Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1688

Search results for: menstrual cycle

1688 The Relation between Body Mass Index and Menstrual Cycle Disorders in Medical Students of University Pelita Harapan, Indonesia

Authors: Gabriella Tjondro, Julita Dortua Laurentina Nainggolan

Abstract:

Introduction: There are several things affecting menstrual cycle, namely, nutritional status, diet, financial status of one’s household and exercises. The most commonly used parameter to calculate the fat in a human body is body mass index. Therefore, it is necessary to do research to prevent complications caused by menstrual disorder in the future. Design Study: This research is an observational analytical study with the cross-sectional-case control approach. Participants (n = 124; median age = 19.5 years ± SD 3.5) were classified into 2 groups: normal, NM (n = 62; BMI = 18-23 kg/m2) and obese, OB (n = 62; BMI = > 25 kg/m2). BMI was calculated from the equation; BMI = weight, kg/height, m2. Results: There were 79.10% from obese group who experienced menstrual cycle disorders (n=53, 79.10%; p value 0.00; OR 5.25) and 20.90% from normal BMI group with menstrual cycle disorders. There were several factors in this research that also influence the menstrual cycle disorders such as stress (44.78%; p value 0.00; OR 1.85), sleep disorders (25.37%; p value 0.00; OR 1.01), physical activities (25.37%; p value 0.00; OR 1.24) and diet (10.45%; p value 0.00; OR 1.07). Conclusion: There is a significant relation between body mass index (obese) and menstrual cycle disorders. However, BMI is not the only factor that affects the menstrual cycle disorders. There are several factors that also can affect menstrual cycle disorders, in this study we use stress, sleep disorders, physical activities and diet, in which none of them are dominant.

Keywords: menstrual disorders, menstrual cycle, obesity, body mass index, stress, sleep disorders, physical activities, diet

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1687 The Difference of Menstrual Cycle Profile and Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Changes In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Healthy Women

Authors: Ning Li, Jiacheng Zhang, Zheng Yang, Sylvia Kang

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Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common physiological symptom in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods and excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Mira analyzes the cycle profiles and the luteinizing hormone (LH) changes in urine, closely related to the fertility level of healthy women and PCOS women. From the difference between the two groups, Mira helps to understand the physiological state of PCOS women and their hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle. Methods: In this study, data from 1496 cycles and information from 342 women belonging to two groups (181 PCOS and 161 Healthy) were collected and analyzed. Women test their luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine daily with Mira fertility test wand and Mira analyzer, from the day after the menstruation to the starting day of the next menstruation. All the collected data meets Mira’s user agreement and users’ identification was removed. The cycle length, LH peak, and other cycle information of the PCOS group were compared with the Healthy group. Results: The average cycle length of PCOS women is 41 days and of the Healthy women is 33 days. 91.4% of cycle length is within 40 days for the Healthy group, while it decreases to 71.9% for the PCOS group. This means PCOS women have a longer menstrual cycle and more variation during the cycle. With more variation, the ovulation prediction becomes more difficult for the PCOS group. The deviation between the LH surge day and the predicted ovulation day, calculated by the starting day of the next menstruation minus 14 days, is greater in the PCOS group compared with the Healthy group. Also, 46.96% of PCOS women have an irregular cycle, and only 19.25% of healthy women show an irregular cycle. Conclusion: PCOS women have longer menstrual cycles and more variation during the menstrual cycles. The traditional ovulation prediction is not suitable for PCOS women.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, PCOS, urinary luteinizing hormone, Mira

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1686 The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women

Authors: Kelsey Scanlon

Abstract:

Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anaerobic, athlete, female, power

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1685 Association of Caffeine Consumption in Coffee, Tea and Soft Drinks with Age of Menopause

Authors: Julita D. L. Nainggolan, Cindy Novita Ongkowijoyo, Veli Sungono, Dyana Safitri Velies, Ernestine Vivie Sadeli, Jimmy

Abstract:

Introduction: Normal menstrual cycle in women ranges from 21-34 days. Menopause is defined as the time when there have been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. Caffeine might increase the estradiol in the early of follicular phase and possibly increase the progesterone and shorten menstruation cycle. Women with shorter menstrual cycle, (below 26 days) would likely get to menopause 1.4 years earlier than those who are normal, and 2.2 years earlier than women with longer menstrual cycle. Purpose: To study the association of caffeine consumption in coffee, tea, and soft drinks with the age of menopause. Design Study: A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling of 132 menopause women from elderly nursing, hospitals and students’ relatives from August 2015-December 2015. The mean difference of age of menopause among the caffeine intake was analyzed by using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Results: Mean current age of the respondents are 61.4 years ± SD 9.8; and age of menopause was 47.7 years ± SD 4.2. There are 49.6% who drink coffee, 62.6% of tea and 7.6% of soft drinks. The analysis of t-test showed no significant mean difference in age of menopause among women who drink coffee, tea and soft drinks, mean age of 47.63 ± 4.3 in coffee with p=0.392, mean age of 47.8 ± 4 in tea with p=0.373; and mean age of 46 ± 5.5 with p=0.083 after adjustment of smoking history. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeine among women who drink coffee, tea, and soft drinks did not show significant mean difference in age of menopause.

Keywords: caffeine, menopause, coffee, tea, soda, soft drinks

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1684 Influence of Menstrual Cycle on the Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics

Authors: Sandhyarani Guggilla

Abstract:

For several reasons no two individuals can be considered identical and hence individualization of therapy is the current trend in treating the patients. Influence of menstrual cycle on the pharmacokinetics of Doxycycline. Twelve healthy female volunteers have been included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. The age ranged from 16 to 25 years. Experimental design: The volunteer selection and recruitment will be carried out after obtaining informed consent from each volunteer. The drug administration will be done to each volunteer at 7 a.m along with a glass of water after an overnight fasting on 3rd, 13th and 23rd day of menstrual cycle. These saliva samples will be stored under frozen conditions until HPLC analysis. Results: In the present study the changes in estrogen levels during ovulatory phase have not shown any influence onAUCo-t of Doxycycline. Only AUCo-t of doxycycline showed an increasing trend with increasing levels of estrogen in ovulatory phase, but not in other phases. Even though the FSH levels differed significantly among volunteers during different phases FSH does not seem to influence the overall pharmacokinetic behavior of Doxycycline during different phases. The present study indicated only the trend that the hormone levels may influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of the Doxycycline. Conclusion: In the present study the changes in hormones have shown an increasing C-max, increasing AUCo-t of Doxycycline pharmacokinetics significantly in follicular phase than ovulatory and luteal phases among volunteers during different phases. In other pharmacokinetic properties like clearance, biological half-life, volume of distribution, mean residence time the change was not significant.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, doxycycline, estrogen, FSH, ovulatory phase

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1683 Women's Menstrual Experience in India: A Psycho-Social Approach

Authors: Bhavna Rajagopal, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni

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Today women experience more menstrual cycles than their ancestors did a hundred years ago, owing to early puberty, fewer pregnancies and dietary changes. Much of the research in menstruation is located in the medical domain with a focus on physical symptoms. The research in psychology is largely concerned with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), whereas the focus in sociology is on social and cultural practices relating to menstruation. Research that simultaneously studies the physical, psychological, social and cultural aspects is lacking. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify socio-cultural, psychological and physical factors that interact to influence a woman’s experience of menstruation in the urban setting. The study included seven unmarried women in the age group of 24-30 and data was obtained through a focus group discussion. The transcript of the focus group discussion was thematically analysed. Two major themes relating to the self and social experience of menstruation emerged. Themes relating to the self included menarcheal experiences, self-perception, mood and management of menstrual hygiene and symptoms while themes relating to social experience included the construction of menstruation by family and peers, and cultural factors. Attitudes towards the menstrual cycle appeared to be primarily influenced by severity of symptoms and the resulting disruption to daily life. Outcomes of this study have indicated that future research needs to study menstruation and its impact on women’s wellbeing by adopting a socio-ecological approach and by collecting data using the whole cycle approach across a woman’s reproductive years.

