Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: PCOS

21 Carriage of 675 4G/5G Polymorphism in PAI-1 Gene and Its Association with Early Pregnancy Losses in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: R. Komsa-Penkova, G. Golemanov, G. Georgieva, K. Popovski, N. Slavov, P. Ivanov, K. Kovacheva, S. Rathee, E. Konova, A. Blajev

Abstract:

Leptin and PAI-1 are important cytokines and may play a role in the regulation of PCOS development. PCOS is frequently associated with obesity, high BMI index and consequently with increased risk of metabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate PAI-1 levels, genetic influence of the carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism in PAI-1 gene and leptin as a marker of obesity in the development of PCOS. Methods: Genotyping in 84 patients with PCOS and PCO and 100 healthy control subjects to detect single nucleotide deletion 675 G in the promoter of PAI-1 gene. The present study provides evidence that SNP 4G in the PAI-1 gene is associated with early pregnancy losses in patients with polycystosis. Further to this, there is a correlation between leptin levels, PAI-1 levels and BMI in the patients with PCOS, which confirms the role of obesity as a risk factor for PCOS.

Keywords: carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism, PCOS, early pregnancy losses, PAI-1 gene

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20 The Difference of Menstrual Cycle Profile and Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Changes In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Healthy Women

Authors: Ning Li, Jiacheng Zhang, Zheng Yang, Sylvia Kang

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common physiological symptom in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods and excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Mira analyzes the cycle profiles and the luteinizing hormone (LH) changes in urine, closely related to the fertility level of healthy women and PCOS women. From the difference between the two groups, Mira helps to understand the physiological state of PCOS women and their hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle. Methods: In this study, data from 1496 cycles and information from 342 women belonging to two groups (181 PCOS and 161 Healthy) were collected and analyzed. Women test their luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine daily with Mira fertility test wand and Mira analyzer, from the day after the menstruation to the starting day of the next menstruation. All the collected data meets Mira’s user agreement and users’ identification was removed. The cycle length, LH peak, and other cycle information of the PCOS group were compared with the Healthy group. Results: The average cycle length of PCOS women is 41 days and of the Healthy women is 33 days. 91.4% of cycle length is within 40 days for the Healthy group, while it decreases to 71.9% for the PCOS group. This means PCOS women have a longer menstrual cycle and more variation during the cycle. With more variation, the ovulation prediction becomes more difficult for the PCOS group. The deviation between the LH surge day and the predicted ovulation day, calculated by the starting day of the next menstruation minus 14 days, is greater in the PCOS group compared with the Healthy group. Also, 46.96% of PCOS women have an irregular cycle, and only 19.25% of healthy women show an irregular cycle. Conclusion: PCOS women have longer menstrual cycles and more variation during the menstrual cycles. The traditional ovulation prediction is not suitable for PCOS women.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, PCOS, urinary luteinizing hormone, Mira

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19 Genetic Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Levels in East Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

Abstract:

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in young women of reproductive age. Low vitamin D levels were found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Variants on vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have also been related to metabolic comorbidities in general population. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether the VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to PCOS. Methods: Women with PCOS and a control group, all aged 16-40 years, were enrolled. Genotyping of VDR Fok-I (rs2228570), VDR Apa-I (rs7975232) as well as GC (rs2282679), DHCR7 (rs12785878) SNPs between groups were determined by using direct sequencing. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)] levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D in the PCOS and control samples were 19.08±7 and 23.27±6.03 (p=0.048) which were significantly lower in PCOS patients compared with controls. CC genotype of the VDR Apa-I SNP was same frequent in PCOS (25.6%) and controls (25.6%) (OR: 0.9995; 95%CI: 0.528 to 1.8921; p= 0.9987). The CC genotype was also significantly associated with both lower E2 (p=0.031) and Androstenedione levels (p=0.062). We observed a significant association of GC polymorphism with 25(OH)D levels. PCOS women carrying the GG genotype (in GC genes) had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than women carrying the TT genotype. Conclusions: In conclusion, data from this study indicate that vitamin D levels are lower, and vitamin D deficiency more frequent, in PCOS than in controls. The present findings suggest that the Apa-I, Fok-I polymorphism of the VDR gene is associated with PCOS and seems to modulate ovarian steroid secretion. Further studies are needed to better clarify the biological mechanisms by which the polymorphism influences PCOS risk.

