Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 632

Search results for: skeletal muscle

632 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah

Abstract:

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced to the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and has globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. EMS is known as the application of electrical current transcutaneous to muscles through electrodes to induce involuntary contractions that can lead to the increment of muscle mass and strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasi-experimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Keywords: body composition, EMS, skeletal muscle mass, strength

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631 The Effect of Fibre Orientation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Skeletal Muscle: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Christobel Gondwe, Yongtao Lu, Claudia Mazzà, Xinshan Li

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Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the human body system and function by generating voluntary forces and facilitating body motion. However, The mechanical properties and behaviour of skeletal muscle are still not comprehensively known yet. As such, various robust engineering techniques have been applied to better elucidate the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle. It is considered that muscle mechanics are highly governed by the architecture of the fibre orientations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different fibre orientations on the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle.In this study, a continuum mechanics approach–finite element (FE) analysis was applied to the left bicep femoris long head to determine the contractile mechanism of the muscle using Hill’s three-element model. The geometry of the muscle was segmented from the magnetic resonance images. The muscle was modelled as a quasi-incompressible hyperelastic (Mooney-Rivlin) material. Two types of fibre orientations were implemented: one with the idealised fibre arrangement, i.e. parallel single-direction fibres going from the muscle origin to insertion sites, and the other with curved fibre arrangement which is aligned with the muscle shape.The second fibre arrangement was implemented through the finite element method; non-uniform rational B-spline (FEM-NURBs) technique by means of user material (UMAT) subroutines. The stress-strain behaviour of the muscle was investigated under idealised exercise conditions, and will be further analysed under physiological conditions. The results of the two different FE models have been outputted and qualitatively compared.

Keywords: FEM-NURBS, finite element analysis, Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic, muscle architecture

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630 Contraction and Membrane Potential of C2C12 with GTXs

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto

Abstract:

Culture techniques of skeletal muscle cells are advanced in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle. As applied research of cultured muscle, myopathy (muscles disease) treatment is expected and development bio of actuator is also expected in biomedical engineering. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) is known as neurotoxins that enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as well as a phytotoxin. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. Contraction of myotubes is induced by applied external electrical stimulation. Contraction and membrane potential change of skeletal muscle cells are induced by injection of current. We, therefore, concluded that effect of Grayanotoxins on contraction and membrane potential of C2C12 relate to acute toxicity of GTXs.

Keywords: skeletal muscle cells C2C12, grayanotoxins, contraction, membrane potential, acute toxicity, pytotoxin, motubes

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629 Effect of Grayanotoxins on Skeletal Muscle Cell C2C12

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto

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Myopathy (muscles disease) treatment are expected in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle to bio actuator is performed in Biomedical Engineering as applied research of cultured muscle. This study is about cultured myoblast C2C12 from mouse skeletal muscle and a mechanism of cultured muscle contraction by electric stimulation is investigated. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) belong to neurotoxins known to enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as a phytotoxin. We investigated the functional role of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. A change in membrane potential is measured using a micro glass tube electrode contraction of myotubes is induced by applying an external electrical stimulation. The contraction and membrane potential change induced by injection of current using the micro glass electrode are also measured. From the result, contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells was affected by GTXs treatment, suggesting that the diverse chemical structures of GTXs are responsible for contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells.

Keywords: skeletal muscle, C2C12, myoblast, myotubes, contraction, Grayanotoxins, membrane potential, neurotoxins, phytotoxin

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628 Variations in % Body Fat, the Amount of Skeletal Muscle and the Index of Physical Fitness in Relation to Sports Activity/Inactivity in Different Age Groups of the Adult Population in the Czech Republic

Authors: Hřebíčková Sylva, Grasgruber Pavel, Ondráček Jan, Cacek Jan, Kalina Tomáš

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The aim of this study was to describe typical changes in several parameters of body composition – the amount of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), % body fat (BF) and body mass index (BMI) - in selected age categories (30+ years) of men and women in the Czech Republic, depending on the degree of sports activity. Study (n = 823, M = 343, F = 480) monitored differences in BF, SM and BMI in five age groups (from 30-39 years to 70+ years). Physically inactive individuals have (p < 0.05) higher % BF in comparison with physically active individuals (29.5 ± 0.59 vs. 27 ± 0.38%), higher BMI (27.3 ± 0.32 vs. 26.1 ± 0.20 kg/m2), but lower SM (39.0 ± 0.33 vs. 40.4 ± 0.21%). The results indicate that with an increasing age, there is a trend towards increasing values of BMI and % BF, and decreasing values of SMM.

