Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: androgen

32 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad

Abstract:

Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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31 CAG Repeat Polymorphism of Androgen Receptor and Female Sexual Functions in Egyptian Female Population

Authors: Azza Gaber Farag, Yasser Atta Shehata, Sara Elsayed Elghazouly, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib, Nesreen Gamal Elden Elhelbawy

Abstract:

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in cytosine adenineguanine (CAG) repeat has an effect on the functional capacity of AR in males. However, little researches in this field are available regarding female sexual function. Aim: To investigate the possible link between polymorphism in the CAG repeat of AR gene and female sexual function in a sample of the Egyptian population. Materials and methods: 500 Egyptian married females completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, reproductive, and sexual data. AR CAG repeat length was analyzed for those having female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) using real-time PCR. Results: The most sensitive domain to AR CAG repeat length was the orgasm domain that showed significant positive correlations with short allele (p=0.001), long allele (p=.015), biallellic mean (p=.000), and X weighted biallelic mean (p=.000). The satisfaction domain had significant positive correlations with the biallelic mean (p=.035), and the X weighted biallelic mean (p=. 032). However, the pain domain was of significant negative correlations with AR polymorphism of short allele (p=.002), biallelic mean (p=.013), and X weighted biallelic mean (p = . 011). Conclusions: AR polymorphism could represent a non-negligible aspect in female sexual function. The lower AR CAG repeat polymorphism was of significant impact on FSD, affecting mainly female orgasm followed by pain disorders that finally reflected On her sexual satisfaction.

Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, androgen receptor, CAG repeat polymorphism, androgen

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30 Circadian Disruption in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Model Rats

Authors: Fangfang Wang, Fan Qu

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, is characterized by ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and reduced fecundity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the circadian disruption is involved in pathogenesis of PCOS in androgen-induced animal model. We established a rat model of PCOS using single subcutaneous injection with testosterone propionate on the ninth day after birth, and confirmed their PCOS-like phenotypes with vaginal smears, ovarian hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and serum androgen measurement. The control group rats received the vehicle only. Gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. (1) Compared with control group, PCOS model rats of 10-week group showed persistently keratinized vaginal cells, while all the control rats showed at least two consecutive estrous cycles. (2) Ovarian HE staining and histological examination showed that PCOS model rats of 10-week group presented many cystic follicles with decreased numbers of granulosa cells and corpora lutea in their ovaries, while the control rats had follicles with normal layers of granulosa cells at various stages of development and several generations of corpora lutea. (3) In the 10-week group, serum free androgen index was notably higher in PCOS model rats than controls. (4) Disturbed mRNA expression patterns of core clock genes were found in ovaries of PCOS model rats of 10-week group. Abnormal expression of key genes associated with circadian rhythm in ovary may be one of the mechanisms for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS model rats induced by androgen.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, androgen, animal model, circadian disruption

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29 The Effects of Androgen Receptor Mutation on Cryptorchid Testes in 46, XY Female

Authors: Ihtisham Bukhari

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In the current study, we enrolled a 46, XY phenotypically female patient bearing testes in her inguinal canal. DNA sequencing of the AR gene detected a missense mutation C.1715A > G (p. Y572C) in exon 2 which is already known to cause Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We further studied the effects of this mutation on the testicular histopathology of the patient. No spermatocytes were seen in the surface spreading of testicular tissues while H&E staining showed that seminiferous tubules predominantly have only Sertoli cells. To confirm this meiotic failure is likely due to the current AR mutation we performed mRNA expression of genes associated with AR pathway, expression and location of the associated proteins in testicular tissues. Western blot and real-time PCR data showed that the patient had high levels of expression of AMH, SOX9, and INNB in testis. Tubules were stained with SOX9 and AMH which revealed Sertoli cell maturation arrest. Therefore, we suggest that AR mutation enhances AMH expression which ultimately leads to failure in the maturation of Sertoli cells and failure in spermatogenesis.

Keywords: androgen receptor, spermatogenesis, infertility, Sertoli cell only syndrome

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28 The Role of Androgens in Prediction of Success in Smoking Cessation in Women

Authors: Michaela Dušková, Kateřina Šimůnková, Martin Hill, Hana Hruškovičová, Hana Pospíšilová, Eva Králíková, Luboslav Stárka

Abstract:

Smoking represents the most widespread substance dependence in the world. Several studies show the nicotine's ability to alter women hormonal homeostasis. Women smokers have higher testosterone and lower estradiol levels throughout life compared to non-smoker women. We monitored the effect of smoking discontinuation on steroid spectrum with 40 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal women smokers. These women had been examined before they discontinued smoking and also after 6, 12, 24, and 48 weeks of abstinence. At each examination, blood was collected to determine steroid spectrum (measured by GC-MS), LH, FSH, and SHBG (measured by IRMA). Repeated measures ANOVA model was used for evaluation of the data. The study has been approved by the local Ethics Committee. Given the small number of premenopausal women who endured not to smoke, only the first 6 week period data could be analyzed. A slight increase in androgens after the smoking discontinuation occurred. In postmenopausal women, an increase in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and other androgens occurred, too. Nicotine replacement therapy, weight changes, and age does not play any role in the androgen level increase. The higher androgens levels correlated with failure in smoking cessation. Women smokers have higher androgen levels, which might play a role in smoking dependence development. Women successful in smoking cessation, compared to the non-successful ones, have lower androgen levels initially and also after smoking discontinuation. The question is what androgen levels women have before they start smoking.