Keywords: vitamin D receptor, polymorphism, vitamin D, polycystic ovary syndrome

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18 The Relationships between AntimüLlerian Hormone, Androgens and Ovarian Reserve in Non-Obese East Indian Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty, Rimi Pal, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Joyshree Chaterjee, Amal Mallik

Abstract:

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease in reproductive women with a complex hormonal disturbance that affects the menstrual cycle and leads to metabolic consequences in later life. Hyperandrogenaemia is noticeable features of PCOS and influence the process of folliculogenesis in women. The levels of Antimüllerian Hormone (AMH) reflect the number of pre-antral follicles and thus are a marker of oocyte pool – germinal reserve of the ovary for reproduction. Besides its utilization in IVF (In-vitro fertilization), determination of AMH may serve as an additional marker in the diagnostics of PCOS, where increased AMH levels reflect the severity of the disease. The positive correlation of serum AMH with the number of antral follicles was found also in patients with PCOS. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between AMH androgens and whether AMH contributes to altered folliculogenesis in non-obese women with PCOS. Methods: We designed a prospective study which included a total of 65 IVF individuals. It enrolled 26 cases of PCOS based on 2003 Rotterdam criteria and 39 ovulatory normal- non PCOS, healthy, age-matched controls. AMH levels and ovarian morphology were assessed. The relationships between AMH and androgenaemia in patients with and without PCOS were studied. Results: Mean age of PCOS patients were slightly higher than controls (32±4 and 28±3 years, respectively). AMH generally increased with antral follicle count (AFC) [P=0.001], testosterone, and luteinising hormone, and decreased with age, and serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). No significant relationships were found between circulating AMH levels and BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS patients. The calculation of AMH production per antral follicle (AMH/AF) showed that there was a significant difference in median AMH/AF between PCOS and non-PCOS (P =0.001). Both PCOS and non-PCOS groups showed a very similar increase in AMH with increases in AFC, but the PCOS patients had consistently higher AMH across all AFC levels. Conclusions: These observations indicate that there is a connection between AMH and androgens levels between PCOS and non-PCOS East Indian women. Excessive granulosa cell activity may be implicated in the abnormal follicular dynamic of the syndrome. They are higher in women with PCOS and, on the other hand, very low in women with an ovarian failure.

Keywords: anti-Mullerian hormone, polycystic ovary syndrome, antral follicle count, androgens

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17 Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) as an Evolutionary Mismatch Disorder: An Argument for the Significance of Hyperandrogenism on Reproductive Fitness in Ancestral Populations

Authors: Courtney Manthey-Pierce, Anna Warrener

Abstract:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disruptive disorder in females. PCOS is primarily characterized by polycystic ovaries, anovulation, hirsutism, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism. Despite negative reproductive consequences for females from anovulation and endocrine dysfunction, genes associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS are highly hereditable (h2 = 0.72). An evolutionary mismatch occurs when a trait that evolved in one environment has become maladaptive in another environment. The idea that PCOS is an evolutionary mismatch disease has been promoted by several researchers. Each trait of the resulting PCOS phenotype should be investigated individually in order to demonstrate an evolutionary mismatch. Hyperandrogenism is often regarded as the main characteristic of PCOS Hyperandrogenism may have aided with conception in older females, increased bone mineral density, and supported prolonged breastfeeding in nutritionally distressed populations. Because of the high prevalence of PCOS in the modern world, approximately 6%, it is often argued that PCOS emerged in an ancestral population prior to the migration out of Africa approximately 200,000 years ago. This environment would be characterized by sporadic periods of nutrition deficit and resource hardships as the climate began changing. Presently, modern society is characterized by obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The prevalence of obesity renders hyperandrogenism PCOS useless as there are no periods of nutritional distress requiring androgens for increased reproductive rates. In an ancestral environment, hyperandrogenism would likely lead to sporadic anovulation and mild secondary symptoms, however high levels of androgens in a modern environment led to prolonged if not permanent infertility and excessive secondary problems. Thus, hyperandrogenism related to PCOS appears to meet evolutionary mismatch criteria. Seen in this light, PCOS may be effectively treated as a probably evolutionary mismatch.

