Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2610

Search results for: androgenic status

2610 Androgenic and Spermatogenic Activity of Alkylamide-Rich Ethanol Solution Extract of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Dc

Authors: Vikas Sharma, V. K. Dixit

Abstract:

Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg doses for a period of 28 days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28 days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis.

Keywords: N-alkylamides, testosterone, Anacyclus pyrethrum, androgen

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2609 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas

Abstract:

In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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2608 Investigating the Successes of in vitro Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The in vitro isolated microspore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a microspore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the microspore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of microspore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, microspore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this communication we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via in vitro isolated microspore culture.

Keywords: in vitro isolated microspore culture, success, haploid cells, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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2607 Successes on in vitro Isolated Microspores Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The In Vitro isolated micro spore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a micro spore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the micro spore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of micro spore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, micro spore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this study we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via In Vitro isolated micro spore culture.

Keywords: haploid cells, In Vitro isolated microspore culture, success

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2606 Protected Status: Violation of the Provisions of Protected Status under International Humanitarian Law during the Liberation War of Bangladesh

Authors: Sabera Sultana

Abstract:

In today's war-torn world, it is crucial to identify, understand, and apply the laws aimed at minimizing civilian casualty during wartime. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provisions of protected status under international humanitarian law and evaluate the historical facts and shreds of evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This legal research paper evaluates the international humanitarian laws and case laws regarding protected status of people during wartime and evaluates them against the historical facts and well-documented evidences of violation of protected status during the Liberation War of Bangladesh. This paper will help to create a brief guideline on Protected Status under international humanitarian law, which will help to protect our civilians during wartime if ever required.

Keywords: civilian protection, international humanitarian laws, liberation war of Bangladesh, protected status

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2605 Current and Emerging Pharmacological Treatment for Status Epilepticus in Adults

Authors: Mathew Tran, Deepa Patel, Breann Prophete, Irandokht Khaki Najafabadi

Abstract:

Status epilepticus is a neurological disorder requiring emergent control with medical therapy. Based on guideline recommendations for adults with status epilepticus, the first-line treatment is to start a benzodiazepine, as they are quick at seizure control. The second step is to initiate a non-benzodiazepine anti-epileptic drug to prevent refractory seizures. Studies show that the anti-epileptic drugs are approximately equivalent in status epilepticus control once a benzodiazepine has been given. This review provides a brief overview of the management of status epilepticus based on evidence from the literature and evidence-based guidelines.

Keywords: neurological disorder, seizure, status epilepticus, benzo diazepines, antiepileptic agents

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2604 Hair Regrowth Effect of Herbal Formula on Androgenic Alopecia Rat Model

Authors: Jian-You Wang, Feng Yi Hsu, Chieh-Hsi Wu

Abstract:

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is an androgen-dependent disorder caused by excess testosterone in blood capillaries or excess enzyme activity of 5α- reductase in hair follicles. Plants, alone or in combination, have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times in Asia. In this study, the efficacy of a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan (SYYZD) with different kinds of extract solvents, facilitating hair regrowth in testosterone-induced hair loss have been determined. The study was performed by treating with either 95 % ethanol aqueous extracts, 50% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts orally in four-week-old male S.D. rats that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. The 50% ethanol aqueous extracts group showed better hair regrowth promotion activities than either 95% ethanol aqueous extracts or deionized water extracts groups in 14 days treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that 50% ethanol aqueous SYYZD extracts have hair growth promoting potential and may be beneficial as an alternative medicine for androgenetic alopecia treatment.

Keywords: Shen-Ying-Yang-Zhen-Dan, androgenic alopecia, hair loss, hair growth promotion, hair regrowth effect

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2603 Dependence of Androgen Status in Men with Primary Hypothyroidism on Duration and Condition of Compensation

Authors: Krytskyy T.