Keywords: India, menstrual cycle, psychosocial approach, wellbeing

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1682 Relationship between Body Mass Composition and Primary Dysmenorrhoea

Authors: Snehalata Tembhurne

Abstract:

Introduction: A healthy menstrual cycle is a sign of women’s sound health.Various variables may influence the length and regularity of menstrual cycle.Studies have revealed that menstrual cycle abnormalities may be associated with psychological stress,lack of physical exercise, alteration in body composition,endocrine disturbances,higher estrogen levels as seen in obese females.Hence there is an urgent need to find out the relationship between variations in body mass composition(BMI & body fat%) with menstrual abnormalities like primary dysmenorrhoea. Aim: To find out the relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Objectives: 1.To check whether there is any association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhoea.2.To check whether there is any association between body fat percentage and primary dysmenorrhoea. NULL HYPOTHESES-There is no relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Hypothesis: There exists a relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months with 90 samples selected on random basis. The procedure was explained to the participant and a written consent was taken thereafter. The participant was made to stand on the BODY COMPOSITION SCANNING MONITOR, which scanned the physical profile of the participant (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage and visceral fat).Thereafter, the candidate was asked about her menstrual irregularities and was asked to grade her level of dysmenorrhoea (if present) using the Verbal Dimensional Dysmenorrhea Scale. Results: Chi square test of association was used to find out the association between body mass composition(body mass index,body fat percentage) and primary dysmenorrhea.The chi-square value for association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhea was 38.63 p<0.001 which was statistically significant.The chi-square value for the association of body fat % & primary dysmenorrhea was 30.09,p<0.001which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Study shows that there exists a significant relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea and as the value of Body mass index and body fat percentages goes on increasing in females, the severity of primary dysmenorrhea also increases.

Keywords: body mass index, body composition screening monitor, primary dysmenorrhea, verbal dimensional dysmenorrhea scale

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1681 Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Nahla Al-Bayyari, Rae’d Hailat

Abstract:

Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anthropometric, overweight, polycystic ovary syndrome, vitamin D₃

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1680 Analysis of Selected Hematological Variables during Three Different Menstrual Phases between Sedentary and Sports Women

Authors: G. Vasanthi

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The purpose of the study was to analyse the red blood cells and white blood cells during three different menstrual phases between sedentary and sports women. To achieve this purpose, fifteen female sedentary post graduate students (M.A., M.Sc.) and fifteen students of Master of Physical Education and Sports (M.P.Ed.) women who regularly involved in vigouous sports training and participated in sports competition on different games were selected by adopting random sampling method. All the students were hostelers and their age group was between 20 to 22 years. The blood sample were collected during the mid-period of the three different phases to calculate the red blood cells and white blood cells. The data collected were treated statistically by using analysis of variance. The results reveal that the RBC and WBC is found to be significant between sedentary and sports women during the three different menstrual phases.

Keywords: RBC, WBC, menstrual, proliferative, secretary, sedentary women, sports women

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1679 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility

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1678 Menstrual Hygiene Practices Among the Women Age 15-24 in India

Authors: Priyanka Kumari

Abstract:

Menstrual hygiene is an important aspect in the life of young girls. Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) is defined as ‘Women and adolescent girls using a clean material to absorb or collect menstrual blood that can be changed in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period, using soap and water for washing the body as required and having access to facilities to dispose of used menstrual management materials. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence of hygienic menstrual practices and socio-demographic correlates of hygienic menstrual practices among women aged 15-24 in India. Data from the 2015–2016 National Family Health Survey–4 for 244,500 menstruating women aged 15–24 were used. The methods have been categorized into two, women who use sanitary napkins, locally prepared napkins and tampons considered as a hygienic method and those who use cloth, any other method and nothing used at all during menstruation considered as an unhygienic method. Women’s age, year of schooling, religion, place of residence, caste/tribe, marital status, wealth index, type of toilet facility used, region, the structure of the house and exposure to mass media are taken as an independent variables. Bivariate analysis was carried out with selected background characteristics to analyze the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with the use of hygienic methods during menstruation. The odds for the use of the hygienic method were computed by employing binary logistic regression. Almost 60% of the women use cloth as an absorbent during menstruation to prevent blood stains from becoming evident. The hygienic method, which includes the use of locally prepared napkins, sanitary napkins and tampons, is 16.27%, 41.8% and 2.4%. The proportion of women who used hygienic methods to prevent blood stains from becoming evident was 57.58%. Multivariate analyses reveal that education of women, wealth and marital status are found to be the most important positive factors of hygienic menstrual practices. The structure of the house and exposure to mass media also have a positive impact on the use of menstrual hygiene practices. In contrast, women residing in rural areas belonging to scheduled tribes are less likely to use hygienic methods during their menstruation. Geographical regions are also statistically significant with the use of hygienic methods during menstruation. This study reveals that menstrual hygiene is not satisfactory among a large proportion of adolescent girls. They need more education about menstrual hygiene. A variety of factors affect menstrual behaviors; amongst these, the most influential is economic status, educational status and residential status, whether urban or rural. It is essential to design a mechanism to address and access healthy menstrual knowledge. It is important to encourage policies and quality standards that promote safe and affordable options and dynamic markets for menstrual products. Materials that are culturally acceptable, contextually available and affordable. Promotion of sustainable, environmentally friendly menstrual products and their disposal as it is a very important aspect of sustainable development goals. We also need to educate the girls about the services which are provided by the government, like a free supply of sanitary napkins to overcome reproductive tract infections. Awareness regarding the need for information on healthy menstrual practices is very important. It is essential to design a mechanism to address and access healthy menstrual practices. Emphasis should be given to the education of young girls about the importance of maintaining hygiene during menstruation to prevent the risk of reproductive tract infections.

Keywords: adolescent, menstruation, menstrual hygiene management, menstrual hygiene

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1677 Functionalization of Sanitary Pads with Probiotic Paste

Authors: O. Sauperl, L. Fras Zemljic

Abstract:

The textile industry is gaining increasing importance in the field of medical materials. Therefore, presented research is focused on textile materials for external (out-of-body) use. Such materials could be various hygienic textile products (diapers, tampons, sanitary napkins, incontinence products, etc.), protective textiles and various hospital linens (surgical covers, masks, gowns, cloths, bed linens, etc.) wound pillows, bandages, orthopedic socks, etc. Function of tampons and sanitary napkins is not only to provide protection during the menstrual cycle, but their function can be also to take care of physiological or pathological vaginal discharge. In general, women's intimate areas are against infection protected by a low pH value of the vaginal flora. High pH inhibits the development of harmful microorganisms, as it is difficult to be reproduced in an acidic environment. The normal vaginal flora in healthy women is highly colonized by lactobacilli. The lactic acid produced by these organisms maintains the constant acidity of the vagina. If the balance of natural protection breaks, infections can occur. In the market, there exist probiotic tampons as a medical product supplying the vagina with beneficial probiotic lactobacilli. But, many users have concerns about the use of tampons due to the possible dry-out of the vagina as well as the possible toxic shock syndrome, which is the reason that they use mainly sanitary napkins during the menstrual cycle. Functionalization of sanitary napkins with probiotics is, therefore, interesting in regard to maintain a healthy vaginal flora and to offer to users added value of the sanitary napkins in the sense of health- and environmentally-friendly products. For this reason, the presented research is oriented in functionalization of the sanitary napkins with the probiotic paste in order to activate the lactic acid bacteria presented in the core of the functionalized sanitary napkin at the time of the contact with the menstrual fluid. In this way, lactobacilli could penetrate into vagina and by maintaining healthy vaginal flora to reduce the risk of vaginal disorders. In regard to the targeted research problem, the influence of probiotic paste applied onto cotton hygienic napkins on selected properties was studied. The aim of the research was to determine whether the sanitary napkins with the applied probiotic paste may assure suitable vaginal pH to maintain a healthy vaginal flora during the use of this product. Together with this, sorption properties of probiotic functionalized sanitary napkins were evaluated and compared to the untreated one. The research itself was carried out on the basis of tracking and controlling the input parameters, currently defined by Slovenian producer (Tosama d.o.o.) as the most important. Successful functionalization of sanitary pads with the probiotic paste was confirmed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results of the methods used within the presented research show that the absorption of the pads treated with probiotic paste deteriorates compared to non-treated ones. The coating shows a 6-month stability. Functionalization of sanitary pads with probiotic paste is believed to have a commercial potential for lowering the probability of infection during the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: functionalization, probiotic paste, sanitary pads, textile materials