Keywords: addiction, smoking, cessation, androgens

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27 Dependence of Androgen Status in Men with Primary Hypothyroidism on Duration and Condition of Compensation

Authors: Krytskyy T.

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Introduction: The role of androgen deficiency in men as a factor in the pathogenesis of many somatic diseases is unmistakable. The interaction of thyroid and sex hormones with hypothyroidism in men is still the subject of discussions. The purpose of the study is to assess the androgen status of men with primary hypothyroidism, depending on its duration and the state of compensation. Materials and methods: 45 men with primary hypothyroidism aged 35 to 60 years, as well as 25 healthy men, who formed a control group, were under supervision. A selection of men for examination was conducted in the process of outpatient and in-patient treatment at the endocrinology department of the University Hospital in Ternopil. The functional state of the pituitary-gonadal system was evaluated in order to characterize the androgen status of patients. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone was determined in blood with the help of enzyme-linked method. Also, the content of hormones: total testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin were determined. Results: Reduced total testosterone (TT) content was found in 42.2% of patients with hypothyroidism. Herewith in 17.8% of patients, blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, and in 11 (24.4%) men, the rate was in the range of 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / L. Based on the results of the determination of the content of free testosterone (FT), the frequency of laboratory hypogonadism in men with hypothyroidism was higher than the results of the determination of TT. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. Conclusions: Reduced total testosterone content was found in 42.2% of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Herewith, in 17.8% of patients blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, which is a sign of absolute deficiency of testosterone, and in 24.4% of men the rate ranged from 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / l , indicating partial androgen deficiency. Linking sex hormones globulin levels were believed to be lower in 46.7% of patients with hypothyroidism compared to control group. The average levels of E2 in the examined patients did not significantly differ from the mean of control group. FSH, LH, and prolactin levels in men with hypothyroidism were within the normal age limits and probably did not differ from those of control group. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. The mean LH content in the blood was significantly increased in men with a duration of hypothyroidism up to 5 years and did not differ from that of the control group and in men with a duration of hypothyroidism over 5 years. In men with hypothyroidism, a probable reduction in T / LH coefficient is found. The obtained data may indicate a combined lesion of the central and peripheral parts of the pituitary-gonadal system in men with hypothyroidism.

Keywords: androgenic status, hypothyroidism, testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin

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26 Anti-Prostate Cancer Effect of GV-1001, a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Ligand

Authors: Ji Won Kim, Moo Yeol Lee, Keon Wook Kang

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GV-1001, 16 amino acid fragment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (hTERT), has been developed as an injectable cancer vaccine for many types of solid tumors showing high-level of telomerase activity. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect of GV-1001 on androgen-receptor-positive prostate cancer. Two signaling pathways, Gs-adenylate cyclase-cAMP and Gq-IP3-Ca2+ pathways play a central role in GnRH receptor (GnRHR)-mediated activities. We found that leuprolide acetate (LA) mainly acted on Gq-mediated Ca2+ signaling, while GV-1001 preferentially acted on cAMP signaling; and both the effects were counteracted by cetrorelix, a GnRHR antagonist. We further tested whether GV-1001 affects tumor growth of human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Prostate tumor xenografts were established using LNCap, androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells, and the nude mice bearing tumors were subcutaneously injected with GV-1001 (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 microg/kg/day) and LA (0.01 microg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. GV-1001 (1 and 10 microg/kg/day) significantly inhibited tumor growth of LNCap xenografts. Interestingly, mRNA expression of MMP2 and MMP9 was significantly suppressed by GV-1001 injection, but not by LA administration. Boyden chamber assay revealed that GV-1001 potently inhibited cell migration of LNCap. Our finding suggests that GV-1001 as a novel GnRHR ligand, has anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects on androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells.

Keywords: GV-1001, GnRH, hTERT, prostate cancer

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25 Risk of Androgen Deprivation Therapy-Induced Metabolic Syndrome-Related Complications for Prostate Cancer in Taiwan

Authors: Olivia Rachel Hwang, Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao

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Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) has been a primary treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects related to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, heart diseases and ischemic strokes. However, complications associated with ADT for prostate cancer in Taiwan is not well documented. The purpose of this study is to utilize the data from NHIRD (National Health Insurance Research Database) to examine the trajectory changes of MetS-related complications in men receiving ADT. The risks of developing complications after the treatment were analyzed with multivariate Cox regression model. Covariates including in the model were the complications before the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the age, and the year at cancer diagnosis. A total number of 17268 patients from 1997-2013 were included in this study. The exclusion criteria were patients with any other types of cancer or with the existing MetS-related complications. Changes in MetS-related complications were observed among two treatment groups: 1) ADT (n=9042), and 2) non-ADT (n=8226). The ADT group appeared to have an increased risk in hypertension (hazard ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.13, P = 0.001) and hyperlipidemia (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.17, P = 0.02) when compared with non-ADT group in the multivariate Cox regression analyses. In the risk of diabetes, heart diseases, and ischemic strokes, ADT group appeared to have an increased but not significant hazard ratio. In conclusion, ADT was associated with an increased risk in hypertension and hyperlipidemia in prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. The risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia should be considered while deciding on ADT, especially those with the known history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy, ADT, complications, metabolic syndrome, MetS, prostate cancer

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24 Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Chronic Exercise and Myocytic Androgen Receptor Overexpression on Body Composition in Sprague dawley Rats

Authors: Sabrina Barsky, Ashley Monks

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In humans, exercise improves symptoms of various pathological states, although exercise adaptations seem to differ in response to sex. Skeletal muscle anabolism is thought to be regulated by androgen receptor (AR) through poorly specified mechanisms. Interactions of AR and exercise on muscle phenotype remain inconclusive in males, and undetermined in females. We hypothesized that sex differences in exercise adaptations are regulated by the androgenic system and the type of exercise performed. Here we examined interactions between a muscle-specific AR overexpression transgene (HSA-AR) and forced aerobic exercise paradigm on muscle and adipose exercise adaptation in male and female rats. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to examine body composition adaptations post 9-week exercise protocol. We replicated the effects of HSA-AR on body composition, with males only having increased % lean mass and reduced % fat mass (P<0.05). Aerobic exercise improved lean body phenotype significantly, with lesser indices of total and % fat mass (P<0.01) in both sexes. Sex-specific effects of exercise included decreased total body mass (P<0.01) in males and increased lean mass % (P<0.001) in females. Surprisingly, neither AR manipulation nor exercise affected bone parameters in either sex. This varied response in total mass and lean mass according to exercise presents a sexually dimorphic response to exercise. Neither sex showed an interaction between HSA-AR and forced aerobic exercise on body composition. Future work is proposed to examine the effects of exercise type (aerobic versus resistance) and the role of gonadal androgens in sexually dimorphic exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations. This work implicates the development of sex-specific exercise therapies.

Keywords: androgen receptor, forced exercise, muscle physiology, sexual dimorphism

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23 Effects of Butea superba Roxb. on Skeletal Muscle Functions and Parvalbumin Levels of Orchidectomized Rat

Authors: Surapong Vongvatcharanon, Fardeela Binalee, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Uraporn Vongvatcharanon

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Hypogonadism is characterized by a decline in sex hormone levels, especially testosterone. It has been shown to be an important contributor to the decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength and performance, a condition known as sarcopenia. Preparations from Butea superba Roxb. (red Kwao Krua) have been reported to have androgenic properties. The active compounds are proposed to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. Treatment with B. superba has been shown to improve erectile dysfunction in males. Parvalbumin (PV) is a relaxing factor and identified in fast twitch fibers. Alterations of the PV levels affects skeletal muscle functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of orhchidectomy, testosterone replacement and different doses of Butea superba Roxb. on the structure, performance, levels of parvalbumin, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius muscles of orchidectomized rats. Twelve-week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized (BS-0), orchidectomized group that was treated with testosterone replacement of 6 µg/kg (TP) or an orchidectomized group that was treated with various doses of an extract from Butea superba Roxb.; 5 mg/kg (BS-5), 50 mg/kg (BS-50) and 500 mg/kg (BS-500) all for 90 days. The testosterone level, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight, muscle fiber size, strength and endurance in both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group. Treatment with the B. superba Roxb. extract replacement group improved muscle fiber size, strength and endurance, but not total testosterone levels, or the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight. Furthermore, the parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities were reduced in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group and the B. superba Roxb. extract groups for both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle. This study indicated that the reduction of testosterone level led to a decrease of the androgen receptor density resulting in a decline in the muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The decrease of parvalbumin levels affected muscle performance. Testosterone replacement increased the androgen receptor density and led to an increase of muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The increase in the parvalbumin levels may result in an improvement of muscle performance. This may explain one mechanism of testosterone on muscle mass and strength in the testosterone dependent sarcopenia. The B. superba Roxb. extract groups also had improved muscle mass, strength and endurance, parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen immunoreactivities compared to the BS-O group . Butea superba Roxb. Extracts contains a flavonoid (3, 7, 3'-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), flavonoiglycoside (3, 3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and isoflavanolignans (butesuperins A and butesuperins B) all known to inhibit the cAMP phosphodiesterase enzyme. Therefore, cAMP signaling may have adaptive effects on skeletal muscle by increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance.