Abstract:

Introduction: The role of androgen deficiency in men as a factor in the pathogenesis of many somatic diseases is unmistakable. The interaction of thyroid and sex hormones with hypothyroidism in men is still the subject of discussions. The purpose of the study is to assess the androgen status of men with primary hypothyroidism, depending on its duration and the state of compensation. Materials and methods: 45 men with primary hypothyroidism aged 35 to 60 years, as well as 25 healthy men, who formed a control group, were under supervision. A selection of men for examination was conducted in the process of outpatient and in-patient treatment at the endocrinology department of the University Hospital in Ternopil. The functional state of the pituitary-gonadal system was evaluated in order to characterize the androgen status of patients. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone was determined in blood with the help of enzyme-linked method. Also, the content of hormones: total testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin were determined. Results: Reduced total testosterone (TT) content was found in 42.2% of patients with hypothyroidism. Herewith in 17.8% of patients, blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, and in 11 (24.4%) men, the rate was in the range of 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / L. Based on the results of the determination of the content of free testosterone (FT), the frequency of laboratory hypogonadism in men with hypothyroidism was higher than the results of the determination of TT. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. Conclusions: Reduced total testosterone content was found in 42.2% of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Herewith, in 17.8% of patients blood TT levels were lower than 8.0 nmol / L, which is a sign of absolute deficiency of testosterone, and in 24.4% of men the rate ranged from 8.0 to 12.0 nmol / l , indicating partial androgen deficiency. Linking sex hormones globulin levels were believed to be lower in 46.7% of patients with hypothyroidism compared to control group. The average levels of E2 in the examined patients did not significantly differ from the mean of control group. FSH, LH, and prolactin levels in men with hypothyroidism were within the normal age limits and probably did not differ from those of control group. The degree of compensation of hypothyroidism probably did not affect the average levels of gonadotropic and sex hormones. The mean LH content in the blood was significantly increased in men with a duration of hypothyroidism up to 5 years and did not differ from that of the control group and in men with a duration of hypothyroidism over 5 years. In men with hypothyroidism, a probable reduction in T / LH coefficient is found. The obtained data may indicate a combined lesion of the central and peripheral parts of the pituitary-gonadal system in men with hypothyroidism.

Keywords: androgenic status, hypothyroidism, testosterone, linking sex hormones globulin

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2602 Importance of Health and Social Capital to Employment Status of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Authors: Belayet Hossain, Laura Lamb

Abstract:

The study investigates the importance of health and social capital in determining the labour force status of Canada’s Indigenous population using data from 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. An instrumental variable ordered probit model has been specified and estimated. The study finds that health status and social capital are important in determining Indigenous peoples’ employment status along with other factors. The results of the study imply that human resource development initiatives of Indigenous Peoples need to be broadened by including health status and social capital. Poor health and low degree of inclusion of the Indigenous Peoples need to be addressed in order to improve employment status of Canada’s Indigenous Peoples.

Keywords: labour force, human capital, social capital, aboriginal people, Canada

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2601 The Effects of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Academic Motivation: The Case of Lithuania

Authors: Ausra Turcinskaite-Balciuniene, Jonas Balciunas, Gediminas Merkys

Abstract:

The problematic of gender and socioeconomic status biased differences in academic motivation patterns is discussed. Gender identity is understood according to symbolic interactionism perspective: as a result of reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-attributions, and identifications, shaped by social environment and family context. The effects of socioeconomic status on academic motivation are conceptualized according to Bourdieu’s habitus concept, reflecting the role of unconscious and internalized cultural signals, proper to low and high socioeconomic status family contexts. Since families differ by various socioeconomic features, the hypothesis about possible impact of parents’ socioeconomic status on their children’s academic motivation interfering with gender socialization effects is held. The survey, aiming to seize gender differences in academic motivation and self-recorded improvement-oriented efforts as a result of socialization processes operating in the families of low and high socioeconomic status, was designed. The results of Lithuanian higher education students’ survey are presented and discussed.

Keywords: academic motivation, gender, socialization, socioeconomic status

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2600 The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Citizens’ Perceptions of Social Justice in China

Authors: Yan Liu

Abstract:

The Gini coefficient indicates that the inequality of income distribution is rising in China. How individuals viewing the equality of current society is an important predicator of social turbulence. Perceptions of social justice may vary according to the social stratification. People usually use socioeconomic status to identify divisions between social stratifications. The objective of this study is to explore the potential influence of socioeconomic status on citizens’ perceptions of social justice in China. Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually reflected by either an SES indicator or a composite of three core dimensions: education, income and occupation. With data collected in the 2010 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), this study uses OLS regression analyses to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and citizens’ perceptions of social justice. This study finds that most Chinese citizens believe that the current society is fair or more than fair. Socioeconomic status (SES) has a positive impact on citizens’ perceptions of social justice, which means individuals with higher indicator of socioeconomic status prefer to believe current society is fair. However, the three core dimensions which are used to measure socioeconomic status (SES) have different influences on perceptions of social justice: First, income helps enhance citizens’ sense of social justice. Second, education weakens citizens’ sense of social justice. Third, compared to the middle occupational status, people of both higher occupational status and lower occupational status have higher levels of perceptions of social justice. Though education creates a negative influence on perceptions of social justice, its effect is much weaker than that of income, which indicates income is a determining factor for enhancing people’s perceptions of social justice in China’s market society. Policy implications are discussed.

Keywords: education, income, occupation, perceptions of social justice, social stratification, socioeconomic status

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2599 Social Status and Role of Women among the Khasi Tribe of Meghalaya

Authors: Jeffreyson Wahlang

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyse the changes in the social status and role of Khasi women with the advent of modernisation and globalisation. Since all societies inevitably undergo social change, this paper will attempt to enquire about the path and direction to which women in Khasi Hills, Meghalaya is moving.

Keywords: status, role, women, Khasi Matriliny, gender

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2598 Correlation of Nutritional Status and Anemia Among School-Aged Children in Indonesian Urban Area

Authors: William Cheng, Yuni Astria, Rini Sekartini

Abstract:

Background: Prevalence of anemia among school-aged children is relatively high (25.4%). This condition can affect children’s life, including cognitive function. One of the most common factors that is associated with anemia in children is nutritional status. This simple indicator will be very helpful in identifying more population at risk. The aim of this study is to correlate the clinical implication of nutritional status to the prevalence of anemia in children, with intention to determine a more effective nutritional status indicator in detecting anemia. Method: Anthropometric and haemoglobin status were gathered from children between 5 to 7-years-old in one of the urban areas in Jakarta in 2012. We identified children with haemoglobin level under 11.5 as anemia and correlated them to their WHO z-score from each of these indicators: Body Weight for Age (normal weight and underweight), Height for Age (not stunted and stunted), and Body Mass Index for Age (not wasted and wasted). Results: A total of 195 children were included in this research and 57 of them (29,2%) were diagnosed as anemia. The majority of the children had good nutritional status, however, 30 (15,4%) of them were found to be underweight, 33 (16,9%) were stunted, and 1 children (0,5%) was wasted. There were no overweight result found in this population. From the three nutritional status indicators, none proved to be statistically significant in relation to the incidence of anemia (p>0.05). Out of 33 children who were diagnosed as stunted, 36.36 % were found to have anemia, in comparison to 27,7% of children who were not stunted. Meanwhile, among 30 children who were diagnosed as underweight, 33,3 % of them were anemic whereas only 28,4% of the normal weight group were anemic. Conclusion: In this study, there is no significant correlation between anemia with any nutritional status indicator. However, more than a third of the stunted children are proven to have low haemoglobin status. The finding of stunting in children should be given more attention to further investigate for anemia.

Keywords: school-aged children, nutritional status, anemia, pediatrics

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2597 Endocrine Disruptors Effects on the 20-Hydroxyecdysone Concentration and the Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Gammarus sp.

Authors: Eric Gismondi, Aurelie Bigot-Clivot

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are well known to disrupt the development and the reproduction of exposed organisms. Although this point has been studied in vertebrate models, the limited knowledge of the endocrine system of invertebrates makes the evaluation of EDCs effects difficult. However, invertebrates represent the major part of aquatic ecosystems, such as amphipods Gammaridea, which are crucial for their functioning (e.g., litter degradation, food resource). Moreover, gammarids are hosts of parasites such as vertically-transmitted microsporidia (microsporidia VT), which could be confounding factors in assessment of EDC effects. Indeed, some microsporidia VT could have endocrine effects by their own present in the host since it was observed for example, a feminization of juvenile males, which become phenotypic females. This work evaluated the impact of ethinylestradiol (EE₂, estrogenic), cyproterone acetate (CPA, anti-androgenic), 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT, anti-estrogenic) and 17α-methyltestosterone (17MT - androgenic), on the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration (i.e. 20HE - molt process) and the vitellogenin gene expression (i.e. reproduction) in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, after a 96h laboratory exposure. In addition, the presence of microsporidia VT was verified in order to analyze the effect of this confounding factor. Results of this study shown that, although endocrine systems of invertebrates and vertebrates are different, EDCs proved in vertebrates could also affect biological functions hormonally controlled in invertebrates. Indeed, the molt process of crustaceans was disrupted in the first stage (i.e. 20-HE concentration) and therefore, could affect, at the long term, the population dynamic. In addition, it was observed that G. pulex was differently impacted according to the gender and parasitism, which underline the importance to take into account these confounding factors to better evaluate the EDCs impact on invertebrate populations.