Keywords: body composition, body fat, physical activity, skeletal muscle

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627 Studying the Effects of Ruta Graveolens on Spontaneous Motor Activity, Skeletal Muscle Tone and Strychnine Induced Convulsions in Albino Mice and Rats

Authors: Shaban Saad, Syed Ahmed, Suher Aburawi, Isabel Fong

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Ruta graveolens is a plant commonly found in north Africa and south Europe. It is reported that Ruta graveolens is used traditionally for epilepsy and some other illnesses. The acute and sub-acute effects of alcoholic extract residue were tested for possible anti-epileptic and skeletal muscle relaxation activity. The effect of extract on rat spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also investigated using open filed. We previously proved the anti convulsant activity of the plant against pentylenetetrazol and electrically induced convulsions. Therefore in this study strychnine was used to induce convulsions in order to explore the mechanism of anti-convulsant activity of the plant. The skeletal muscle relaxation activity of Ruta graveolens was studied using pull-up and rod hanging tests in rats. At concentration of 5%w/v the extract protected mice against strychnine induced myoclonic jerks and death. The pull-up and rod hanging tests pointed to a skeletal muscle relaxant activity at higher concentrations. Ruta graveolens extract also significantly decreased the number of squares visited by rats in open field apparatus at all tested concentrations (3.5-20%w/v). However, the significant decrease in number of rearings was only noticed at concentrations of (15 and 20%w/v). The results indicate that Ruta graveolens contains compound(s) capable to inhibit convulsions, decrease SMA and/or diminish skeletal muscle tone in animal models. This data and the previously generated data together point to a general depression trend of CNS produced by Ruta graveolens.

Keywords: Ruta graveolens, open field, skeletal muscle relaxation

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626 Quantitative Analysis of Orphan Nuclear Receptors in Insulin Resistant C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells

Authors: Masocorro Gawned, Stephen Myers, Guat Siew Chew

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Nuclear Receptors (NR) are a super family of transcription factors that play a major role in lipid and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Recently, pharmacological evidence supports the view that stimulation of nuclear receptors alleviates Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The orphan nuclear receptors (ONR) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily whose ligands and physiological functions remain unknown. To date, no systematic studies have been carried out to screen for ONRs expressed in insulin resistant (IR) skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, in this study, we have established a model for IR by treating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells with insulin (10nM) for 48 hours. Western Blot analysis of phosphorylated AKT confirmed IR. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results highlighted key ONRs including NUR77 (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2) and NOR1 (NR4A3) which have been associated with fatty acid oxidation regulation and glucose homeostasis. Increased mRNA expression levels of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), REV-ERBα, NUR77, NURR1, NOR1, in insulin resistant C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, indicated that these ONRs could potentially play a pivotal regulatory role of insulin secretion in lipid metabolism. Taken together, this study has successfully contributed to the complete analysis of ONR in IR, and has filled in an important void in the study and treatment of T2D.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, orphan nuclear receptors, transcription receptors, quantitative mRNA expression

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625 Portable, Noninvasive and Wireless Near Infrared Spectroscopy Device to Monitor Skeletal Muscle Metabolism during Exercise

