Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Butea superba

12 Effects of Butea superba Roxb. on Skeletal Muscle Functions and Parvalbumin Levels of Orchidectomized Rat

Authors: Surapong Vongvatcharanon, Fardeela Binalee, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Uraporn Vongvatcharanon

Abstract:

Hypogonadism is characterized by a decline in sex hormone levels, especially testosterone. It has been shown to be an important contributor to the decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength and performance, a condition known as sarcopenia. Preparations from Butea superba Roxb. (red Kwao Krua) have been reported to have androgenic properties. The active compounds are proposed to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. Treatment with B. superba has been shown to improve erectile dysfunction in males. Parvalbumin (PV) is a relaxing factor and identified in fast twitch fibers. Alterations of the PV levels affects skeletal muscle functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of orhchidectomy, testosterone replacement and different doses of Butea superba Roxb. on the structure, performance, levels of parvalbumin, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius muscles of orchidectomized rats. Twelve-week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized (BS-0), orchidectomized group that was treated with testosterone replacement of 6 µg/kg (TP) or an orchidectomized group that was treated with various doses of an extract from Butea superba Roxb.; 5 mg/kg (BS-5), 50 mg/kg (BS-50) and 500 mg/kg (BS-500) all for 90 days. The testosterone level, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight, muscle fiber size, strength and endurance in both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group. Treatment with the B. superba Roxb. extract replacement group improved muscle fiber size, strength and endurance, but not total testosterone levels, or the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight. Furthermore, the parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities were reduced in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group and the B. superba Roxb. extract groups for both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle. This study indicated that the reduction of testosterone level led to a decrease of the androgen receptor density resulting in a decline in the muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The decrease of parvalbumin levels affected muscle performance. Testosterone replacement increased the androgen receptor density and led to an increase of muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The increase in the parvalbumin levels may result in an improvement of muscle performance. This may explain one mechanism of testosterone on muscle mass and strength in the testosterone dependent sarcopenia. The B. superba Roxb. extract groups also had improved muscle mass, strength and endurance, parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen immunoreactivities compared to the BS-O group . Butea superba Roxb. Extracts contains a flavonoid (3, 7, 3'-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), flavonoiglycoside (3, 3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and isoflavanolignans (butesuperins A and butesuperins B) all known to inhibit the cAMP phosphodiesterase enzyme. Therefore, cAMP signaling may have adaptive effects on skeletal muscle by increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance.

Keywords: Butea superba, parvalbumin, skeletal muscle, orchidectomy

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11 Interaction of Steinernema Glaseri, an Entomopathogenic Nematode with a Predatory Fungus Arthrobotrys Superba on Different Nutrient Media

Authors: Varsha Baweja

Abstract:

Steinernema glaseri is known to be the most potent biocontrol agent against a number of insect pests of various orders and of diverse habitats under laboratory conditions. But in nature many micro pathogens may affect the efficacy of such entomopathogenic nematodes. Keeping this in view, the interaction of Steinernema glaseri with a predatory fungus Arthrobotrys superba was assessed on eight different nutrient media. The activity of A.superba was evaluated in terms of trap formation, conidiophore formation, and number of adhesive cells formed in the presence and absence of nematodes. The fungus failed to form any trap on any of the culture media in the absence of nematodes. However, in the presence of nematodes, the trap formation by the test fungus was increased but the number of conidiophores decreased with increase in dilution of Corn Meal Agar from 5% to 2%. Higher number of chlamydospores were observed in phenylalanine treated medium which indicates the inhibiting effect of phenylalanine on the growth of A. superba. Our results suggest that care should be taken during release of entomopathogenic nematodes in an agroecosystem for managing various insect pests in a more efficient manner.