Keywords: endocrine disruption, gammarus sp., molt, parasitism

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2596 The Influence of Wealth on the Enjoyment of Role and Status of the Rural Elderly in Bangladesh

Authors: Aminul Islam

Abstract:

The issue of aging is now an emerging aspect of all over the world. Both the rural and urban societies of our country are not immune from this problem. This study mainly explored the influence of wealth on the enjoyment of role and status of the elderly in rural Bangladesh. It is based on empirical findings from the four villages of Gopalnagar union of Dhunat upazila of Bogra district. The study depicted that wealth has much influence regarding the enjoyment of role and status. Mixed approach has been given priority in this study. Survey, observation, case study and life history methods and focus group discussion technique have also been used in this study. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Simple random sampling procedure has also been followed in this study.

Keywords: wealth, role status, elderly

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2595 HIV Disclosure Status and Factors among Women to Their Sexual Partner in Victory plus, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Dwi Kartika Rukmi, Miftafu Darussalam

Abstract:

Background: The disclosure of women’s HIV status toward their sexual partners is an important issue that should be regarded as one of the efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. Research on the disclosure of seropositive HIV status as well as women-related factors in Indonesia, especially Yogyakarta is only a few. Methods: This is a correlational descriptive research along with its cross-sectional approach on 329 women with HIV/AIDS at the Victory Plus NGO from June to July 2016. This research used a purposive sampling method and a questionnaire as the data collection technique. The bivariate analysis test was undertaken by using a chi-square and multivariate test along with a logistic regression. Result: The multivariate analysis and logistic regression show five independent variables related to the disclosure of seropositive HIV status of women with HIV/AIDS toward their sexual partners, namely ethnicity (aOR = 36,859; 95% CI; (6,544-207,616)) religion (aOR =0,255; 95%CI; (0,075-0,868)), discussion with partners prior to the HIV test (aOR =0,069; 95%CI; (0,065-0,438)) , types of sexual partners (aOR = 0.191; 95% CI; (0.082-0,445)) and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status (aOR = 0.036; 95% CI; (0.008-0.160)). The highest level of reason for seropositive HIV women not to be open about their partners’ status is the fear of being rejected by their partners and the environmental stigma of HIV AIDS disease. Conclusion: The disclosure of seropositive HIV status in women with HIV/AIDS in the Victory Plus NGO of Yogyakarta was 79.4% or classified as a high category with some related factors such as ethnicity, religion, discussion with partners prior to the HIV test, types of partners and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status.

Keywords: women, HIV, disclosure, sexual partner

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2594 Nutritional Status of Surgical and Orthopedic Patients: 3B Ward