Authors: Adkham Paiziev, Fikrat Kerimov

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Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the biophotonic techniques which can be used to monitor oxygenation and hemodynamics in a variety of human tissues, including skeletal muscle. In the present work, we are offering tissue oximetry (OxyPrem) to measure hemodynamic parameters of skeletal muscles in rest and exercise. Purpose: - To elaborate the new wireless, portable, noninvasive, wearable NIRS device to measure skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise. - To test this device on brachioradialis muscle of wrestler volunteers by using combined method of arterial occlusion (AO) and NIRS (AO+NIRS). Methods: Oxyprem NIRS device has been used together with AO test. AO test and Isometric brachioradialis muscle contraction experiments have been performed on one group of wrestler volunteers. ‘Accu- Measure’ caliper (USA) to measure skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used. Results: Elaborated device consists on power supply box, a sensor head and installed ‘Tubis’ software for data acquisition and to compute deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation (StO2) and muscle tissue oxygen consumption (mVO2). Sensor head consists on four light sources with three light emitting diodes with nominal wavelengths of 760 nm, 805 nm, and 870 nm, and two detectors. AO and isometric voluntary forearm muscle contraction (IVFMC) on five healthy male subjects (23,2±0.84 in age, 0.43±0.05cm of SFT ) and four female subjects (22.0±1.0 in age and 0.24±0.04 cm SFT) has been measured. mVO2 for control group has been calculated (-0.65%/sec±0.07) for male and -0.69%/±0.19 for female subjects). Tissue oxygenation index for wrestlers in average about 75% whereas for control group StO2 =63%. Second experiment was connected with quality monitoring muscle activity during IVFMC at 10%,30% and 50% of MVC. It has been shown, that the concentration changes of HbO2 and HHb positively correlated to the contraction intensity. Conclusion: We have presented a portable multi-channel wireless NIRS device for real-time monitoring of muscle activity. The miniaturized NIRS sensor and the usage of wireless communication make the whole device have a compact-size, thus can be used in muscle monitoring.

Keywords: skeletal muscle, oxygenation, instrumentation, near infrared spectroscopy

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624 The Role of Chemerin and Myostatin after Physical Activity

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram

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Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Chemerin is an adipocyne that plays a role in the regulation of the adipocyte function and the metabolism of glucose in the liver and musculoskeletal system. Most likely, chemerin is involved in obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercises reduce the level of chemerin and cause macrophage penetration into fat cells and inflammatory factors. Several efforts have been made to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. Myostatin, a new member of the TGF-β family, is a transforming growth factor β that its expression negatively regulates the growth of the skeletal muscle; and the increase of this hormone has been observed in conditions of muscular atrophy. While in response to muscle overload, its levels decrease after the atrophy period, TGF-β is the most important cytokine in the development of skeletal muscle. Myostatin plays an important role in muscle control, and animal and human studies show a negative role of myostatin in the growth of skeletal muscle. Separation of myostatin from Golgi begins on the ninth day of the onset period and continues until birth at all times of muscle growth. Higher levels of myostatin are found in obese people. Resistance training for 10 weeks could reduce levels of plasma myostatin.

Keywords: chemerin, myostatin, obesity, physical activity

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623 The Effect of Manual Acupuncture-induced Injury as a Mechanism Contributing to Muscle Regeneration

Authors: Kamal Ameis

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This study aims to further improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism of local injury that occurs after manual acupuncture needle manipulation, and that initiates the muscle regeneration process, which is essential for muscle maintenance and adaptation. Skeletal muscle is maintained by resident stem cells called muscle satellite cells. These cells are normally in quiescent state, but following muscle injury, they re-enter the cell cycle and execute a myogenic program resulting in muscle fiber regeneration. Our previous work in young rats demonstrated that acupuncture treatment induced injury that activated resident satellite (stem) cells, which leads to muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle regeneration is an adaptive response to injury that requires a tightly orchestrated event between signaling pathways activated by growth factor and intrinsic regulatory program controlled by myogenic transcription factor. We identified several gene expressions uniquely important for muscle regeneration in response to acupuncture treatment at different time course using different biological techniques, including Immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and Real Time PCR. This study uses a novel but non-invasive model of injury induced by manual acupuncture to further our current understanding of regenerative mechanism of muscle stem cells. From a clinical perspective, this model of injury induced by manual acupuncture may be easily translatable into a clinical tool that can be used as an alternative to physical exercise for patients challenged by bed rest or forced inactivity. Finally, the knowledge gained from this research could be useful for studies of the local effects of various modalities of induced injury, such as the traditional method of healing by cupping (hijamah), which may enhanced muscle stem cells and muscle fiber regeneration.