Keywords: Entomopathogenic Nematode , Steinernema Glaseri, Predatory Fungus, Arthrobotrys Superba

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10 Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Butea Monosperma in Triton WR 1339 Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats

Authors: A. V. Shrirao, N. I. Kochar, A. V. Chandewar

Abstract:

The flower extract of Butea monosperma herb has been used traditionally in India for medicinal purposes. The plant has been reported to treat hyperglycemia and associated hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress are known to accelerate coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. The present work was undertaken to investigate the possible antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative effect of Butea monosperma flowers on hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by a single intraperitonial (i.p.) injection of Triton WR 1339 (400 mg/kg) and it showed sustained elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride. Ethanolic extract of Butea monosperma flowers (Et-BM) (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to normal and hyperlipidemic rats for 14 days. Serum and liver tissue were analyzed at three different time intervals for lipid profile and antioxidants enzymes and the activity were compared to the cholesterol-lowering drug, Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg). Parameters were altered during hyperlipidemia and reverted back to near normal values after Et-BM treatment or standard drug Atorvastatin. Lipid peroxidation decreased whereas the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase increased in Et-BM treated rats. Pronounced changes were observed at 500 mg/kg of Et-BM for 2 weeks and it was comparable to the standard drug Atorvastatin. The current study provides strong evidence that Et-BM has a remarkable beneficial effect in treating hyperlipidemia and ROS without any side effects at the dosage and duration studied.

Keywords: antioxidant, butea monopserma, hyperlipidemia, triton WR 1339

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9 Eco-Friendly Natural Dyes from Butea monosperma and Their Application on Cotton Fabric

Authors: Archna Mall, Neelam Agrawal, Hari O. Saxena, Bhavana Sharma

Abstract:

Butea monosperma occurs widely throughout central Indian states. Eco-friendly natural dyes were isolated in aqueous medium from leaves, bark and flowers of this plant. These dyes were used for dyeing on cotton fabric using various chemical (potassium aluminium sulphate, potassium dichromate, ferrous sulphate, stannous chloride & tannic acid) and natural mordants (rinds of Terminallia bellerica & Terminalia chebula fruits and shells of Prunus dulcis & Juglans regia nuts). Dyeing was carried out using the pre-mordanting technique. Large range of beautiful shades in terms of hue and darkness were recorded because of varying mordant concentrations and combinations. More importantly dyed fabrics registered varying the degree of colour fastness properties to washing (1-3, colour change and 4-5, colour staining), light (2-4), rubbing (4-5, dry and 3-5, wet) and perspiration (1-4, colour change and 4-5, colour staining). Thus, along with flowers which are traditionally known for natural dyes, the leaves and bark may also find their place in textile industries.

Keywords: Butea monosperma, cotton, mordants, natural dyes

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8 Durability of Cement Bonded Particleboards Produced from Terminalia superba and Gmelina arborea against Subterranean Termite Attack

Authors: Amos Olajide Oluyege, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Opara, Sunday Adeniyi Adedutan, Joseph Adeola Fuwape

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the durability of wood-cement particleboards when exposed to attack by subterranean termites, Macrotermes subhylinus. The boards were made from Terminalia superba and Gmelina arborea wood sawdust at nominal board densities (BD) of 1000, 900, and 800 kg/m³ using wood-cement mixing ratios (MR) of 3:1, 2.5:1, 2:1, and 1:1. Above ground durability tests against termite attack were carried out according to ASTM D 2017 for 14 weeks. Results of visual assessment of the wood cement particleboards show that all the board samples had a visual rating that was not less than 7 (i.e., moderate attack) for both species irrespective of the MR and BD. T. superba boards were found to have higher resistance to termite attack compared to their G. arborea counterparts. The mean values for weight loss following exposure ranged from 1.93 to 6.13% and 3.24 to 12.44%. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results of the weight loss assessment revealed a significant (p < 0.05) effect of species and mixing ratio on the weight loss of the boards due to termite attack with F(₁,₇₂) = 92.890 and P = 0.000 and F(₃,₇₂) = 8.318 and p = 0.000, while board density did not have any significant effect (p > 0.05) with F (₂,₇₂) = 1.307 and p = 0.277. Thus, boards made from a higher mixing ratio had better resistance against termite attacks. Thus, it can be concluded that the durability of cement-bonded particleboards when exposed to subterranean termite attack is not only dependent on the quality of the wood raw material (species) but also on the enhanced protection imparted by the cement matrix; the protection increased with increase in cement/wood mixing ratio.