Keywords: evolutionary mismatch, heritability, hyperandrogenism, mismatch disorder

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16 Association of Vitamin D Levels in Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in East Indian Populations

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in women. Hypovitaminsis D was found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Aim: To evaluate the association of vitamin D levels in obese and non-obese patients with PCOS in an East Indian populations. Methods: A case control study was conducted. It enrolled 100 cases of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria and 100 ovulatory normal cases matched for their age and BMI. Vitamin D levels were compared in the obese and non-obese PCOS groups and also with the controls. Results: The mean age of subjects was 29.48 ± 3.29 years in the PCOS group and 26.24 ± 2.56 years in the control group. Hypovitaminosis D was present in 75 out of 100 PCOS women (75.0%) and 25 women (25.0%) showed sufficient 25OHD levels ≥30 ng/ml. Women with PCOS had significantly lower total serum calcium (8.4 ± 0.25 mg/dl versus 9.8 ± 0.17 mg/dl in controls), and 25 OHD (21.2 ± 2.56 ng/ml versus 32.6 ± 2.23 ng/ml in control group) than ovulatory normal women. This difference remained significant for both groups after adjustment for BMI. Obese women in both groups had significantly lower concentration of calcium and 25OHD than normal weight patients in this study. Conclusion: Our study shows majority of the patients and controls had vitamin D deficiency and there was significant difference in the vitamin D levels in PCOS group and controls as well as obese and non-obese groups. This may reflect the vitamin D deficiency status of the community. Vitamin D deficiency should demands immediate attention as it is a severe problem among the East Indian population.

Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, obese, hypovitaminsis D

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15 Circadian Disruption in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Model Rats

Authors: Fangfang Wang, Fan Qu

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, is characterized by ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and reduced fecundity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the circadian disruption is involved in pathogenesis of PCOS in androgen-induced animal model. We established a rat model of PCOS using single subcutaneous injection with testosterone propionate on the ninth day after birth, and confirmed their PCOS-like phenotypes with vaginal smears, ovarian hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and serum androgen measurement. The control group rats received the vehicle only. Gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. (1) Compared with control group, PCOS model rats of 10-week group showed persistently keratinized vaginal cells, while all the control rats showed at least two consecutive estrous cycles. (2) Ovarian HE staining and histological examination showed that PCOS model rats of 10-week group presented many cystic follicles with decreased numbers of granulosa cells and corpora lutea in their ovaries, while the control rats had follicles with normal layers of granulosa cells at various stages of development and several generations of corpora lutea. (3) In the 10-week group, serum free androgen index was notably higher in PCOS model rats than controls. (4) Disturbed mRNA expression patterns of core clock genes were found in ovaries of PCOS model rats of 10-week group. Abnormal expression of key genes associated with circadian rhythm in ovary may be one of the mechanisms for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS model rats induced by androgen.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, androgen, animal model, circadian disruption

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14 Serum 25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 Level Estimation and Insulin Resistance in Women of 18-40 Years Age Group with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: Thakur Pushpawati, Singh Vinita, Agrawal Sarita, Mohapatra Eli

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disease of endocrine and frequently encountered in women in their reproductive period, and it is characterized by clinical features of anovulation, clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism, and PCOS morphology on ultrasonographic examination. In Indian scenario, only a few studies are available on the correlation of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 level and insulin level. The present study is a prospective case-control study and aims to estimate the concentration of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and insulin resistance and determine the association of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 with insulin resistance in PCOS women of 18-40 years age group. In this study, the primary objective is to estimate the concentration of 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, insulin, glycaemic status, calcium and phosphorus levels in 18-40 year age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and to compare these parameters with age and BMI matched healthy control of same age group women. The secondary objective is to determine the association between 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 concentration and insulin resistance among PCOS cases in 18-40 years age group women. This study was carried on at outpatient Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Aiims Raipur. It took one year from the date of approval. In case, 32 women were diagnosed (Diagnosed PCOS cases as per Rotterdoms criteria among women of 18-40 years of age), as control group 32 women of 18-40 years of age were diagnosed As a result, serum insulin level was elevated among PCOS women along with 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 deficiency.Conclude up, PCOS is more common in the age group of 20-40 years. There is a strong correlation between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance among PCOS patients.