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1676 A Comparative Study of Public and Private School Adolescent Girls on the Issues of Menstrual Hygiene and the Management Issues

Authors: Ashok Pandey, Rajan Adhikari

Abstract:

Introduction: Menstruation is part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty. It is a phenomenon unique to the females. During a menstrual period, a woman bleeds from her uterus via the vagina. For decades, in many countries, academic school ‘type,’ private or public, as a predictor of or factor in future academic success has been researched and debated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative study was carried out with adolescent girls studying in both public and private schools of Kathmandu valley. A total of 100 girls participated in the survey, and out of them 21 participated in the FGD and 5 in the in- depth interview. Quantitative data from the survey was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software. Informed verbal consent with the respective head of school and the respondents were taken before data collection. Results:The age of the respondents ranges from 11 to 18 years, with mean age of menarche being 12.37 years in both school adolescent girls. 70 percent of the public school adolescent girls and 72 percent of the private school adolescent girls are feeling upset and tension during menarche. There is a statistically significant difference on take rest during the period and good hygienic practice during menstruation of public/private school, at α=0. 05 level of significance. There is a statistically significant difference on overall score of practice during menstruation between public and private adolescent girls. Conclusion: Private schools children are more knowledgeable and maintain hygiene as compere to public school even though, it can be said that among the adolescent school girls both in public and private school, menstrual knowledge and perceptions are poor and practices often not optimal for proper hygiene. Often ignored issues of privacy affect the hygienic practices and daily lives.

Keywords: Comparison, Menstruation, Private school, Public School

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1675 Engaging Women Entrepreneurs in School Adolescent Health Program to Ensure Menstrual Hygiene Management in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Toslim Uddin Khan, Jesmin Akter, Mohiuddin Ahmed

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Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) and personal health-care practice is a critical issue to prevent morbidity and other reproductive health complications among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Inadequate access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities lead to unhealthy MHM practices that resulted in poor reproductive health outcomes. It is evident from different studies that superstitions and misconception are more common in rural communities that limit young girls’ access to and understanding of the menstrual hygiene and self care practices. The state-of-the-art approach of Social Marketing Company (SMC) is proved to be instrumental in delivering reinforcing health messages, making public health and hygiene products available at the door steps of the community through community mobilization programs in rural Bangladesh. School health program is one of the flagship interventions of SMC to equip adolescent girls and boys with correct knowledge of health and hygiene practices among themselves, their families and peers. In Bangladeshi culture, adolescent girls often feel shy to ask fathers or male family members about buying sanitary napkin from local pharmacy and they seem to be reluctant to seek help regarding their menstrual problems. A recent study reveals that 48% adolescent girls are using sanitary napkins while majority of them are unaware of menstrual hygiene practices in Bangladesh. Under school adolescent program, SMC organizes health education sessions for adolescent girls from grade seven to ten using enter-educate approach with special focus on sexual and reproductive health and menstrual hygiene issues including delaying marriage and first pregnancy. In addition, 2500 rural women entrepreneurs branded as community sales agents are also involved in disseminating health messages and selling priority health products including sanitary napkin at the household level. These women entrepreneurs are serving as a source of sustainable supply of the sanitary napkins for the rural adolescent girls and thereby they are earning profit margins on the sales they make. A recent study on the impact of adolescent program activities reveals that majority (71%) of the school adolescent girls are currently using sanitary napkins. Health education equips and empowers adolescent girls with accurate knowledge about menstrual hygiene practices and self-care as well. Therefore, engagement of female entrepreneurs in school adolescent health program at the community level is one of the promising ways to improve menstrual hygiene practices leading to increased use of sanitary napkin in rural and semi-rural communities in Bangladesh.

