal waste consist of a variety of items that are everyday discarded by the population. They are usually collected by municipalities and include waste generated by households, commercial activities (local shops) and public buildings. The composition of municipal waste varies greatly from place to place, being mostly related to levels and patterns of consumption, rates of urbanization, lifestyles, and local or national waste management practices. Each year, a huge amount of resources is consumed in the EU, and according to that, also a huge amount of waste is produced. The environmental problems derived from the management and processing of these waste streams are well known, and include impacts on land, water and air. The situation in remote areas is even worst. Difficult access when climatic conditions are adverse, remoteness of centralized municipal treatment systems or dispersion of the population, are all factors that make remote areas a real municipal waste treatment challenge. Furthermore, the scope of the problem increases significantly because the total lack of awareness of the existing risks in this area together with the poor implementation of advanced culture on waste minimization and recycling responsibly. The aim of this work is to analyze the existing situation in remote areas in reference to the production of municipal waste and evaluate the efficiency of different management alternatives. Ideas for improving waste management in remote areas include, for example: the implementation of self-management systems for the organic fraction; establish door-to-door collection models; promote small-scale treatment facilities or adjust the rates of waste generation thereof.

Keywords: door to door collection, islands, isolated areas, municipal waste, remote areas, rural communities

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4005 Energy Recovery Potential from Food Waste and Yard Waste in New York and Montréal

Authors: T. Malmir, U. Eicker

Abstract:

Landfilling of organic waste is still the predominant waste management method in the USA and Canada. Strategic plans for waste diversion from landfills are needed to increase material recovery and energy generation from waste. In this paper, we carried out a statistical survey on waste flow in the two cities New York and Montréal and estimated the energy recovery potential for each case. Data collection and analysis of the organic waste (food waste, yard waste, etc.), paper and cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, carton, textile, electronic products and other materials were done based on the reports published by the Department of Sanitation in New York and Service de l'Environnement in Montréal. In order to calculate the gas generation potential of organic waste, Buswell equation was used in which the molar mass of the elements was calculated based on their atomic weight and the amount of organic waste in New York and Montréal. Also, the higher and lower calorific value of the organic waste (solid base) and biogas (gas base) were calculated. According to the results, only 19% (598 kt) and 45% (415 kt) of New York and Montréal waste were diverted from landfills in 2017, respectively. The biogas generation potential of the generated food waste and yard waste amounted to 631 million m3 in New York and 173 million m3 in Montréal. The higher and lower calorific value of food waste were 3482 and 2792 GWh in New York and 441 and 354 GWh in Montréal, respectively. In case of yard waste, they were 816 and 681 GWh in New York and 636 and 531 GWh in Montréal, respectively. Considering the higher calorific value, this amount would mean a contribution of around 2.5% energy in these cities.

Keywords: energy recovery, organic waste, urban energy modelling with INSEL, waste flow

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4004 Studies on the Existing Status of MSW Management in Agartala City and Recommendation for Improvement

Authors: Subhro Sarkar, Umesh Mishra

Abstract:

Agartala Municipal Council (AMC) is the municipal body which regulates and governs the Agartala city. MSW management may be proclaimed as a tool which rests on the principles of public health, economy, engineering and other aesthetic or environmental factors by dealing with the controlled generation, collection, transport, processing and disposal of MSW. Around 220-250 MT of solid waste per day is collected by AMC out of which 12-14 MT is plastic and is disposed of in Devendra Chandra Nagar dumping ground (33 acres), nearly 12-15 km from the city. A survey was performed to list down the prevailing operations conducted by the AMC which includes road sweeping, garbage lifting, carcass removal, biomedical waste collection, dumping, and incineration. Different types of vehicles are engaged to carry out these operations. Door to door collection of garbage is done from the houses with the help of 220 tricycles issued by 53 NGOs. The location of the dustbin containers were earmarked which consisted of 4.5 cum, 0.6 cum containers and 0.1 cum containers, placed at various locations within the city. The total household waste was categorized as organic, recyclable and other wastes. It was found that East Pratapgarh ward produced 99.3% organic waste out of the total MSW generated in that ward which is maximum among all the wards. A comparison of the waste generation versus the family size has been made. A questionnaire for the survey of MSW from household and market place was prepared. The average waste generated (in kg) per person per day was found out for each of the wards. It has been noted that East Jogendranagar ward had a maximum per person per day waste generation of 0.493 kg/day.In view of the studies made, it has been found that AMC has failed to implement MSWM in an effective way because of the unavailability of suitable facilities for treatment and disposal of the large amount of MSW. It has also been noted that AMC is not following the standard procedures of handling MSW. Transportation system has also been found less effective leading to waste of time, money and manpower.