Keywords: cement-bonded particleboard, mixing ratio, board density, Gmelina arborea, Terminalia superba

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7 Band Characterization and Development of Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieving Chlorophyll Content

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur M. Malhi, Prashant K. Srivastava, G.Sandhya Kiran

Abstract:

Quantitative estimates of foliar biochemicals, namely chlorophyll content (CC), serve as key information for the assessment of plant productivity, stress, and the availability of nutrients. This also plays a critical role in predicting the dynamic response of any vegetation to altering climate conditions. The advent of hyperspectral data with an enhanced number of available wavelengths has increased the possibility of acquiring improved information on CC. Retrieval of CC is extensively carried through well known spectral indices derived from hyperspectral data. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop hyperspectral indices by identifying optimum bands for CC estimation in Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub growing in forests of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Narmada district, Gujarat State, India. 196 narrow bands of EO-1 Hyperion images were screened, and the best optimum wavelength from blue, green, red, and near infrared (NIR) regions were identified based on the coefficient of determination (R²) between band reflectance and laboratory estimated CC. The identified optimum wavelengths were then employed for developing 12 hyperspectral indices. These spectral index values and CC values were then correlated to investigate the relation between laboratory measured CC and spectral indices. Band 15 of blue range and Band 22 of green range, Band 40 of the red region, and Band 79 of NIR region were found to be optimum bands for estimating CC. The optimum band based combinations on hyperspectral data proved to be the most effective indices for quantifying Butea CC with NDVI and TVI identified as the best (R² > 0.7, p < 0.01). The study demonstrated the significance of band characterization in the development of the best hyperspectral indices for the chlorophyll estimation, which can aid in monitoring the vitality of forests.

Keywords: band, characterization, chlorophyll, hyperspectral, indices

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6 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Produced from Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Bottle Wastes and Sawdust of Three Tropical Hardwood Species

Authors: Amos Olajide Oluyege, Akpanobong Akpan Ekong, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Opara, Sunday Adeniyi Adedutan, Joseph Adeola Fuwape, Olawale John Olukunle

Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of wood species and wood plastic ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs) produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottle wastes and sawdust from three hardwood species, namely, Terminalia superba, Gmelina arborea, and Ceiba pentandra. The experimental WPCs were prepared from sawdust particle size classes of ≤ 0.5, 0.5 – 1.0, and 1.0 – 2.0 mm at wood/plastic ratios of 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 (percentage by weight). The WPCs for each study variable combination were prepared in 3 replicates and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The physical properties investigated water absorption (WA), linear expansion (LE) and thickness swelling (TS) while the mechanical properties evaluated were Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The mean values for WA, LE and TS ranged from 1.07 to 34.04, 0.11 to 1.76 and 0.11 to 4.05 %, respectively. The mean values of the three physical properties increased with decrease in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each particle size class generally resulted in the lowest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the highest values for each of the three species. For each of the physical properties, T. superba had the least mean values followed by G. arborea, while the highest values were observed C. pentandra. The mean values for MOE and MOR ranged from 458.17 to 1875.67 and 2.64 to 18.39 N/mm2, respectively. The mean values of the two mechanical properties decreased with increase in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each wood particle size class generally had the highest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the least values for each of the three species. For each of the mechanical properties, C. pentandra had the highest mean values followed by G. arborea, while the least values were observed T. superba. There were improvements in both the physical and mechanical properties due to decrease in sawdust particle size class with the particle size class of ≤ 0.5 mm giving the best result. The results of the Analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) effects of the three study variables – wood species, sawdust particle size class and wood/plastic ratio on all the physical and mechanical properties of the WPCs. It can be concluded from the results of this study that wood plastic composites from sawdust particle size ≤ 0.5 and PET plastic bottle wastes with acceptable physical and mechanical properties are better produced using 40:60 wood/plastic ratio, and that at this ratio, all the three species are suitable for the production of wood plastic composites.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate plastic bottle wastes, wood plastic composite, physical properties, mechanical properties