Keywords: school adolescent program, social marketing, women entrepreneurs, menstrual hygiene management

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1674 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

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The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

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1673 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh

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A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids

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1672 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

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Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

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1671 Preventable Stress and Trauma, and Menstrual Health Management: Experiences of Adolescent Girls from India

Authors: Daisy Dutta, Chhanda Chakraborti

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Background and significance of the study: Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) is poor in many Lower and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) such as India. Poor and inadequate menstrual hygiene has an adverse effect on the health and social life of adolescent girls and women. There are many well-known barriers to adequate Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM); e.g., lack of awareness, lack of WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) facilities, lack of affordable menstrual absorbents, etc. But, there is a unique barrier which is very much avoidable; i.e., lack of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation. Menstruation is associated with various social and cultural restrictions and taboos and being a taboo topic; often there is no discussion in the society on this topic. Thus, many adolescent girls encounter the menarche with a lot of unnecessary and avoidable trauma, stress and awkwardness. This trauma, stress, and anxiety are even more prevalent among adolescent girls residing in rural areas. This study argues that this unnecessary stress and anxiety of the adolescent girls can be alleviated by reinforcing social support and adequate information and guidance about MHM and eliminating the futile socio-cultural restrictions during menstruation. Methodology: A qualitative study was conducted in a North-eastern State of India where 45 adolescent girls were interviewed both from rural and urban areas. The adolescent girls were asked about their experiences of stress and anxiety on their first menstruation, their preparedness for menarche, their source of information and guidance, their hygiene-practices, and the various restrictions they follow. Findings: Maximum number of girls did not receive any information about menstruation before menarche. Most of them reported that they were terrified about their first menstruation as they were unprepared. Among those who were aware before menarche, reported that they did not receive proper guidance to manage their menstruation in a hygienic manner. Hygiene-related practices are also influenced by their knowledge about MHM. In maximum cases, girls are bound to follow certain cultural and religious restrictions even if they don’t want to follow which created additional stress in managing their menstruation with dignity. Conclusion: Lack of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation and MHM along with an array of socio-cultural restrictions can enhance a negative attitude in adolescent girls towards menstruation due to which they have to go through an extra and unnecessary burden of stress and trauma. This stress and trauma is preventable by improving the provisions of proper guidance and counseling about menstruation in a supportive environment.

Keywords: adolescent girls, menstrual hygiene management, socio-cultural restrictions, stress, trauma

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1670 A Further Study on the 4-Ordered Property of Some Chordal Ring Networks

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Hsiu-Chunj Pan

Abstract:

Given a graph G. A cycle of G is a sequence of vertices of G such that the first and the last vertices are the same. A hamiltonian cycle of G is a cycle containing all vertices of G. The graph G is k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) if for any sequence of k distinct vertices of G, there exists a cycle (resp. hamiltonian cycle) in G containing these k vertices in the specified order. Obviously, any cycle in a graph is 1-ordered, 2-ordered and 3-ordered. Thus the study of any graph being k-ordered (resp. k-ordered hamiltonian) always starts with k = 4. Most studies about this topic work on graphs with no real applications. To our knowledge, the chordal ring families were the first one utilized as the underlying topology in interconnection networks and shown to be 4-ordered [1]. Furthermore, based on computer experimental results in [1], it was conjectured that some of them are 4-ordered hamiltonian. In this paper, we intend to give some possible directions in proving the conjecture.

Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle, 4-ordered, Chordal rings, 3-regular

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1669 The Effect of Catastrophic Losses on Insurance Cycle: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovčević, Maja Mihelja Žaja

Abstract:

This paper provides an analysis of the insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and whether they are affected by catastrophic losses on a global level. In general, it is considered that insurance cycles are particularly pronounced in periods of financial crisis, but are also affected by the growing number of catastrophic losses. They cause the change of insurance cycle and premium growth and intensification and narrowing of the coverage conditions, so these variables move in the same direction and these phenomena point to a new cycle. The main goal of this paper is to determine the existence of insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and investigate whether catastrophic losses have an influence on insurance cycles.

Keywords: catastrophic loss, insurance cycle, premium, Republic of Croatia

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1668 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously

Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen

Abstract:

Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.

Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO₂ cycle, transcritical CO₂ cycle

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1667 A Study on the Accelerated Life Cycle Test Method of the Motor for Home Appliances by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the accelerated life cycle test method of the motor for home appliances that demand high reliability. Life Cycle of parts in home appliances also should be 10 years because life cycle of the home appliances such as washing machine, refrigerator, TV is at least 10 years. In case of washing machine, the life cycle test method of motor is advanced for 3000 cycle test (1cycle = 2hours). However, 3000 cycle test incurs loss for the time and cost. Objectives of this study are to reduce the life cycle test time and the number of test samples, which could be realized by using acceleration factor for the test time and reduction factor for the number of sample.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, motor reliability test, motor for washing machine, BLDC motor

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1666 On the Basis Number and the Minimum Cycle Bases of the Wreath Product of Paths with Wheels

Authors: M. M. M. Jaradat

Abstract:

For a given graph G, the set Ԑ of all subsets of E(G) forms an |E(G)| dimensional vector space over Z2 with vector addition X⊕Y = (X\Y ) [ (Y \X) and scalar multiplication 1.X = X and 0.X = Ø for all X, Yϵ Ԑ. The cycle space, C(G), of a graph G is the vector subspace of (E; ⊕; .) spanned by the cycles of G. Traditionally there have been two notions of minimality among bases of C(G). First, a basis B of G is called a d-fold if each edge of G occurs in at most d cycles of the basis B. The basis number, b(G), of G is the least non-negative integer d such that C(G) has a d-fold basis; a required basis of C(G) is a basis for which each edge of G belongs to at most b(G) elements of B. Second, a basis B is called a minimum cycle basis (MCB) if its total length Σ BϵB |B| is minimum among all bases of C(G). The lexicographic product GρH has the vertex set V (GρH) = V (G) x V (H) and the edge set E(GρH) = {(u1, v1)(u2, v2)|u1 = u2 and v1 v2 ϵ E(H); or u1u2 ϵ E(G) and there is α ϵ Aut(H) such that α (v1) = v2}. In this work, a construction of a minimum cycle basis for the wreath product of wheels with paths is presented. Also, the length of the longest cycle of a minimum cycle basis is determined. Moreover, the basis number for the wreath product of the same is investigated.

Keywords: cycle space, minimum cycle basis, basis number, wreath product

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1665 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Ammonia-Water Rankine Cycles and Kalina Cycle

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative exergy analysis of ammonia-water Rankine cycles with and without regeneration and Kalina cycle for recovery of low-temperature heat source. Special attention is paid to the effect of system parameters such as ammonia mass fraction and turbine inlet pressure on the exergetical performance of the systems. Results show that maximum exergy efficiency can be obtained in the regenerative Rankine cycle for high turbine inlet pressures. However, Kalina cycle shows better exergy efficiency for low turbine inlet pressures, and the optimum ammonia mass fractions of Kalina cycle are lower than Rankine cycles.