Keywords: vitamin D, insulin resistance, PCOS, reproductive age group

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13 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Clinical Profile of Women Attending NPFDB Subfertility Clinic

Authors: Komathy Thiagarajan, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz, Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Abdul Wahaf Abdul Wahid

Abstract:

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) presents with a plethora of clinical features owing to the multifaceted underlying pathophysiology. This study was conducted to determine the clinical features unique to the sub fertile women attending the Sub fertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) so that a more holistic approach can be adopted to further enhance the pregnancy outcome in those women. This was a case-control study conducted over a span of three years (from January 2014 until December 2016), whereby women who fulfilled the Rotterdam Criteria 2004 were classified as PCOS (n=79) and women who did not fulfill the Rotterdam Criteria were classified as controls (n=88). The mean age of the women was 30.1 years and the mean duration of marriage was 3.93 years. The majority of women suffered from primary sub fertility (82.6%). The median age was lower among PCOS women (29.0 years) compared to the controls (30.0 years), p<0.05. The majority of PCOS women (43.0%) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) compared to only 19.3% who were obese in the control group, p<0.05. Hypertension was present in 59.5% of PCOS women and only in 36.4% of the control group, p<0.05. There were significantly more women who presented with hirsutism in PCOS group (27.8%) as compared to the control group (5.7%), p<0.05. The findings of this study elucidate that the clinical features of significance among sub fertile women suffering from PCOS, if detected early, are amenable to lifestyle modifications and timely interventions can potentially improve the fertility outcomes in this group of women.

Keywords: clinical features, fertility, lifestyle modification, PCOS

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12 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Cervical Cytology Features and Its Association with Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Komathy Thiagarajan, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome has been associated with multiple disorders such as endocrine disorder, metabolic syndrome, infertility, and endometrial cancer. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are anticipated to develop three times more chances for endometrial cancer than women without PCOS. This study, therefore, was conducted to determine the association between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer and to determine the cervical cytology features of PCOS. Patients attending the Subfertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board were recruited and examined physically by medical practitioners. They were categorized into two groups; i) the PCOS group if they met Rotterdam Criteria 2004 and ii) the control group if they did not meet Rotterdam Criteria 2004. Cervical sampling was done on all patients via the Liquid-Based Cytology (LBC) method in the pre-and post-subfertility treatment. A total of 167 patients participated in the study, of which 79 belonged to the PCOS group and 88 to the control group. The findings showed no cervical and endometrial cancer cases in both groups. The Liquid-Based Cytology results in the PCOS group displayed more cases with cellular changes, i.e., benign inflammation, atrophic smear and Candida sp. infection. To conclude, no association was found between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer. A more holistic study with a higher number of participants can further determine the association between endometrial cancer and PCOS. Furthermore, a longer duration between LBC pre- and post-subfertility treatment should be implied to observe changes in the cervical cells.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, liquid-based cytology, PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome

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11 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility

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10 Assessment of Health Literacy and Awareness of Female Residents of Barangay Dagatan, Sabang, and Marauoy Lipa, Batangas on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Jean Gray C. Achapero, Mary Margareth P. Ancheta, Patricia Anjelika A. Angeles, Shannon Denzel S. Ao Tai, Carl Brandon C. Barlis, Chrislen Mae B. Benavidez

Abstract:

Health literacy and awareness of Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a global issue that is under-addressed in the Philippines. Conducting a thorough review of the country's ability to recognize and comprehend the severity of the syndrome should be undertaken, as early treatment is essential to avoid further disorder complications. This research aims to assess the health literacy and awareness of the female residents of Barangay Dagatan, Sabang, and Marauoy Lipa, Batangas on PCOS. It followed a cross-sectional study, and data gathering was done through a pre-assessment using the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) and an online population-based survey questionnaire about PCOS awareness. The participants, as based on the objectives and purposive sampling method, were females aged 18-45 years old. Data were analyzed statistically using STATA 13.1 software. The study showed that 339 (76%) out of 444 respondents passed the SILS meaning the residents have proficient health literacy. Among the 339 respondents, 87% (287) had previous knowledge about PCOS. The respondents showed minimal awareness of PCOS symptoms which could be attributed to its broad spectrum of information. Respondents were shown to be most knowledgeable about PCOS physiology, treatment, beliefs, and its remedies. The respondents’ age had no significant association with their health literacy (p=0.31) and PCOS awareness (p=0.60). A significant association was noted, however, in their educational attainment linked with their health literacy (p=<0.0001) and PCOS awareness (p=0.001). It is suggested that reproductive health education even in the lower year levels must be optimized and Local Government Unit (LGU)/Non-Government Organization (NGO)-held seminars should be conducted for knowledge reinforcement. Reliable health information should be more accessible to the public and clinicians must emphasize the importance of the majority of early screening as part of routine physical examination for women of reproductive age to increase health literacy and awareness about PCOS and actively engage in the management of the disease.