Authors: Jitaree Tantiyasawatdikul, Bantita Jadnok, Sarunya Tijana

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional status is an important factor before, during, and after an operation. It can help wound healing. If the patients have good nutritional status before and after an operation, wound healing can occur more easily. It can strengthen the immune system leading to decreased infection, reduced length of stay, and reducing the cost to patients and caregivers. Therefore, screening to evaluate the nutritional status of patients in 3B becomes the database for further developing the treatment and also will lead to excellent service from the interdisciplinary team. Objective: To study the nutritional status of patients in surgical ward 3B at Surgical and Orthopedics Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital. Method: A descriptive study, to evaluate the nutritional status of 86 patients admitted in 3B between October 2014 and March 2015.The instruments used in this study consisted of two parts: 1) personal data, 2) Screening nutritional status. The data were analyzed by percentage and mean. Results: A sample population of 86 patients aged 22-81 years old, mean age 52.59years, 90.69% are married, female were 55.81%, regular diet 70.93%, patients with no problem oral cavity was 87.21%.The sample population had high incidence of CA 47.67% and secondly cardiovascular disease 36.05 %. Patients with high-risk nutrition was 12.79 % including 45.45% cardiovascular disease and 36.36% CA. Screening of nutritional status of high-risk nutrition was 39.36% severe triceps skinfold (TSF), severe mid-arm muscle circumference(MAMC) 9.09% and severe total lymphocyte 39.36%. Conclusion: The result of nutritional status screening of surgical ward 3B found 12.79% patients with high-risk nutrition including 45.45% with cardiovascular disease .There was no problem with oral cavity and eating.

Keywords: nutritional status, screening, surgical patients, 3B ward, Srinagarind Hospital

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2593 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong

Abstract:

Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

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2592 Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.

Keywords: antioxidant status, maize corn, drought stress, heavy metal

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2591 The Affect of Ethnic Minority People: A Prediction by Gender and Marital Status

Authors: A. K. M. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yusuf Mahmud, S. H. Mahmud

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate whether the affect (experience of feeling or emotion) of ethnic minority people can be predicted by gender and marital status. Toward this end, positive affect and negative affect of 103 adult indigenous persons were measured. Analysis of data in multiple regressions demonstrated that both gender and marital status are significantly associated with positive affect (Gender: β=.318, p < .001; Marital status: β=.201, p < .05), but not with negative affect. Results indicated that the indigenous males have 0.32 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to the indigenous females and that married individuals have 0.20 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to their unmarried counterparts. These findings advance our understanding that gender and marital status inequalities in the experience of emotion are not specific to the mainstream society; rather it is a generalized picture of all societies. In general, men possess more positive affect than females; married persons possess more positive affect than the unmarried persons.

Keywords: positive affect, negative affect, ethnic minority, gender, marital status

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2590 Nutritional Status of People Living with Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Attending Anti-Retro Viral Treatment Clinic of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal

Authors: Ghimire K., Mehta R. S., Parajuli P., Chettri R.

Abstract:

Background: Malnutrition is a common hallmark of Human Immuno Virus (HIV) disease. It plays a synergistic role in immunosuppression which is initiated by Human Immuno Virus itself, and malnutrition forms an independent risk factor for disease progression. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status of the people living with Human Immuno Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome attending the Anti-Retro viral Treatment Clinic and find the association of nutritional status with different socio-demographic variables. Methods: A total of 101 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were selected by convenient sampling technique. The study was conducted at the ART clinic of BPKIHS. A subjective global assessment tool was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: The study demonstrated that the mean age of the respondents was 40.97+8.650 years. 65.3% were well-nourished, and 34.7% of the participants were mildly/moderately malnourished, whereas none of them were severely malnourished. BMI was statistically significant with education status, family income, and duration of illness of the participants, and nutritional status was statistically significant with gender, marital status, education status, and family history of HIV. Conclusion: On the basis of the result, it can be concluded that more than half of the respondents were well nourished. Gender, marital status, and education are associated with nutritional status.

Keywords: nutritional status, people living with HIV/AIDS, ART treatment, Nepal

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2589 Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Man Kumar Tamang, Uday Narayan Yadav

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.

Keywords: elderly, eastern Nepal, malnutrition, nutritional status

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2588 Weight Status, Body Appreciation Correlated with Husbands' Satisfaction in Saudi Women