Keywords: Butea superba, parvalbumin, skeletal muscle, orchidectomy

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22 Cytogenetic Investigation of Patients with Disorder of Sexual Development Using G-Banding Karyotype and Fluorescence In situ Hybridization

Authors: Riksa Parikrama, Bremmy Laksono, Dadang S. H. Effendi

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Disorder of sexual development (DSD) covers various conditions with a specific term such as Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and many more. The techniques to accurately diagnose those conditions has developed extensively. However, conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are still widely used in many genetic laboratories as the basic method to determine chromosomal condition of DSD patients. Cytogenetic study was conducted on 36 DSD patients in Cell Culture and Cytogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. Most of the patients referred to the laboratory diagnosed with primary amenorrhea, hypospadias, micropenis, genitalia ambiguity, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The study used G-banding technique to acquire complete karyotype and followed by FISH as either confirmation or comparison method. Among 36 patients, G-banding karyotype and FISH results showed that two were diagnosed with 45, X (Turner syndrome); three with 47, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome); five with 46, XX DSD; 22 with 46, XY DSD; and four with 46,XY complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. G-banding karyotype analysis were paired with FISH using X and Y chromosome probe produced similar results. The present analysis showed that FISH is a reliable method to attain a rapid and accurate chromosome analysis result of DSD patients. Nevertheless, conventional karyotype technique is still vital if other condition appeared in DSD patients in order to get more detailed karyotype result which FISH method cannot achieve.

Keywords: chromosome, DSD, FISH, karyotype

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21 Impact of α-Adrenoceptor Antagonists on Biochemical Relapse in Men Undergoing Radiotherapy for Localised Prostate Cancer

Authors: Briohny H. Spencer, Russ Chess-Williams, Catherine McDermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, David Christie

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Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men worldwide and the most prevalent in Australian men. In 2015, it was estimated that approximately 18,000 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in Australia. Currently, for localised disease, androgen depravation therapy (ADT) and radiotherapy are a major part of the curative management of prostate cancer. ADT acts to reduce the levels of circulating androgens, primarily testosterone and the locally produced androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or by preventing the subsequent activation of the androgen receptor. Thus, the growth of the cancerous cells can be reduced or ceased. Radiation techniques such as brachytherapy (radiation delivered directly to the prostate by transperineal implant) or external beam radiation therapy (exposure to a sufficient dose of radiation aimed at eradicating malignant cells) are also common techniques used in the treatment of this condition. Radiotherapy (RT) has significant limitations, including reduced effectiveness in treating malignant cells present in hypoxic microenvironments leading to radio-resistance and poor clinical outcomes and also the significant side effects for the patients. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are used for many prostate cancer patients to control lower urinary tract symptoms, due to the progression of the disease itself or may arise as an adverse effect of the radiotherapy treatment. In Australia, a significant number (not a majority) of patients receive a α1-ADR antagonist and four drugs are available including prazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin and tamsulosin. There is currently limited published data on the effects of α1-ADR antagonists during radiotherapy, but it suggests these medications may improve patient outcomes by enhancing the effect of radiotherapy. Aim: To determine the impact of α1-ADR antagonists treatments on time to biochemical relapse following radiotherapy. Methods: A retrospective study of male patients receiving radiotherapy for biopsy-proven localised prostate cancer was undertaken to compare cancer outcomes for drug-naïve patients and those receiving α1-ADR antagonist treatments. Ethical approval for the collection of data at Genesis CancerCare QLD was obtained and biochemical relapse (defined by a PSA rise of >2ng/mL above the nadir) was recorded in months. Rates of biochemical relapse, prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were also compared. Treatment groups were those receiving α1-ADR antagonists treatment before or concurrent with their radiotherapy. Data was statistically analysed using One-way ANOVA and results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Major findings: The mean time to biochemical relapse for tamsulosin, prazosin, alfuzosin and controls were 45.3±17.4 (n=36), 41.5±19.6 (n=11), 29.3±6.02 (n=6) and 36.5±17.6 (n=16) months respectively. Tamsulosin, prazosin but not alfuzosin delayed time to biochemical relapse although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Preliminary data for the prior and/or concurrent use of tamsulosin and prazosin showed a positive trend in delaying time to biochemical relapse although no statistical significance was shown. Larger clinical studies are indicated and with thousands of patient records yet to be analysed, it may determine if there is a significant effect of these drugs on control of prostate cancer.

Keywords: alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, biochemical relapse, prostate cancer, radiotherapy

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20 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur

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Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

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19 Clonal Evaluation of Malignant Mesothelioma

Authors: Sabahattin Comertpay, Sandra Pastorino, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Mika Tanji, Oriana Strianese, Andrea Napolitano, Tracey Weigel, Joseph Friedberg, Paul Sugarbaker, Thomas Krausz, Ena Wang, Amy Powers, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I. Pass, Fatmagul Ozcelik, Barbara L. Parsons, Haining Yang, Michele Carbone

Abstract:

Tumors are thought to be monoclonal in origin. This paradigm arose decades ago, primarily from the study of hematopoietic malignancies and sarcomas. The clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly cancer resistant to the current therapies, has not been investigated. Examination of the pleura from patients with MM shows often the presence of multiple pleural nodules, raising the question of whether they represent independent or metastatic growth processes. To investigate the clonality patterns of MM, we used the HUMARA (Human Androgen Receptor) assay to examine 14 sporadic and 2 familial Malignant Mesotheliomas (MM). Of 16 specimens studied, 15 were informative and 14/15 revealed two electrophoretically distinct methylated HUMARA alleles, indicating a polyclonal origin for these tumors. This discovery has important clinical implications, because an accurate assessment of tumor clonality is key to the design of novel molecular strategies for the treatment of MM.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, clonal origin, HUMARA, sarcomas

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18 Health Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Authors: Jeremy J. Johnson

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Mediterranean herbs including rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain a variety of phytochemicals including diterpenes that possess extensive biological activity. Applications of diterpenes, including the more abundant forms carnosol and carnosic acid, have been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferation properties. To confirm these properties, we have evaluated rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for biological activity in cancer and inflammatory models. Our preliminary data have revealed that select diterpenes can disrupt androgen receptor functionality in prostate and breast cancer cells. This property is unique among natural products for hormone-responsive cancers. The second area of interest has been evaluating rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for activation of sestrin-2, an antioxidant protein, in colon cancer cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches have been utilized to characterize the activity of rosemary diterpenes in rosemary. Taken together, these results suggest that phytochemicals found in rosemary have distinct pharmacological actions for disrupting cell-signaling pathways in cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords: rosemary, diterpene, cancer, inflammation

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17 Male Rivalry Seen through a Biopsychosocial Lens

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj

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We investigated the effects of winning and losing on men’s testosterone and assessed whether androgen reactivity affected their empathic accuracy and their aggression. We also explored whether their power motivation would moderate the relationships between competitive, hormonal, and behavioral outcomes. In Experiment 1, 84 males competed on a task that allegedly gauged their leadership potential and future earnings, after which they interpreted people’s emotional expressions. Results showed that winners were more capable of accurately inferring others’ emotions compared to losers and this ability improved with increasing power. Second, testosterone change mediated the relationship between competitive outcomes and empathic accuracy, with post-competitive testosterone increases relating to more accuracy. In Experiment 2, 72 males again competed after which they were measured on two aggression subtypes: proactive and reactive. Results showed that neither the competitive outcome nor the testosterone change had a significant effect on either types of aggression. However, as power increased, winners aggressed more proactively than losers whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Finally, in both experiments, power moderated the relationship between competitive outcomes and testosterone change. Collectively, these studies add to existing research that explores the psychophysiological effects of competition on individuals’ empathic and aggressive responses.

Keywords: competition, testosterone, power motivation, empathic accuracy, proactive aggression, reactive aggression

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16 Hair Regrowth Effect of Herbal Formula on Androgenic Alopecia Rat Model

Authors: Jian-You Wang, Feng Yi Hsu, Chieh-Hsi Wu

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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is an androgen-dependent disorder caused by excess testosterone in blood capillaries or excess enzyme activity of 5α- reductase in hair follicles. Plants, alone or in combination, have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Asia. In this study, the efficacy of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan (SYYZD) with different kinds of extract solvents, facilitating hair regrowth in testosterone-induced hair loss have been determined. The study was performed by treating with either 95 % ethanol aqueous extracts, 50% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts orally in four-week-old male S.D. rats that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. The 50% ethanol aqueous extracts group showed better hair regrowth promotion activities than either 95% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts groups in 14 days treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that 50% ethanol aqueous SYYZD extracts have hair growth promoting potential and may be beneficial as an alternative medicine for androgenetic alopecia treatment.

Keywords: Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan, androgenic alopecia, hair loss, hair growth promotion, hair regrowth effect

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15 Androgenic and Spermatogenic Activity of Alkylamide-Rich Ethanol Solution Extract of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Dc

Authors: Vikas Sharma, V. K. Dixit

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Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg doses for a period of 28 days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28 days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis.

Keywords: N-alkylamides, testosterone, Anacyclus pyrethrum, androgen

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14 Toxicities associated with EBRT and Brachytherapy for Intermediate and High Risk Prostate Cancer, Correlated with Intra-operative Dosing

Authors: Rebecca Dunne, Cormac Small, Geraldine O'Boyle, Nazir Ibrahim, Anisha

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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. It is estimated that approximately 12% of men will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Patients with intermediate, high risk, and very-high risk prostate cancer often undergo a combination of radiation treatments. These treatments include external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high-dose rate brachytherapy boost, often with concomitant androgen deprivation therapy. The literature on follow-up of patients that receive brachytherapy is scarce, particularly follow-up of patients that undergo high-dose rate brachytherapy. This retrospective study aims to investigate the biochemical failure and toxicities associated with triple therapy and external beam radiotherapy given in combination with brachytherapy. Reported toxicities and prostate specific antigen (PSA) were retrospectively evaluated in eighty patients that previously underwent external beam radiotherapy with a low-dose rate or high dose-rate brachytherapy boost. The severity of toxicities were correlated with intra-operative dosing during brachytherapy on ultrasound and CT scan. The results of this study will provide further information for clinicians and patients when considering treatment options.