Keywords: age, awareness, educational attainment, health literacy, polycystic ovarian syndrome

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9 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

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8 Vitamin D Supplementation Potentiates the Clinical Benefits of Metformin and Pioglitazone in Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Mohd Asharf Ganie, Aafia Rashid, Mohd Afzal Zargar, Showkat Ali Zargar, Syed Mudasar, Tabasum Parvaiz, Zafar Amin Shah

Abstract:

Accumulating evidence suggests that Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) might at least contribute to the metabolic co-morbidities in PCOS. Hence, we aimed to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in co-prescription with insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. In this open label randomized, controlled trial a total of 120 women with PCOS diagnosis (AE-PCOS 2009 Criteria) were assigned to four treatment groups (n= 30 in each): group I (metformin 1 gm/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group II (pioglitazone 30 mg/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group III (metformin 1 gm /day) and group IV (pioglitazone 30 mg/day). Vitamin D supplementation was given as 60,000 units every two weeks for 24 weeks. All the subjects were routinely evaluated for clinical, biochemical, hormonal and insulin sensitivity parameters in addition to various safety parameters especially serum calcium levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of the treatment. Our results indicate that 95.5% of PCOS women were vitamin D deficient at baseline. Serum 25 (OH) D levels increased significantly (p < 0.001) in groups I and II without any adverse effects after 24 weeks of oral administration of 4000 IU cholecalciferol daily. However, serum 25 (OH) D levels remained unchanged in group III and IV. By six months, number of menstrual cycles per year increased whereas Ferriman-Gallwey score, serum total testosterone and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with cholecalciferol as compared to those treated either drug alone. No significant beneficial changes were observed on weight, BMI, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and serum lipids in any of the groups supplemented with cholecalciferol. We conclude that daily dose of 4000 IU cholecalciferol might be a useful adjunct in complex treatment of PCOS with fewer adverse events. Furthermore, pioglitazone and cholecalciferol combination seems to be marginally better although there was no statistical significance.

Keywords: PCOS, vitamin D supplementation, insulin resistance, spironolactone, metformin, pioglitazone

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7 Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Nahla Al-Bayyari, Rae’d Hailat

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Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anthropometric, overweight, polycystic ovary syndrome, vitamin D₃

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6 Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance

Authors: Xin Li, Yan-Rong Guo, Jin-Fang Lin, Yi Feng, Håkan Billig, Ruijin Shao

Abstract:

Background: Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. There is a need for the development of new medical therapies that can reduce the need for surgical intervention so as to preserve the fertility of these patients. The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin. Methods: Five PCOS-IR women who were scheduled for diagnosis and therapy for early endometrial carcinoma were recruited. The hospital records and endometrial pathology reports were reviewed. All patients were co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin for 6 months to reverse the endometrial carcinoma and preserve their fertility. Before, during, and after treatment, endometrial biopsies and blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Endometrial pathology was evaluated. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin area under curve (IAUC), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. Results: Clinical stage 1a, low grade endometrial carcinoma was confirmed before treatment. After 6 months of co-treatment, all patients showed normal epithelia. No evidence of atypical hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma was found. Co-treatment resulted in significant decreases in BW, BMI, TT, FAI, IAUC, and HOMA-IR in parallel with a significant increase in SHBG. There were no differences in the FSH and LH levels after co-treatment. Conclusions: Combined treatment with Diane-35 and metformin has the potential to revert the endometrial carcinoma into normal endometrial cells in PCOS-IR women. The cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this effect merit further investigation.

Keywords: PCOS, progesterone resistance, insulin resistance, steroid hormone receptors, endometrial carcinoma