Authors: Hala Hzam Al Otaibi

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is more common among Saudi women compared to men, with 75–88% of adult women suffering from overweight or obesity and most of them married. Weight status and body appreciation are an important factor in maintaining or loss weight behaviors and for husbands satisfaction. Aims: To assess weight status, body appreciation and related factors, including age, level of education, occupation status husbands satisfaction in adult women. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted among 326 married women, aged 18 to 60 years old in Eastern of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by face to face interview, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) and husbands satisfied were evaluated through questioning. Results: The majority of women has a university education, not employed and less than 40 years old (66.5%, 69.9%, 67.5%; respectively). Fifty-four percent of women overweight/obese and the rest were normal weight, BAS mean score was lower in younger women (>40 years) 7.39+2.20 and obese women (6.83+2.16) which is reflected lower body appreciation. Husbands' satisfaction regarding the weight status shows 47.6% of normal weight believed their husbands were dissatisfied with their weight and consider them as overweight/obese, 28.3% of overweight/obese thought their husbands satisfied with their weight and consider them as normal weight. Body appreciation correlated with age (r.139,p<0.05) and no correlation found for level of education and employed status. Husbands satisfaction strongly correlated with body appreciation (r.189,p<0.01) and weight status (r .570,p <0.01). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that women had a low body appreciation related to age, weight status and husbands' dissatisfaction. Future interventions aimed to weight reduction, it is important to consider husband satisfaction, as well as we need more assessment of weight satisfaction in younger women.

Keywords: body appreciation, husbands satisfaction, weight status, women

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2587 Factors Predicting Symptom Cluster Functional Status and Quality of Life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

Authors: D. Supaporn, B. Julaluk

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to study symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to examine factors related to and predicting symptom cluster, functional status and quality of life of COPD patients. The sample was 180 COPD patients multi-stage random sampling from 4 hospitals in the eastern region, Thailand. The research instruments were 8 questionnaires and recorded forms measuring personal and illness data, co-morbidity, physical and psychological symptom, health status perception, social support, and regimen adherence, functional status and quality of life. Spearman rank and Pearson correlation coefficient, exploratory factors analysis and standard multiple regression were used to analyzed data. The findings revealed that two symptom clusters were generated: physical symptom cluster including dyspnea, fatigue and insomnia; and, psychological symptom cluster including anxiety and depression. Scores of physical symptom cluster was at moderate level while that of psychological symptom cluster was at low level. Scores on functional status, social support and overall regimen adherence were at good level whereas scores on quality of life and health status perception were at moderate level. Disease severity was positively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life, and was negatively related to functional status at a moderate level (rs = .512, .509, .588 and -.611, respectively). Co-morbidity was positively related to physical symptom cluster and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r = .179 and .176, respectively). Regimen adherence was negatively related to quality of life and psychological symptom cluster at a low level (r=-.277 and -.309, respectively), and was positively related to functional status at a moderate level (r=.331). Health status perception was negatively related to physical symptom cluster, psychological symptom cluster and quality of life at a moderate to high level (r = -.567, -.640 and -.721, respectively) and was positively related to functional status at a high level (r = .732). Social support was positively related to functional status (r=.235) and was negatively related to quality of life at a low level (r=-.178). Physical symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status (r= -.490) and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r=.566). Psychological symptom cluster was negatively related to functional status and was positively related to quality of life at a moderate level (r= -.566 and .559, respectively). Disease severity, co-morbidity and health status perception could predict 40.2% of the variance of physical symptom cluster. Disease severity, co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 49.8% of the variance of psychological symptom cluster. Co-morbidity, regimen adherence and health status perception could predict 65.0% of the variance of functional status. Disease severity, health status perception and physical symptom cluster could predict 60.0% of the variance of quality of life in COPD patients. The results of this study can be used for enhancing quality of life of COPD patients.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functional status, quality of life, symptom cluster

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2586 Star Images Constructed Based on Kramer vs. Kramer

Authors: Huailei Wen

Abstract:

The Kramers vs. Kramers (1979) is a film that comprehensively examines the role and status of women under the traditional secular vision, where women have become subordinate to the patriarchal society and family. Through the construction of the protagonist Joanna's dissatisfaction with the social and ethical status quo, her struggle to subvert the existing status of women, and her return to her own self, the story comprehensively reflects the difficult journey of women, represented by Joanna, to subvert the stereotypes and return to their own selves in the specific historical context of the time, revealing the self-value of Joanna's phenomenon to modern women.