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5 Natural Regeneration Dynamics in Different Microsites within Gaps of Different Sizes

Authors: M. E. Hammond, R. Pokorny

Abstract:

Not much research has gone into the dynamics of natural regeneration of trees species in tropical forest regions. This study seeks to investigate the impact of gap sizes and light distribution in forest floors on the regeneration of Celtis mildbraedii (CEM), Nesogordonia papaverine (NES) and Terminalia superba (TES). These are selected economically important tree species with different shade tolerance attributes. The spatial distribution patterns and the potential regeneration competition index (RCI) among species using height to diameter ratio (HDR) have been assessed. Gap sizes ranging between 287 – 971 m² were selected at the Bia Tano forest reserve, a tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana. Four (4) transects in the cardinal directions were constructed from the center of each gap. Along each transect, ten 1 m² sampling zones at 2 m spacing were established. Then, three gap microsites (labeled ecozones I, II, III) were delineated within these sampling zones based on the varying temporal light distribution on the forest floor. Data on height (H), root collar diameter (RCD) and regeneration census were gathered from each of the ten sampling zones. CEM and NES seedlings (≤ 50 cm) and saplings (≥ 51 cm) were present in all ecozones of the large gaps. Seedlings of TES were observed in all ecozones of large and small gaps. Regression analysis showed a significant negative linear relationship between independent RCD and H growth variables on dependent HDR index in ecozones II and III of both large and small gaps. There was a correlation between RCD and H in both large and small gaps. A strong regeneration competition was observed among species in ecozone II in large (df 2, F=3.6, p=0.035) and small (df 2, F=17.9, p=0.000) gaps. These results contribute to the understanding of the natural regeneration of different species with regards to light regimes in forest floors.

Keywords: Celtis mildbraedii, ecozones, gaps, Nesogordonia papaverifera, regeneration, Terminalia superba

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4 Dust Holding Capacity of Some Selected Road Side Tree Species

Authors: Jitin Rahul, Manish Kumar Jain

Abstract:

Dust pollution refers to the various locations, activities, or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. The sources of dust can be classified into two major categories anthropogenic sources (man-made sources) and natural sources. Dust kicked up by heavy vehicles (Bus, Truck, Loaders, Tankers, car etc.) travelling on highways may make up approximately 33-40% of air pollution. Plants naturally cleanse the atmosphere by absorbing gases and particulate matter plants (Leaves). Plants are very good pollution indicator and also very good for dust capturing (Dust controlling). Many types tree species like Azadirachta indica A. juss, Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz., Ficus bengalensis (Linn)., Pterocarpus marspium (Roxb.), Terminalia arjuna (Roxb, exDC.), Dalbergia sissoo roxb., and Ficus religiosa (Linn.) generally occur in roadside. These selected tree spiciness can control the dust pollution or dust capturing. It is well known that plants absorb particulate pollutants and help in dust controlling. Some tree species like (Ficus bengalensis, Ficus religiosa and Azadirachta indica) are very effective and natural means for controlling air pollution.

Keywords: dust, pollution, road, tree species

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3 Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Six Tropical Hardwood Timber Species for Briquettes

Authors: Stephen J. Mitchual, Kwasi Frimpong-Mensah, Nicholas A. Darkwa

Abstract:

The fuel potential of six tropical hardwood species namely: Triplochiton scleroxylon, Ceiba pentandra, Aningeria robusta, Terminalia superba, Celtis mildbreadii and Piptadenia africana were studied. Properties studied include the species density, gross calorific value, volatile matter, ash, organic carbon, N, H, S, Cu, Pb, As and Cd content. Fuel properties were determined using standard laboratory methods. The result indicates that the Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of the species ranged from 20.16 to 22.22 MJ/kg and they slightly varied from each other. Additionally, the GCV of the biomass materials were higher than that of other biomass materials like; wheat straw, rice straw, maize straw and sugar cane. The ash and volatile matter content varied from 0.6075 to 5.0407%, and 75.23% to 83.70% respectively. The overall rating of the properties of the six biomass materials suggest that Piptadenia africana has the best fuel property to be used as briquettes and Aningeria robusta the worse. This study therefore suggests that a holistic assessment of a biomass material needs to be done before selecting it for fuel purpose.

Keywords: ash content, briquette, calorific value, elemental composition, species, volatile matter

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2 Congolese Wood in the Antwerp Interwar Interior

Authors: M. Jaenen, M. de Bouw, A. Verdonck, M. Leus

Abstract:

During the interwar period artificial materials were often preferred, but many Antwerp architects relied on the application of wood for most of the interior finishing works and furnishings. Archival, literature and on site research of interwar suburban townhouses and the Belgian wood and furniture industry gave a new insight to the application of wood in the interwar interior. Many interwar designers favored the decorative values in all treatments of wood because of its warmth, comfort, good-wearing, and therefore, economic qualities. For the creation of a successful modern interior the texture and surface of the wood becomes as important as the color itself. This aesthetics valuation was the result of the modernization of the wood industry. The development of veneer and plywood gave the possibility to create strong, flat, long and plain wooden surfaces which are capable of retaining their shape. Also the modernization of cutting machines resulted in high quality and diversity in texture of veneer. The flat and plain plywood surfaces were modern decorated with all kinds of veneer-sliced options. In addition, wood species from the former Belgian Colony Congo were imported. Limba (Terminalia superba), kambala (Chlorophora excelsa), mubala (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum) were used in the interior of many Antwerp interwar suburban town houses. From the thirties onwards Belgian wood firms established modern manufactures in Congo. There the local wood was dried, cut and prepared for exportation to the harbor of Antwerp. The presence of all kinds of strong and decorative Congolese wood products supported its application in the interwar interior design. The Antwerp architects combined them in their designs for doors, floors, stairs, built-in-furniture, wall paneling and movable furniture.

Keywords: Antwerp, congo, furniture, interwar

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1 Carbon Sequestration Modeling in the Implementation of REDD+ Programmes in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwafemi Samuel Oyamakin

Abstract:

The forest in Nigeria is currently estimated to extend to around 9.6 million hectares, but used to expand over central and southern Nigeria decades ago. The forest estate is shrinking due to long-term human exploitation for agricultural development, fuel wood demand, uncontrolled forest harvesting and urbanization, amongst other factors, compounded by population growth in rural areas. Nigeria has lost more than 50% of its forest cover since 1990 and currently less than 10% of the country is forested. The current deforestation rate is estimated at 3.7%, which is one of the highest in the world. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks constituted what is referred to as REDD+. This study evaluated some of the existing way of computing carbon stocks using eight indigenous tree species like Mansonia, Shorea, Bombax, Terminalia superba, Khaya grandifolia, Khaya senegalenses, Pines and Gmelina arborea. While these components are the essential elements of REDD+ programme, they can be brought under a broader framework of systems analysis designed to arrive at optimal solutions for future predictions through statistical distribution pattern of carbon sequestrated by various species of tree. Available data on height and diameter of trees in Ibadan were studied and their respective potentials of carbon sequestration level were assessed and subjected to tests so as to determine the best statistical distribution that would describe the carbon sequestration pattern of trees. The result of this study suggests a reasonable statistical distribution for carbons sequestered in simulation studies and hence, allow planners and government in determining resources forecast for sustainable development especially where experiments with real-life systems are infeasible. Sustainable management of forest can then be achieved by projecting future condition of forests under different management regimes thereby supporting conservation and REDD+ programmes in Nigeria.

Keywords: REDD+, carbon, climate change, height and diameter

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