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5 Aberrant Acetylation/Methylation of Homeobox (HOX) Family Genes in Cumulus Cells of Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Authors: P. Asiabi, M. Shahhoseini, R. Favaedi, F. Hassani, N. Nassiri, B. Movaghar, L. Karimian, P. Eftekhariyazdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common gynecologic disorder. Many factors including environment, metabolism, hormones and genetics are involved in etiopathogenesis of PCOS. Of genes that have altered expression in human reproductive system disorders are HOX family genes which act as transcription factors in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration. Since recent evidences consider epigenetic factors as causative mechanisms of PCOS, evaluation of association between known epigenetic marks of acetylation/methylation of histone 3 (H3K9ac/me) with regulatory regions of these genes can represent better insight about PCOS. In the current study, cumulus cells (CCs) which have critical roles during folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and fertilization were aimed to monitor epigenetic alterations of HOX genes. Material and methods: CCs were collected from 20 PCOS patients and 20 fertile women (18-36 year) with male infertility problems referred to the Royan Institute to have ICSI under GnRH antagonist protocol. Informed consents were obtained from the participants. Thirty six hours after hCG injection, ovaries were punctured and cumulus oocyte complexes were dissected. Soluble chromatin were extracted from CCs and Chromatin Immune precipitation (ChIP) coupled with Real Time PCR was performed to quantify the epigenetic marks of histone H3K9 acetylation/methylation (H3K9ac/me) on regulatory regions of 15 members of HOX genes from A-D subfamily. Results: Obtained data showed significant increase of H3K9ac epigenetic mark on regulatory regions of HOXA1, HOXB2, HOXC4, HOXD1, HOXD3 and HOXD4 (P < 0.01) and HOXC5 (P < 0.05) and also significant decrease of H3K9ac into regulatory regions of HOXA2, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXB1 and HOXB5 (P < 0.01) and HOXB3 (P<0.05) in PCOS patients vs. control group. On the other side, there was a significant decrease in incorporation of H3K9me level on regulatory region of HOXA2, HOXA3, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXB3 and HOXC4 (P≤0.01) and HOXB5 (P < 0.05) in PCOS patients vs. control group. This epigenetic mark (H3K9me2) has significant increase on regulatory region of HOXB1, HOXB2, HOXC5, HOXD1, HOXD3 and HOXD4 (P ≤ 0.01) and HOXB4 (P < 0.05) in patients vs. control group. There were no significant changes in acetylation/methylation levels of H3K9 on regulatory regions of the other studied genes. Conclusion: Current study suggests that epigenetic alterations of HOX genes can be correlated with PCOS and consequently female infertility. This finding might offer additional definitions of PCOS, and eventually provides insight for novel treatments with epidrugs for this disease.

Keywords: epigenetic, HOX genes, PCOS, female infertility

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4 Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata with a Structured Exercise Program in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: D. Maryama AG. Daud, Zuliana Bacho, Stephanie Chok, DG. Mashitah PG. Baharuddin, Mohd Hatta Tarmizi, Nathira Abdul Majeed, Helen Lasimbang

Abstract:

Lifestyle, physical activity, food intake, genetics and medication are contributing factors for people getting obese. Which in some of the obese people were a low or non-responder to exercise. And obesity is very common clinical feature in women affected by Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Labisia pumila var. alata (LP) is a local herb which had been widely used by Malay women in treating menstrual irregularities, painful menstruation and postpartum well-being. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of LP with a structured exercise program on anthropometric, body composition and physical fitness performance of PCOS patients. By using a single blind and parallel study design, where by subjects were assigned into a 16-wk structured exercise program (3 times a week) interventions; (LP and exercise; LPE, and exercise only; E). All subjects in the LPE group were prescribed 200mg LP; once a day, for 16 weeks. The training heart rate (HR) was monitored based on a percentage of the maximum HR (HRmax) achieved during submaximal exercise test that was conducted at wk-0 and wk-8. The progression of aerobic exercise intensity from 25–30 min at 60 – 65% HRmax during the first week to 45 min at 75–80% HRmax by the end of this study. Anthropometric (body weight, Wt; waist circumference, WC; and hip circumference, HC), body composition (fat mass, FM; percentage body fat, %BF; Fat Free Mass, FFM) and physical fitness performance (push up to failure, PU; 1-minute Sit Up, SU; and aerobic step test, PVO2max) were measured at wk-0, wk-4, wk-8, wk-12, and wk-16. This study found that LP does not have a significant effect on body composition, anthropometric and physical fitness performance of PCOS patients underwent a structured exercise program. It means LP does not improve exercise responses of PCOS patients towards anthropometric, body composition and physical fitness performance. The overall data shows exercise responses of PCOS patients is by increasing their aerobic endurance and muscle endurance performances, there is a significant reduction in FM, PBF, HC, and Wt significantly. Therefore, exercise program for PCOS patients have to focus on aerobic fitness, and muscle endurance.

