Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: steroidogenesis

7 Origanum vulgare as a Possible Modulator of Testicular Endocrine Function in Mice

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Barbora Babečková, Michal Ďuračka, Róbert Kirchner, Július Árvay

Abstract:

This study was designed to assess the in vitro effects of Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) extract on the testicular steroidogenesis. We focused on identifying major biomolecules present in the oregano extract, as well as to investigate its in vitro impact on the secretion of cholesterol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione by murine testicular fragments. The extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which identified cyranosid, daidzein, thymol, rosmarinic and trans-caffeic acid among the predominant biochemical components of oregano. For the in vitro experiments, testicular fragments from 20 sexually mature Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were incubated in the absence (control group) or presence of the oregano extract at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cholesterol levels were quantified using photometry and the hormones were assessed by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Our data revealed that the release of cholesterol and androstenedione (but not dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone) by the testicular fragments was significantly impacted by the oregano extract in a dose-dependent fashion. Supplementation of the extract resulted in a significant decline of cholesterol (P < 0.05 in case of 100 μg/mL; P < 0.01 with respect 100 μg/mL extract), as well as androstenedione (P < 0.01 with respect to 100 and 1000 μg/mL extract). Our results suggest that the biomolecules present in Origanum vulgare L. could exhibit a dose-dependent impact on the secretion of male steroids, playing a role in the regulation of testicular steroidogenesis.

Keywords: mice, Origanum vulgare L., steroidogenesis, testes

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6 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A: Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub

Abstract:

The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action. These results may reflect the estrogenic effects of BPA, which we hypothesize could be related, in part, to an inhibitory effect on testicular steroidogenesis. The induction of oxidative stress by BPA may play an additional role in testicular toxicity. These results suggest that BPA poses a threat to endocrine and reproductive functions.

Keywords: bisphenol A, oxidative stress, rabbits, semen quality, steroidogenesis

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5 Influence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on the Activity of Steroid C17-Hydroxylase-C17,20-Lyase in Patients with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Authors: Leona Ondrejikova, Martin Hill, Antonin Parizek

Abstract:

The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is higher in women predisposed to developing intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Both diseases are associated with altered steroidogenesis when compared with none-ICP controls. However, the effect of GDM on circulating steroids in ICP patients remains unclear. The question remains, whether the levels of circulating steroids differ between ICP patients with and without GDM. In total 10 ICP patients without GDM (ICP+GDM-), 7 ICP patients with GDM (ICP+GDM+), and 15 controls (ICP-GDM-) were monitored during late gestation, at labor, and during three periods postpartum (day 5, week 3, and week 6 postpartum) (Šimják et al., 2018). The relationships between steroid profiles and patients’ status were evaluated using the ANOVA model consisting of subject factor, between-subject factors Group (ICP+GDM+, ICP+GDM-, ICP-GDM-), gestational age at the diagnosis of ICP and gestational age at labor, and within-subject factor Stage and ICP × Stage interaction. The levels of the C21 and C19 Δ5 steroids and 5α/β-reduced C19 steroids were highest in ICP+GDM+, while those for the ICP-GDM-, and ICP+GDM- groups were lower. In the C21 Δ4 steroids and their 5α/β-reduced metabolites, the steroid levels were highest in the ICP+GDM-, intermediate in the ICP-GDM- and lowest in the ICP+GDM+ group. This higher concentration in ICP+GDM- group may be of importance as the 5α-pregnane-3α,20α-diol disulfate, is considered as the substance inducing ICP. In general, these data show that the comorbidity with GDM substantially changes the steroidome in ICP patients towards the higher activity of steroid CYP17A1 lyase step in adrenal zona reticularis reduced CYP17A1 hydroxylase step in zona fasciculata. This is consistent with our previously published hypothesis about the critical role of maternal zona reticularis in the pathophysiology of ICP. Our present data also indicate that the comorbidity with GDM might moderate the gravity of the ICP in this way.

Keywords: CYP17A1, GC-MS, gestational diabetes mellitus, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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4 The Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors during Pregnancy and Relation to Steroid Hormones

Authors: L. Kolatorova, J. Vitku, K. Adamcova, M. Simkova, M. Hill, A. Parizek, M. Duskova

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances leaching from various industrial products, which are able to interfere with the endocrine system. Their harmful effects on human health are generally well-known, and exposure during fetal development may have lasting effects. Fetal exposure and transplacental transport of bisphenol A (BPA) have been recently studied; however, less is known about alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF), which have started to appear in consumer products. The human organism is usually exposed to the mixture of EDs, out of which parabens are otherwise known to transfer placenta. The usage of many cosmetic, pharmaceutical and consumer products during the pregnancy that may contain parabens and bisphenols has led to the need for investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate the transplacental transport of BPA, its alternatives, and parabens, and to study their relation to fetal steroidogenesis. BPA, BPS, BPF, BPAF, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben and 15 steroids including estrogens, corticoids, androgens and immunomodulatory ones were determined in 27 maternal (37th week of gestation) and cord plasma samples using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods. The statistical evaluation of the results showed significantly higher levels of BPA (p=0.0455) in cord plasma compared to maternal plasma. The results from multiple regression models investigated that in cord plasma, methylparaben, propylparaben and the sum of all measured parabens were inversely associated with testosterone levels. To our best knowledge, this study is the first attempt to determine the levels of alternative bisphenols in the maternal and cord blood, and also the first study reporting the simultaneous detection of bisphenols, parabens, and steroids in these biological fluids. Our study confirmed the transplacental transport of BPA, with likely accumulation in the fetal compartment. The negative association of cord blood parabens and testosterone levels highlights their possible risks, especially for the development of male fetuses. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project MH CR 17-30528 A from the Czech Health Research Council, MH CZ - DRO (Institute of Endocrinology - EÚ, 00023761) and by the MEYS CR (OP RDE, Excellent research - ENDO.CZ).