Keywords: toxicities, combination, brachytherapy, intra-operative dosing, biochemical failure

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13 Microbiological Activity and Molecular Docking Study of Selected Steroid Derivatives of Biomedical Importance

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic, Marija Sakac, Katarina Penov Gasi

Abstract:

This study considered the microbiological activity determination and molecular docking study for selected steroid derivatives of biomedical importance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for steroid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus using macrodilution method. Some of the investigated steroid derivatives express bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking approaches are the most widely used techniques for predicting the binding mode of a ligand. Molecular docking study was done for steroid derivatives for androgen receptor negative prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) toward Human Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1. The molecules that had the smallest experimental IC50 values confirmed their ability to dock into active place using suitable molecular docking procedure. The binding disposition of those molecules was thoroughly investigated. Microbiological analysis and molecular docking study were conducted with aim to additionally characterize selected steroid derivatives for future investigation regarding their biological activity and to estimate the binding-affinities of investigated derivatives. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).

Keywords: binding affinity, minimal inhibitory concentration, molecular docking, pc-3 cell line, staphylococcus aureus, steroids

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12 Ameliorative Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Extracts on Testosterone Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

Authors: Alok Nahata

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Introduction: Nowadays, androgen-mediated diseases such as prostate cancer, hirsutism, acne, androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have become serious problems. The aim of the present study was to find out whether Ganoderma lucidum (GL) can be used as a clinically effective medicine for the management of prostatic hyperplasia. Methodology: In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of GL. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg p.o for a period of 28 days. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Major Findings: GL extracts attenuated the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) induced by testosterone. Most of the values were significant when compared to testosterone-treated group and finasteride treated groups. Petroleum ether extract (50 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited the best activity (P < 0.01). Ethanolic extract (20 and 50 mg/kg p.o.) also exhibited significant activity (P < 0.01). The urine output also improved significantly (P < 0.01 in all groups as compared to standard finasteride), which emphasize the clinical implications of the study. Testosterone levels measured weekly and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels measured at the end of the study also support the findings. Histological studies suggested improvement in prostatic histoarchitecture in extract-treated groups as compared to the testosterone-treated group. Conclusion: Study clearly reflects the utility of extracts in BPH. Because of conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the prostate size is increased, thereby causing obstruction in urinary output. The observed effect that extracts do not allow the increase as reflected by urinary output, P/BW ratios and histoarchitecture showed that activity of administered testosterone was blocked by the extract and resulted in recovery.

Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, Ganoderma lucidum, prostate-specific antigen, 5α-reductase, testosterone

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11 The Hair Growth Effects of Undariopsis peterseniana

Authors: Jung-Il Kang, Jeon Eon Park, Yu-Jin Moon, Young-Seok Ahn, Eun-Sook Yoo, Hee-Kyoung Kang

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Undariopsis peterseniana, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the growth of hair. The dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have known to regulate hair growth cycle and length of hair follicle through interact with epithelial cells. When immortalized vibrissa DPCs were treated with the U. peterseniana extract, the U. peterseniana extract significantly increased the proliferation of DPCs. The effect of U. peterseniana extract on the growth of vibrissa follicles was also examined. U. peterseniana extract significantly increased the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles. Hair loss is partly caused by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding to androgen receptor in hair follicles, and the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity can prevent hair loss through the decrease of DHT level. The U. peterseniana extract inhibited 5α-reductase activity. Minoxidil, a potent hair-growth agent, can induce proliferation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts by opening KATP channels. We thus examined the proliferative effects of U. peterseniana extract in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. U. peterseniana extract significantly increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a K+ channel blocker, inhibited U. peterseniana-induced proliferation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. These results suggest that U. peterseniana could have the potential to treat alopecia through the proliferation of DPCs, the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity and the opening of KATP channels. [Acknowledgement] This research was supported by The Leading Human Resource Training Program of Regional Neo industry through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning (2016H1D5A1908786).

Keywords: hair growth, Undariopsis peterseniana, vibrissa follicles, dermal papilla cells, 5α-reductase, KATP channels

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10 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A: Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub

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The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action. These results may reflect the estrogenic effects of BPA, which we hypothesize could be related, in part, to an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The induction of oxidative stress by BPA may play an additional role in testicular toxicity. These results suggest that BPA poses a threat to endocrine and reproductive functions.