Keywords: star image, feminism, Kramers vs. Kramers, Hollywood

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2585 EU Policies in Determining Refugee Status

Authors: Adriano Mortada

Abstract:

Human history is rife with conflict, and the question of refugee status determination and their rehabilitation has been up for debate since. Refugee Status Determination is the administrative or legal process by which UNHCR or governments determine whether a person seeking international protection or asylum can be identified as a refugee under international, regional, or national law. Refugee Status Determination is considered to be a vital process in aiding refugees’ realization of their rights under international law. One of the major reasons why the refugee status determination is considered an “issue”, and is one that is much debated upon annually, is the fact that the national bureaucratic systems are rigid and unbending. This is particularly concerning in the 21st century despite human advancement in policy and diplomacy, working in tandem with the United Nations and their charters and resolutions on human rights and dignity. The paper seeks to criticize the European member states' response to the refugee crisis and their inflexible and prejudiced bureaucratic systems when it comes to refugee status determination. The paper looks at multiple case studies as primary evidence and the alternate case studies where the system helped refugees, like those in Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey, and Lebanon. The main concern of the paper is to highlight the bias in the selected European systems, which do not stem from the Human Rights Charter but rather on the basis of geographical backgrounds, cultural and religious affiliations of those seeking refugee status or asylum in their respective countries. The paper hopes to not only create awareness about this issue but also provide a research background to advocacy programs to bring a change in the systems.

Keywords: refugee status determination, human rights, bureaucracy, United Nations, European Union

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2584 Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University

Authors: Dale Daniel G. Bodo

Abstract:

This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.

Keywords: status, BSHRT Program, laboratory tools and equipment, descriptive-correlation

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2583 Working Memory Growth from Kindergarten to First Grade: Considering Impulsivity, Parental Discipline Methods and Socioeconomic Status

Authors: Ayse Cobanoglu

Abstract:

Working memory can be defined as a workspace that holds and regulates active information in mind. This study investigates individual changes in children's working memory from kindergarten to first grade. The main purpose of the study is whether parental discipline methods and child impulsive/overactive behaviors affect children's working memory initial status and growth rate, controlling for gender, minority status, and socioeconomic status (SES). A linear growth curve model with the first four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) is performed to analyze the individual growth of children's working memory longitudinally (N=3915). Results revealed that there is a significant variation among students' initial status in the kindergarten fall semester as well as the growth rate during the first two years of schooling. While minority status, SES, and children's overactive/impulsive behaviors influenced children's initial status, only SES and minority status were significantly associated with the growth rate of working memory. For parental discipline methods, such as giving a warning and ignoring the child's negative behavior, are also negatively associated with initial working memory scores. Following that, students' working memory growth rate is examined, and students with lower SES as well as minorities showed a faster growth pattern during the first two years of schooling. However, the findings of parental disciplinary methods on working memory growth rates were mixed. It can be concluded that schooling helps low-SES minority students to develop their working memory.

Keywords: growth curve modeling, impulsive/overactive behaviors, parenting, working memory

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2582 Vitamin D Status in Relation to Body Mass Index: Population of Carpathian Region

Authors: Vladyslav Povoroznyuk, Ivan Pankiv

Abstract:

The present research has attempted to link a higher body weight with a lower vitamin D status. Objective: Vitamin D status of Carpathian region population in Ukraine was studied to examine whether serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data collected from 302 adults (18–84 years) were analyzed. Variables measured included serum 25(OH)D, weight and height used to determine BMI status. Results: Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.2 ± 8.1 ng/mL for the group; 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL and 22.8 ± 9.1 ng/mL for males and females, respectively. Based on BMI, 3.6% were underweight, 21.2% had a normal weight, 46.4% were overweight and 28.8% obese. Only in 28 cases (9.3%), content of 25(ОН)D in the serum of blood was within the normal limits, and there were vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency observed in other cases (90.7%). Thus, severe vitamin D deficiency was revealed in 1.7% of the inspected. A significant interrelation between levels of 25(OH)D in blood and BMI was found among persons with BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2. Mean value of 25(OH)D levels among persons with obesity did not differ to a significant extent from indexes in persons with normal body weight. Conclusion: Status of vitamin D among the population of Carpathian region remains far from optimal and requires urgent measures in correction and prevention. Results confirmed a poor inverse relationship between vitamin D status and BMI. Intercommunication between maintenance of vitamin D and BMI requires further investigations.

Keywords: body mass index, Carpathian region, obesity, vitamin D

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2581 Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community

Authors: Murniwati, Nurul Khairiyah, Putri Ovieza Maizar

Abstract:

The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, DMFT, oral health status

Procedia PDF Downloads 255