Keywords: MSW, waste generation, solid waste disposal, management

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4003 Medical Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study

Authors: Y. Y. Babanyara, D. B. Ibrahim, T. Garba

Abstract:

Proper management of medical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study is aimed at assessing the medical waste management practices in Nigeria. Three instruments, questionnaire administration, in-depth interview and observation method for data collection were adopted in the study. The results revealed that the hospital does not quantify medical waste. Segregation of medical wastes is not conducted according to definite rules and standards. Wheeled trolleys are used for on-site transportation of waste from the points of production to the temporary storage area. Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Non-infectious waste is disposed off using land disposal method. The study showed that the hospital does not have a policy and plan in place for managing medical waste. The study revealed number of problems the hospital faces in terms of medical waste management, including; lack of necessary rules, regulations and instructions on the different aspects of collections and disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the aim of improving medical waste management in the hospital.

Keywords: medical waste, treatment, disposal, public health

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4002 Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Peshawar Using Mathematical Modelling and GIS with Focus on Incineration

Authors: Usman Jilani, Ibad Khurram, Irshad Hussain

Abstract:

Environmentally sustainable waste management is a challenging task as it involves multiple and diverse economic, environmental, technical and regulatory issues. Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is more challenging in developing countries like Pakistan due to lack of awareness, technology and human resources, insufficient funding, inefficient collection and transport mechanism resulting in the lack of a comprehensive waste management system. This work presents an overview of current MSWM practices in Peshawar, the provincial capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and proposes a better and sustainable integrated solid waste management system with incineration (Waste to Energy) option. The diverted waste would otherwise generate revenue; minimize land fill requirement and negative impact on the environment. The proposed optimized solution utilizing scientific techniques (like mathematical modeling, optimization algorithms and GIS) as decision support tools enhances the technical & institutional efficiency leading towards a more sustainable waste management system through incorporating: - Improved collection mechanisms through optimized transportation / routing and, - Resource recovery through incineration and selection of most feasible sites for transfer stations, landfills and incineration plant. These proposed methods shift the linear waste management system towards a cyclic system and can also be used as a decision support tool by the WSSP (Water and Sanitation Services Peshawar), agency responsible for the MSWM in Peshawar.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management, incineration, mathematical modeling, optimization, GIS, Peshawar

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4001 Comparison of E-Waste Management in Switzerland and in Australia: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Md Tasbirul Islam, Pablo Dias, Nazmul Huda

Abstract:

E-waste/Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams across the globe. This paper aims to compare the e-waste management system in Switzerland and Australia in terms of four features - legislative initiatives, disposal practice, collection and financial mechanisms. The qualitative content analysis is employed as a research method in the study. Data were collected from various published academic research papers, industry reports, and web sources. In addition, a questionnaire survey is conducted in Australia to understand the public awareness and opinions on the features. The results of the study provide valuable insights to policymakers in Australia developing better e-waste management system in conjunction with the public consensus, and the state-of-the-art operational strategies currently being practiced in Switzerland.

Keywords: E-waste management, WEEE, awareness, pro-environmental behavior, Australia, Switzerland

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4000 Analysis of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Implications for Human Health and the Environment: A Case Study of Kayamandi Informal Settlement

Authors: Peter Iyobosa Asemota

Abstract:

This study on solid waste management practices addressed aspects of environmental and health impacts resulting from poor management of solid waste. The study was occasioned by the observed rate and volume of illegal and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste materials especially in informal settlements. The main focus of this study was to establish the impact of waste management practices on human health and the environment. The study, therefore, presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management in the study area and the implications for human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Kayamandi informal settlement within Stellenbosch municipality. The sustainable management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the environmental and public health risks associated with improper solid waste management. There is no denying the fact that the problems of waste management will become critical as time goes on because of improper and inefficient waste management practices. Towns and cities exhibit the burdens of waste management which is a characteristics feature of most African cities. The study critically assess the implementation of waste management practices by the residents of the informal settlement; identify the factors affecting management issues in the operation of solid waste management system by the municipality; identify factors militating against the implementation of waste management policies and legislation. Furthermore, a waste assessment study was carried out to assess the generation; composition of the waste stream and also determine the attitudes and behavior of the residents with regard to waste management practices. Findings from the study revealed that Kayamandi is not different from other informal settlements with regards to waste management. People are of the opinion that solid waste management is the sole responsibility of municipal authorities and as such, the government should be responsible for bearing the cost of solid waste management.