Keywords: bisphenol A, oxidative stress, rabbits, semen quality, steroidogenesis

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9 The Difference of Menstrual Cycle Profile and Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Changes In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Healthy Women

Authors: Ning Li, Jiacheng Zhang, Zheng Yang, Sylvia Kang

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Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common physiological symptom in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods and excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Mira analyzes the cycle profiles and the luteinizing hormone (LH) changes in urine, closely related to the fertility level of healthy women and PCOS women. From the difference between the two groups, Mira helps to understand the physiological state of PCOS women and their hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle. Methods: In this study, data from 1496 cycles and information from 342 women belonging to two groups (181 PCOS and 161 Healthy) were collected and analyzed. Women test their luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine daily with Mira fertility test wand and Mira analyzer, from the day after the menstruation to the starting day of the next menstruation. All the collected data meets Mira’s user agreement and users’ identification was removed. The cycle length, LH peak, and other cycle information of the PCOS group were compared with the Healthy group. Results: The average cycle length of PCOS women is 41 days and of the Healthy women is 33 days. 91.4% of cycle length is within 40 days for the Healthy group, while it decreases to 71.9% for the PCOS group. This means PCOS women have a longer menstrual cycle and more variation during the cycle. With more variation, the ovulation prediction becomes more difficult for the PCOS group. The deviation between the LH surge day and the predicted ovulation day, calculated by the starting day of the next menstruation minus 14 days, is greater in the PCOS group compared with the Healthy group. Also, 46.96% of PCOS women have an irregular cycle, and only 19.25% of healthy women show an irregular cycle. Conclusion: PCOS women have longer menstrual cycles and more variation during the menstrual cycles. The traditional ovulation prediction is not suitable for PCOS women.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, PCOS, urinary luteinizing hormone, Mira

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8 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas

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In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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7 Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance

Authors: Xin Li, Yan-Rong Guo, Jin-Fang Lin, Yi Feng, Håkan Billig, Ruijin Shao

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Background: Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. There is a need for the development of new medical therapies that can reduce the need for surgical intervention so as to preserve the fertility of these patients. The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin. Methods: Five PCOS-IR women who were scheduled for diagnosis and therapy for early endometrial carcinoma were recruited. The hospital records and endometrial pathology reports were reviewed. All patients were co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin for 6 months to reverse the endometrial carcinoma and preserve their fertility. Before, during, and after treatment, endometrial biopsies and blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Endometrial pathology was evaluated. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin area under curve (IAUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. Results: Clinical stage 1a, low grade endometrial carcinoma was confirmed before treatment. After 6 months of co-treatment, all patients showed normal epithelia. No evidence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma was found. Co-treatment resulted in significant decreases in BW, BMI, TT, FAI, IAUC, and HOMA-IR in parallel with a significant increase in SHBG. There were no differences in the FSH and LH levels after co-treatment. Conclusions: Combined treatment with Diane-35 and metformin has the potential to revert the endometrial carcinoma into normal endometrial cells in PCOS-IR women. The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this effect merit further investigation.

Keywords: PCOS, progesterone resistance, insulin resistance, steroid hormone receptors, endometrial carcinoma

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6 The Relationship of Aromatase Activity and Being Very Overweight in East Indian Women with or Without Polycystic Ovary Disease

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty, Rimi Pal, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Joyshree Chaterjee, Amal Mallik

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Background: Women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances. PCOD is a common ovulatory disorder in young women, which affects 5-10% of the population and results in infertility due to anovulation. Importantly, aromatase in ovarian granulosa and luteinized granulosa cells plays an important role for women of reproductive age. Generation and metabolism of androgen is directly related to aromatase activity. The E2/T ratio provides important information about aromatase activity because conversion of androgens to estrogens is mediated by CYP19, suggesting that the E2/T ratio may be a direct marker of aromatase activity. The nature of the interaction between ovarian aromatase activity and PCOD in women has been controversial, and the impact of weight gain on aromatase activity as well as E2 levels is unknown. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the association and relation between aromatase activity and levels of body mass index (BMI) from a reproductive hormone perspective in a group of women with or without PCOD. Methods: We designed a cohort study which included 200 individuals. It enrolled 100 cases of PCOD based on 2006 Rotterdam criteria and 100 ovulatory normal- non PCOD, healthy, age-matched controls. Plasma sex hormones viz. estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by ELISA on the second day of the menstrual cycle, together with BMI and E2/T were calculated. Aromatase activity in PCOD patients with different BMI, T and E2 levels were compared. Results: PCOD patients showed significantly increased levels of BMI, E2 (P=0.004), T and LH, while their E2/T (P= <0.001), FSH and FSH/LH values were decreased compared with the control group. Higher E2 levels correlated with a relatively enhanced E2/T as well as T and LH levels but reduced BMI, FSH and FSH/LH levels in women with PCOD. Hyperandrogenic PCOD patients had increased E2 levels but their aromatase activity was markedly inhibited independent of their BMI values. Conclusions: We found a significant decrease of ovarian aromatase activity in women with PCOD as compared to controls. Our study showed that ovarian aromatase activity in PCOD was decreased which was independent of BMI. Enhancing aromatase activity may become an optimized strategy for developing therapies for PCOD women, especially those with obesity.