Keywords: polycystic ovarian syndrome, Labisia pumila var. alata, body composition, aerobic endurance, muscle endurance, anthropometric

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3 Healthcare Utilization and Costs of Specific Obesity Related Health Conditions in Alberta, Canada

Authors: Sonia Butalia, Huong Luu, Alexis Guigue, Karen J. B. Martins, Khanh Vu, Scott W. Klarenbach

Abstract:

Obesity-related health conditions impose a substantial economic burden on payers due to increased healthcare use. Estimates of healthcare resource use and costs associated with obesity-related comorbidities are needed to inform policies and interventions targeting these conditions. Methods: Adults living with obesity were identified (a procedure-related body mass index code for class 2/3 obesity between 2012 and 2019 in Alberta, Canada; excluding those with bariatric surgery), and outcomes were compared over 1-year (2019/2020) between those who had and did not have specific obesity-related comorbidities. The probability of using a healthcare service (based on the odds ratio of a zero [OR-zero] cost) was compared; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Logistic regression and a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution were used for total healthcare cost comparisons ($CDN); cost ratios and estimated cost differences (95% CI) were reported. Potential socio-demographic and clinical confounders were adjusted for, and incremental cost differences were representative of a referent case. Results: A total of 220,190 adults living with obesity were included; 44% had hypertension, 25% had osteoarthritis, 24% had type-2 diabetes, 17% had cardiovascular disease, 12% had insulin resistance, 9% had chronic back pain, and 4% of females had polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The probability of hospitalization, ED visit, and ambulatory care was higher in those with a following obesity-related comorbidity versus those without: chronic back pain (hospitalization: 1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.57 [0.55/0.59]] / ED visit: 1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.54 [0.53/0.56]] / ambulatory care visit: 2.4-times [OR-zero: 0.41 [0.40/0.43]]), cardiovascular disease (2.7-times [OR-zero: 0.37 [0.36/0.38]] / 1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.52 [0.51/0.53]] / 2.8-times [OR-zero: 0.36 [0.35/0.36]]), osteoarthritis (2.0-times [OR-zero: 0.51 [0.50/0.53]] / 1.4-times [OR-zero: 0.74 [0.73/0.76]] / 2.5-times [OR-zero: 0.40 [0.40/0.41]]), type-2 diabetes (1.9-times [OR-zero: 0.54 [0.52/0.55]] / 1.4-times [OR-zero: 0.72 [0.70/0.73]] / 2.1-times [OR-zero: 0.47 [0.46/0.47]]), hypertension (1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.56 [0.54/0.57]] / 1.3-times [OR-zero: 0.79 [0.77/0.80]] / 2.2-times [OR-zero: 0.46 [0.45/0.47]]), PCOS (not significant / 1.2-times [OR-zero: 0.83 [0.79/0.88]] / not significant), and insulin resistance (1.1-times [OR-zero: 0.88 [0.84/0.91]] / 1.1-times [OR-zero: 0.92 [0.89/0.94]] / 1.8-times [OR-zero: 0.56 [0.54/0.57]]). After fully adjusting for potential confounders, the total healthcare cost ratio was higher in those with a following obesity-related comorbidity versus those without: chronic back pain (1.54-times [1.51/1.56]), cardiovascular disease (1.45-times [1.43/1.47]), osteoarthritis (1.36-times [1.35/1.38]), type-2 diabetes (1.30-times [1.28/1.31]), hypertension (1.27-times [1.26/1.28]), PCOS (1.08-times [1.05/1.11]), and insulin resistance (1.03-times [1.01/1.04]). Conclusions: Adults with obesity who have specific disease-related health conditions have a higher probability of healthcare use and incur greater costs than those without specific comorbidities; incremental costs are larger when other obesity-related health conditions are not adjusted for. In a specific referent case, hypertension was costliest (44% had this condition with an additional annual cost of $715 [$678/$753]). If these findings hold for the Canadian population, hypertension in persons with obesity represents an estimated additional annual healthcare cost of $2.5 billion among adults living with obesity (based on an adult obesity rate of 26%). Results of this study can inform decision making on investment in interventions that are effective in treating obesity and its complications.