Keywords: bisphenol, endocrine disruptor, paraben, pregnancy, steroid

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3 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

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2 Molecular Signaling Involved in the 'Benzo(a)Pyrene' Induced Germ Cell DNA Damage and Apoptosis: Possible Protection by Natural Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist and Anti-Tumor Agent

Authors: Kuladip Jana

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased ROS, altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38MAPK, cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, up-regulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of PARP and down-regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like StAR, cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β HSD, 17β HSD showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis.The possible protective role of naturally occurring phytochemicals against B(a)P induced testicular toxicity needs immediate consideration. Curcumin and resveratrol separately were found to protect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis, and their combinatorial effect was more significant. Our present study in isolated testicular germ cell population from adult male Wistar rats, highlighted their synergistic protective effect against B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like cleaved caspase 3,8,9, cleaved PARP, Apaf1, FasL, tBid. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio, mitochondria to cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and activated the survival protein Akt. Curcumin-resveratrol decreased the expression of p53 dependent apoptotic genes like Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl2, Apaf1.Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment thus prevented B(a)P induced germ cell apoptosis. B(a)P induced testicular ROS generation and oxidative stress were significantly ameliorated with curcumin and resveratrol. Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment prevented B(a)P induced nuclear translocation of AhR and CYP1A1 production. The combinatorial treatment significantly inhibited B(a)P induced ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK 1/2 activation. B(a)P treatment increased the expression of p53 and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). Curcumin-resveratrol co-treatment significantly decreased p53 level and its phosphorylation (p53 ser 15). The study concludes that curcumin-resveratrol synergistically modulated MAPKs and p53, prevented oxidative stress, regulated the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the proteins involved in B(a)P metabolism thus protected germ cells from B(a)P induced apoptosis.

Keywords: benzo(a)pyrene, germ cell, apoptosis, oxidative stress, resveratrol, curcumin

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1 Resveratrol Ameliorates Benzo(a)Pyrene Induced Testicular Dysfunction and Apoptosis: Involvement of p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS Signaling

Authors: Kuladip Jana, Bhaswati Banerjee, Parimal C. Sen

Abstract:

Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] is an environmental toxicant present mostly in cigarette smoke and car exhaust, is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand that exerts its toxic effects on both male and female reproductive systems along with carcinogenesis in skin, prostate, ovary, lung and mammary glands. Our study was focused on elucidating the molecular mechanism of B(a)P induced male reproductive toxicity and its prevention with phytochemical like resveratrol. In this study, the effect of B(a)P at different doses (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg /kg body weight) was studied on male reproductive system of Wistar rat. A significant decrease in cauda epididymal sperm count and motility along with the presence of sperm head abnormalities and altered epididymal and testicular histology were documented following B(a)P treatment. B(a)P treatment resulted apoptotic sperm cells as observed by TUNEL and Annexin V-PI assay with increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), altered sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and GSH status. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells also observed in testis as well as isolated germ and Leydig cells following B(a)P exposure. Western Blot analysis revealed the activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), cytosolic translocation of cytochrome-c, upregulation of Bax and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) with cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and down regulation of BCl2 in testis upon B(a)P treatment. The protein and mRNA levels of testicular key steroidogenesis regulatory proteins like steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 IIA1 (CYPIIA1), 3β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β HSD), 17β hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (17β HSD) showed a significant decrease in a dose dependent manner while an increase in the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), active caspase- 9 and caspase- 3 following B(a)P exposure. We conclude that exposure of benzo(a)pyrene caused testicular gamatogenic and steroidogenic disorders by induction of oxidative stress, inhibition of StAR and other steroidogenic enzymes along with activation of p38MAPK and initiated caspase-3 mediated germ and Leydig cell apoptosis. Next we investigated the role of resveratrol on B(a)P induced male reproductive toxicity. Our study highlighted that resveratrol co-treatment with B(a)P maintained testicular redox potential, increased serum testosterone level and prevented steroidogenic dysfunction with enhanced expression of major testicular steroidogenic proteins (CYPIIA1, StAR, 3β HSD,17β HSD) relative to treatment with B(a)P only. Resveratrol suppressed B(a)P-induced testicular activation of p38 MAPK, ATF2, iNOS and ROS production; cytosolic translocation of Cytochome c and Caspase 3 activation thereby prevented oxidative stress of testis and inhibited apoptosis. Resveratrol co-treatment also decreased B(a)P-induced AhR protein level, its nuclear translocation and subsequent CYP1A1 promoter activation, thereby decreased protein and mRNA levels of testicular cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and prevented BPDE-DNA adduct formation. Our findings cumulatively suggest that resveratrol prevents activation of B(a)P by modulating the transcriptional regulation of CYP1A1 and acting as an antioxidant thus prevents B(a)P-induced oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis.

Keywords: benzo(a)pyrene, resveratrol, testis, apoptosis, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), p38 MAPK/ATF2/iNOS

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