Keywords: aromatase activity, polycystic ovary disease, obesity, body mass index

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5 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra

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5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ligands, molecular docking, QSAR

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4 The Levels of Neurosteroid 7β-Hydroxy-Epiandrosterone in Men and Pregnant Women

Authors: J. Vitku, L. Kolatorova, T. Chlupacova, J. Heracek, M. Hill, M. Duskova, L. Starka

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Background: 7β-hydroxy-epiandrosterone (7β–OH-EpiA) is an endogenous steroid, that has been shown to exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro as well as in animal models. However, to the best of our knowledge no information is available about concentration of this androgen metabolite in human population. The aim of the study was to measure and compare levels of 7β–OH-EpiA in men and pregnant women in different biological fluids and evaluate the relationship between 7β–OH-EpiA in men and their sperm quality. Methods: First, a sensitive isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for measurement of 7β–OH-EpiA in different biological fluids was developed. Validation of the method met the requirements of FDA guidelines. Afterwards 7β–OH-EpiA in plasma and seminal plasma of 191 men with different degree of infertility (healthy men, lightly infertile men, moderately infertile men, severely infertile men) was analysed. Furthermore, the levels of 7β–OH-EpiA in plasma of 34 pregnant women in 37th week of gestation and corresponding cord plasma that reflects steroid levels in the fetus were measured. Results: Concentrations of 7β–OH-EpiA in seminal plasma were significantly higher in severely infertile men in comparison with healthy men and lightly infertile men. The same trend was observed when blood plasma was evaluated. Furthermore, plasmatic 7β –OH-EpiA negatively correlated with concentration (-0.215; p < 0.01) and total count (-0.15; p < 0.05). Seminal 7β–OH-EpiA was negatively associated with motility (-0.26; p < 0.01), progressively motile sperms (-0.233; p < 0.01) and nonprogressively motile sperms (-0.188; p < 0.05). Plasmatic 7β –OH-EpiA levels in men were generally higher in comparison with pregnant women. Levels 7β–OH-EpiA were under the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) in majority of samples of pregnant women and cord plasma. Only 4 plasma samples of pregnant women and 7 cord blood plasma samples were above LLOQ and where in range of units of pg/ml. Conclusion: Based on available information, this is the first study measuring 7β–OH-EpiA in human samples. 7β–OH-EpiA is associated with lower sperm quality and certainly it is worth to explore its role in this field thoroughly. Interestingly, levels of 7β–OH-EpiA in pregnant women were extremely low despite the fact that steroid levels including androgens are generally higher during pregnancy. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project MH CR 17-30528 A from the Czech Health Research Council, MH CZ - DRO (Institute of Endocrinology - EU, 00023761) and by the MEYS CR (OP RDE, Excellent research - ENDO.CZ).

Keywords: 7β-hydroxy-epiandrosterone, steroid, sperm quality, pregnancy

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3 Synthesis of Functionalized-2-Aryl-2, 3-Dihydroquinoline-4(1H)-Ones via Fries Rearrangement of Azetidin-2-Ones

Authors: Parvesh Singh, Vipan Kumar, Vishu Mehra

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Quinoline-4-ones represent an important class of heterocyclic scaffolds that have attracted significant interest due to their various biological and pharmacological activities. This heterocyclic unit also constitutes an integral component in drugs used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders and in antibiotics viz. norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The synthetic accessibility and possibility of fictionalization at varied positions in quinoline-4-ones exemplifies an elegant platform for the designing of combinatorial libraries of functionally enriched scaffolds with a range of pharmacological profles. They are also considered to be attractive precursors for the synthesis of medicinally imperative molecules such as non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists, antimalarial drug Chloroquine and martinellines with antibacterial activity. 2-Aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones are present in many natural and non-natural compounds and are considered to be the aza-analogs of favanones. The β-lactam class of antibiotics is generally recognized to be a cornerstone of human health care due to the unparalleled clinical efficacy and safety of this type of antibacterial compound. In addition to their biological relevance as potential antibiotics, β-lactams have also acquired a prominent place in organic chemistry as synthons and provide highly efficient routes to a variety of non-protein amino acids, such as oligopeptides, peptidomimetics, nitrogen-heterocycles, as well as biologically active natural and unnatural products of medicinal interest such as indolizidine alkaloids, paclitaxel, docetaxel, taxoids, cyptophycins, lankacidins, etc. A straight forward route toward the synthesis of quinoline-4-ones via the triflic acid assisted Fries rearrangement of N-aryl-βlactams has been reported by Tepe and co-workers. The ring expansion observed in this case was solely attributed to the inherent ring strain in β-lactam ring because -lactam failed to undergo rearrangement under reaction conditions. Theabovementioned protocol has been recently extended by our group for the synthesis of benzo[b]-azocinon-6-ones via a tandem Michael addition–Fries rearrangement of sorbyl anilides as well as for the single-pot synthesis of 2-aryl-quinolin-4(3H)-ones through the Fries rearrangement of 3-dienyl-βlactams. In continuation with our synthetic endeavours with the β-lactam ring and in view of the lack of convenient approaches for the synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones, the present work describes the single-pot synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones via the trific acid promoted Fries rearrangement of C-3 vinyl/isopropenyl substituted β-lactams. In addition, DFT calculations and MD simulations were performed to investigate the stability profles of synthetic compounds.

Keywords: dihydroquinoline, fries rearrangement, azetidin-2-ones, quinoline-4-ones

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