Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: orchidectomy

3 Micro-CT Assessment of Fracture Healing in Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis Model

Authors: Ahmad N. Shuid, Azri Jalil, Sabarul A. Mokhtar, Mohd F. Khamis, Norliza Muhammad


Micro-CT provides a 3-D image of fracture callus, which can be used to calculate quantitative parameters. In this study, micro-CT was used to assess the fracture healing of orchidectomised rats, an androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. The effect of testosterone (hormone replacement) on fracture healing was also assessed with micro-CT. The rats were grouped into orchidectomised-control (ORX), sham-operated (SHAM), and orchidectomised; and injected with testosterone intramuscularly once weekly (TEN). Treatment duration was six weeks. The fracture was induced and fixed with plates and screws in the right tibia of all the rats. An in vitro micro-CT was used to scan the fracture callus area which consisted of 100 axial slices above and below fracture line. The analysis has shown that micro-CT was able to detect a significant difference in the fracture healing rate of ORX and TEN groups. In conclusion, micro-CT can be used to assess fracture healing in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. This imaging tool can be used to test agents that influence fracture healing in the androgen-deficient model.

Keywords: androgen, fracture, orchidectomy, osteoporosis

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2 Literature Review of Rare Synchronous Tumours

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Tan, Rajinder Singh-Rai


We present the first reported case of a concomitant Leydig cell tumor (LCT) and paratesticular leiomyoma in an adult male with a known history of bilateral cryptorchidism. An 80-year-old male presented with a 2-month history of a left testicular lump associated with mild discomfort and a gradual increase in size on a background of bilateral cryptorchidism requiring multiple orchidopexy procedures as a child. Ultrasound confirmed a lesion suspicious for malignancy and he proceeded to a left radical orchidectomy. Histopathological assessment of the left testis revealed a concomitant testicular LCT with malignant features and paratesticular leiomyoma. Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are the most common pure testicular sex cord-stromal tumors, accounting for up to 3% of all testicular tumors. They can occur at almost any age, but are noted to have a bi-modal distribution, with a peak incidence at 6 to 10 and at 20 to 50 years of age. LCT’s are often hormonally active and can lead to feminizing or virilizing syndromes. LCT’s are usually regarded as benign but can rarely exhibit malignant traits. Paratesticular tumours are uncommon and their reported prevalence varies between 3% and 16%. They occur in a complex anatomical area which includes the contents of the spermatic cord, testicular tunics, epididymis and vestigial remnants. Up to 90% of paratesticular tumours are believed to originate from the spermatic cord, though it is often difficult to definitively ascertain the exact site of origin. Although any type of soft-tissue neoplasm can be found in the paratesticular region, the most common benign tumors reported are lipomas of the spermatic cord, adenomatoid tumours of the epididymis and leiomyomas of the testis. Genetic studies have identified potential mutations that could potentially cause LCTs, but there are no known associations between concomitant LCTs and paratesticular tumors. The presence of cryptorchidism in adults with both LCTs and paratesticular neoplasms individually has been previously reported and it appears intuitive that cryptorchidism is likely to be associated with the concomitant presentation in this case report. This report represents the first documented case in the literature of a unilateral concomitant LCT and paratesticular leiomyoma on a background of bilateral cryptorchidism.

Keywords: testicular cancer, leydig cell tumour, leiomyoma, paratesticular neoplasms

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1 Effects of Butea superba Roxb. on Skeletal Muscle Functions and Parvalbumin Levels of Orchidectomized Rat

Authors: Surapong Vongvatcharanon, Fardeela Binalee, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Uraporn Vongvatcharanon


Hypogonadism is characterized by a decline in sex hormone levels, especially testosterone. It has been shown to be an important contributor to the decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength and performance, a condition known as sarcopenia. Preparations from Butea superba Roxb. (red Kwao Krua) have been reported to have androgenic properties. The active compounds are proposed to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. Treatment with B. superba has been shown to improve erectile dysfunction in males. Parvalbumin (PV) is a relaxing factor and identified in fast twitch fibers. Alterations of the PV levels affects skeletal muscle functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of orhchidectomy, testosterone replacement and different doses of Butea superba Roxb. on the structure, performance, levels of parvalbumin, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius muscles of orchidectomized rats. Twelve-week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized (BS-0), orchidectomized group that was treated with testosterone replacement of 6 µg/kg (TP) or an orchidectomized group that was treated with various doses of an extract from Butea superba Roxb.; 5 mg/kg (BS-5), 50 mg/kg (BS-50) and 500 mg/kg (BS-500) all for 90 days. The testosterone level, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight, muscle fiber size, strength and endurance in both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group. Treatment with the B. superba Roxb. extract replacement group improved muscle fiber size, strength and endurance, but not total testosterone levels, or the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight. Furthermore, the parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities were reduced in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group and the B. superba Roxb. extract groups for both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle. This study indicated that the reduction of testosterone level led to a decrease of the androgen receptor density resulting in a decline in the muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The decrease of parvalbumin levels affected muscle performance. Testosterone replacement increased the androgen receptor density and led to an increase of muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The increase in the parvalbumin levels may result in an improvement of muscle performance. This may explain one mechanism of testosterone on muscle mass and strength in the testosterone dependent sarcopenia. The B. superba Roxb. extract groups also had improved muscle mass, strength and endurance, parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen immunoreactivities compared to the BS-O group . Butea superba Roxb. Extracts contains a flavonoid (3, 7, 3'-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), flavonoiglycoside (3, 3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and isoflavanolignans (butesuperins A and butesuperins B) all known to inhibit the cAMP phosphodiesterase enzyme. Therefore, cAMP signaling may have adaptive effects on skeletal muscle by increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance.

Keywords: Butea superba, parvalbumin, skeletal muscle, orchidectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 325