Keywords: administrative data, healthcare cost, obesity-related comorbidities, real world evidence

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2 The Use of Metformin in Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Glucose Control in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) at Tripoli Medical Center

Authors: Ebtisam A. Benomran, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Malak S. Elazarg, M. Sultan, Layla M. Kafu, Arwa M. Matoug, Esra E. Benamara

Abstract:

Normal pregnancy is associated with metabolic changes leading to decreased insulin sensitivity and reduced glucose tolerance, however, 3-5% of pregnant women proceed to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Researcher studied the use of metformin in many fields and the benefit to risk balance of using metformin during pregnancy and the risk of fetotoxic. In this study we examined the use of Metformin to control Glucose in pregnant Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and evaluate its safety use during the first trimester of pregnancy.A group of pregnant patients with gestational diabetes mellitus from the first trimester of pregnancy, non smoking with no family history of congenital malformation disease, aged between (20-45 years) and have no liver diseases and who had indicating good compliance at more than one visit over several month until delivery put on Metformin were participated in this trial. Our study shown that all the studied group of pregnant women using metformin 500 mg daily delivered a healthy babies. Meta-analysis by mother risk program showed no increase in incidence of malformations by use Metformin during the first trimester of pregnancy. A hundred outpatients were participated in the survey on the general knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients to their illness and medication used their aged between 20-40 years old. In this survey we realize that 90% of the doctors are not giving the patient full information about their illness and the use of metformin during pregnancy, also about 65% of the patients did not know about the nutritionist in the hospital and the right control diet for diabetes. Courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, malformations, metformin, pregnancy

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1 Role of Toll Like Receptor-2 in Female Genital Tuberculosis Disease Infection and Its Severity

Authors: Swati Gautam, Salman Akhtar, S. P. Jaiswar, Amita Jain

Abstract:

Background: FGTB is now a major global health problem mostly in developing countries including India. In humans, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.tb) is a causating agent of infection. High index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis due to asymptomatic presentation of FGTB disease. In macrophages Toll Like Receptor-2 (TLR-2) is one which mediated host’s immune response to M.tb. The expression of TLR-2 on macrophages is important to determine the fate of innate immune responses to M.tb. TLR-2 have two work. First its high expression on macrophages worsen the outer of infection and another side, it maintains M.tb to its dormant stage avoids activation of M.tb from latent phase. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) of TLR-2 gene plays an important role in susceptibility to TB among different populations and subsequently, in the development of infertility. Methodology: This Case-Control study was done in the Department of Obs and Gynae and Department of Microbiology at King George’s Medical University, U.P, Lucknow, India. Total 300 subjects (150 Cases and 150 Controls) were enrolled in the study. All subjects were enrolled only after fulfilling the given inclusion and exclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria: Age 20-35 years, menstrual-irregularities, positive on Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB), TB-PCR, (LJ/MGIT) culture in Endometrial Aspiration (EA). Exclusion criteria: Koch’s active, on ATT, PCOS, and Endometriosis fibroid women, positive on Gonococal and Chlamydia. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes from cases and healthy control women (HCW) and genomic DNA extraction was carried out by salting-out method. Genotyping of TLR2 genetic variants (Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp) were performed by using single amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR technique. PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 1.2% agarose gel and visualized by gel-doc. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS 16.3 software and computing odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Linkage Disequiliribium (LD) analysis was done by SNP stats online software. Results: In TLR-2 (Arg753Gln) polymorphism significant risk of FGTB observed with GG homozygous mutant genotype (OR=13, CI=0.71-237.7, p=0.05), AG heterozygous mutant genotype (OR=13.7, CI=0.76-248.06, p=0.03) however, G allele (OR=1.09, CI=0.78-1.52, p=0.67) individually was not associated with FGTB. In TLR-2 (Arg677Trp) polymorphism a significant risk of FGTB observed with TT homozygous mutant genotype (OR= 0.020, CI=0.001-0.341, p < 0.001), CT heterozygous mutant genotype (OR=0.53, CI=0.33-0.86, p=0.014) and T allele (OR=0.463, CI=0.32-0.66, p < 0.001). TT mutant genotype was only found in FGTB cases and frequency of CT heterozygous more in control group as compared to FGTB group. So, CT genotype worked as protective mutation for FGTB susceptibility group. In haplotype analysis of TLR-2 genetic variants, four possible combinations, i.e. (G-T, A-C, G-C, and A-T) were obtained. The frequency of haplotype A-C was significantly higher in FGTB cases (0.32). Control group did not show A-C haplotype and only found in FGTB cases. Conclusion: In conclusion, study showed a significant association with both genetic variants of TLR-2 of FGTB disease. Moreover, the presence of specific associated genotype/alleles suggest the possibility of disease severity and clinical approach aimed to prevent extensive damage by disease and also helpful for early detection of disease.

Keywords: ARMS, EDTA, FGTB, TLR

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