Keywords: ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, Kalina cycle, exergy, exergy destruction, low-temperature heat source

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1664 Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle for Waste Heat Recovery from Gas Turbine with Respect to Cooling Condition

Authors: Young Min Kim, Jeong Lak Sohn, Eui Soo Yoon

Abstract:

This study describes the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) power cycle for recovering waste heat from a gas turbine. An S-CO2 cycle that recovers heat from small industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines can outperform a steam-bottoming cycle despite its simplicity and compactness. In using S-CO2 power cycles for waste heat recovery, a split cycle was studied to maximize the net output power by incorporating the utilization efficiency of the waste heat (lowering the temperature of the exhaust gas through the heater) along with the thermal efficiency of the cycle (minimizing the temperature difference for the heat transfer, exergy loss). The cooling condition of the S-CO2 WHR system has a great impact on the performance and the optimum low pressure of the system. Furthermore, the optimum high pressure of the S-CO2 WHR systems for the maximum power from the given heat sources is dependent on the temperature of the waste heat source.

Keywords: exergy loss, gas turbine, optimization, supercritical CO2 power cycle, split cycle, waste heat recovery

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1663 Pattern and Risk Factors of Menstrual Regulation Service Use among Ever-married Women in Bangladesh: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cross-sectional Study

Authors: Md. Rashed Aalm, Md. Nuruzzaman Khan, Yothin Sawangdee

Abstract:

Background: Around 47% of the total pregnancies are unintended in Bangladesh, which lead to several adverse consequences, including maternal and child mortality. Use of menstrual regulation (MR) can help women to reduce unintended pregnancy related adverse consequences. We explored the prevalence and determinants of MR services among ever-married women in Bangladesh. Methods: Total of 14,346 ever-married women data were analysed from the 2017 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Our study variable was use or non-use of MR services. Individual, household, and community level factors were the explanatory factors. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression model was used to determine the factors associated with MR services in Bangladesh. Results: Nearly 7% of the total women in Bangladesh use MR services. Use of MR services was found higher among women who were aged 20-30 ages (IRR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.17–2.17), who were overweight (IRR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.13–1.81), had at least 1 child (IRR 2.97, 95% CI: 2.34– 3.77) or > 2 children (IRR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.45–4.20), and the birth preceding birth interval was(2 – 4) years (IRR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13–2.15). Around 1.39 times (95% CI: 1.11–1.73) higher likelihood of MR was found among women whose husbands were engage with business. At the community level, MR service was found lower among the women who resided in the community with higherilliteracy (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42–0.96) and the Mymensingh division (IRR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91). Conclusion: Use of MR service is comparatively low, which indicate a significant proportion of unintended pregnancy continued toward life-birth. This could be responsible for higher adverse maternal and child health outcomes in Bangladesh. Initiatives should be taken to ensure MR services is available when women need this service.

Keywords: menstrual regulation, pattern, risk, maternal health, Bangladesh

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1662 Thermodynamic Optimization of an R744 Based Transcritical Refrigeration System with Dedicated Mechanical Subcooling Cycle

Authors: Mihir Mouchum Hazarika, Maddali Ramgopal, Souvik Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The thermodynamic analysis shows that the performance of the R744 based transcritical refrigeration cycle drops drastically for higher ambient temperatures. This is due to the peculiar s-shape of the isotherm in the supercritical region. However, subcooling of the refrigerant at the gas cooler exit enhances the performance of the R744 based system. The present study is carried out to analyze the R744 based transcritical system with dedicated mechanical subcooling cycle. Based on this proposed cycle, the thermodynamic analysis is performed, and optimum operating parameters are determined. The amount of subcooling and the pressure ratio in the subcooling cycle are the parameters which are needed to be optimized to extract the maximum COP from this proposed cycle. It is expected that this study will be helpful in implementing the dedicated subcooling cycle with R744 based transcritical system to improve the performance.

Keywords: optimization, R744, subcooling, transcritical

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1661 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang

Abstract:

The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

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1660 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller

Abstract:

A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and super-heating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2.

Keywords: organic rankine cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids, environmental engineering

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1659 Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings

Authors: Mahsa Karimpour, Martin Belusko, Ke Xing, Frank Bruno

Abstract:

Traditionally the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.

Keywords: building life cycle energy, embodied energy, energy design measures, low energy buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 665