Keywords: environment, waste, waste composition, waste stream, policy, waste categories, sanitary landfill, waste collection, integrated solid waste management

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3999 Re-Defining Food Waste and Food Waste Management in the Food Service Sector: A Case Study in a University Food Service Unit

Authors: Boineelo P. Lefadola, Annemarie T. Viljoen, Gerrie E. Du Rand

Abstract:

The food service sector wastes staggering quantities of food. More than one-third of food produced today gets wasted. This is both perplexing and daunting given that not all that is wasted is accounted for when measuring food waste. It is recognised that the present food waste definitions are ambiguous and do not really take into account all food waste generated. The contention is that food waste in the food service sector can be prevented or reduced if we have an explicit food waste definition in the context of food service. This study, therefore, explores the definition of the concept of food waste in the food service sector and its implications on sustainable food waste management strategies. An ethnographic research approach was adopted. A university food service unit was selected as a research site. Data collection techniques employed included document analyses, participant observations, focus group discussions with front-of-house and back-of-house staff, and one-on-one interviews with staff on managerial positions. A grounded theory approach was applied to analyse data. The concept of food waste was constructed differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, BOH and FOH staff drew upon socio-cultural implications. This study lays the foundation for a harmonised definition of the concept of food waste in food service.

Keywords: food service, food waste, food waste management, sustainability

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3998 A Case Study at Lara's Landfill: Solid Waste Management and Energy Recovery

Authors: Kelly Danielly Da Silva Alcantara, Daniel Fernando Molina Junqueira, Graziella Colato Antonio

Abstract:

The Law No. 12,305/10, established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), provides major changes in the management and managing scenario of solid waste in Brazil. The PNRS established since changes from population behavior as environmental and the consciousness and commitment of the companies with the waste produced. The objective of this project is to conduct a benchmarking study of the management models of Waste Management Municipal Solid (MSW) in national and international levels emphasizing especially in the European Union (Portugal, France and Germany), which are reference countries in energy development, sustainability and consequently recovery of waste generated. The management that encompasses all stages that are included in this sector will be analyzed by benchmarking, as the collection, transportation, processing/treatment and final disposal of waste. Considering the needs to produce clean energy in Brazil, this study will allow the determination to the best treatment of the waste in order to reduce the amount of waste and increase the lifetime of the landfill. Finally, it intends to identify the energy recovery potential through a study analysis of economic viability, energy and sustainable based on a holistic approach.

Keywords: benchmarking, energy recovery, landfill, municipal solid waste

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3997 Solid Waste Pollution and the Importance of Environmental Planning in Managing and Preserving the Public Environment in Benghazi City and Its Surrounding Areas

Authors: Abdelsalam Omran Gebril

Abstract:

Pollution and solid waste are the most important environmental problems plaguing the city of Benghazi as well as other cities and towns in Libya. These problems are caused by the lack of environmental planning and sound environmental management. Environmental planning is very important at present for the development of projects that preserve the environment, therefore, the planning process should be prioritized over the management process. Pollution caused by poor planning and environmental management exists not only in Benghazi but also in all other Libyan cities. This study was conducted through various field visits to several neighborhoods and areas within Benghazi as well as its neighboring regions. Follow-ups in these areas were conducted from March 2013 to October 2013 and documented by photographs. The existing methods of waste collection and means of transportation were investigated. Interviews were conducted with relevant authorities, including the Environment Public Authority in Benghazi and the Public Service Company of Benghazi. The objective of this study is to determine the causes of solid waste pollution in Benghazi City and its surrounding areas. Results show that solid waste pollution in Benghazi and its surrounding areas is the result of poor planning and environmental management, population growth, and the lack of hardware and equipment for the collection and transport of waste from the city to the landfill site. One of the most important recommendations in this study is the development of a complete and comprehensive plan that includes environmental planning and environmental management to reduce solid waste pollution.

Keywords: solid waste, pollution, environmental planning, management, Benghazi, Libya

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3996 Development of a Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management for an Urban Area: Case Study from a Developing Country

Authors: Anil Kumar Gupta, Dronadula Venkata Sai Praneeth, Brajesh Dubey, Arundhuti Devi, Suravi Kalita, Khanindra Sharma

Abstract:

Increase in urbanization and industrialization have led to improve in the standard of living. However, at the same time, the challenges due to improper solid waste management are also increasing. Municipal Solid Waste management is considered as a vital step in the development of urban infrastructure. The present study focuses on developing a solid waste management plan for an urban area in a developing country. The current scenario of solid waste management practices at various urban bodies in India is summarized. Guwahati city in the northeastern part of the country and is also one of the targeted smart cities (under the governments Smart Cities program) was chosen as case study to develop and implement the solid waste management plan. The whole city was divided into various divisions and waste samples were collected according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) - D5231-92 - 2016 for each division in the city and a composite sample prepared to represent the waste from the entire city. The solid waste characterization in terms of physical and chemical which includes mainly proximate and ultimate analysis were carried out. Existing primary and secondary collection systems were studied and possibilities of enhancing the collection systems were discussed. The composition of solid waste for the overall city was found to be as: organic matters 38%, plastic 27%, paper + cardboard 15%, Textile 9%, inert 7% and others 4%. During the conference presentation, further characterization results in terms of Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), pH and water holding capacity will be discussed. The waste management options optimizing activities such as recycling, recovery, reuse and reduce will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: proximate, recycling, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), solid waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 83