Keywords: acupuncture, injury, regeneration, muscle stem cells

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622 Differential Proteomics Expression in Purple Rice Supplemented Type 2 Diabetic Rats’ Skeletal Muscle

Authors: Ei Ei Hlaing, Narissara Lailerd, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Pichapat Piamrojanaphat

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Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases all over the world. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not the only dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells but also insulin resistance in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. High levels of circulating free fatty acids, an increased lipid content of muscle cells, impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and diminished mitochondrial functioning are pathophysiological hallmarks of diabetic skeletal muscles. Purple rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) has been shown to have antidiabetic effects. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of antidiabetic activity of purple rice is still unraveled. In this research, to explore in-depth cellular mechanism(s), proteomic profile of purple rice supplemented type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle were analyzed contract with non-supplemented rats. Diabetic rats were induced high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin injection. By using one- dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE) and LC-MS/MS quantitative proteomic method, we analyzed proteomic profiles in skeletal muscle of normal rats, normal rats with purple rice supplementation, type 2 diabetic rats, and type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Total 2676 polypeptide expressions were identified. Among them, 24 peptides were only expressed in type 2 diabetic rats, and 24 peptides were unique peptides in type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation. Acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) found as unique protein in type 2 diabetic rats which is the major enzyme in lipid synthesis and metabolism. Interestingly, DNA damage response protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K [Mus musculus] (Hnrnpk), was upregulated in type 2 diabetic rats’ skeletal muscle. Meanwhile, unique proteins of type 2 diabetic rats with purple rice supplementation (bone morphogenetic 7 protein preproprotein, BMP7; and forkhead box protein NX4, Foxn4) involved with muscle cells growth through the regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling network. Moreover, BMP7 may effect on insulin signaling through the downstream signaling of protein kinase B (Akt) which acts in protein synthesis, glucose uptake, and glycogen synthesis. In conclusion, our study supports that type 2 diabetes impairs muscular lipid metabolism. In addition, purple rice might recover the muscle cells growth and insulin signaling.

Keywords: proteomics, purple rice bran, skeletal muscle, type 2 diabetic rats

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621 Sulforaphane Attenuates Muscle Inflammation in Dystrophin-Deficient Mdx Mice via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Dejia Li

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Backgrounds: Inflammation is widely distributed in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and ultimately leads to progressive deterioration of muscle function with the co-effects of chronic muscle damage, oxidative stress, and reduced oxidative capacity. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a critical role in defending against inflammation in different tissues via activation of phase II enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, whether Nrf2/HO-1 pathway can attenuate muscle inflammation on DMD remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Sulforaphane (SFN) on DMD. Methods: 4-week-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 4 weeks. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Immune cell infiltration in skeletal muscles was analyzed by H&E staining and immuno-histochemistry. Moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines,pro-inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes HO-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Inflammation in mdx skeletal muscles was reduced by SFN treatment as indicated by decreased immune cell infiltration and lower expressions of the inflammatory cytokines CD45, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle inflammation in mdx mice by Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which indicates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic target for DMD.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Nrf2, HO-1, inflammation

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620 Evaluation of Bone and Body Mineral Profile in Association with Protein Content, Fat, Fat-Free, Skeletal Muscle Tissues According to Obesity Classification among Adult Men

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

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Obesity is associated with increased fat mass as well as fat percentage. Minerals are the elements, which are of vital importance. In this study, the relationships between body as well as bone mineral profile and the percentage as well as mass values of fat, fat-free portion, protein, skeletal muscle were evaluated in adult men with normal body mass index (N-BMI), and those classified according to different stages of obesity. A total of 103 adult men classified into five groups participated in this study. Ages were within 19-79 years range. Groups were N-BMI (Group 1), overweight (OW) (Group 2), first level of obesity (FLO) (Group 3), second level of obesity (SLO) (Group 4) and third level of obesity (TLO) (Group 5). Anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI values were calculated. Obesity degree, total body fat mass, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate (BMR), visceral adiposity, body mineral mass, body mineral percentage, bone mineral mass, bone mineral percentage, fat-free mass, fat-free percentage, protein mass, protein percentage, skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle percentage were determined by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The values below 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. All the groups were matched based upon age (p > 0.05). BMI values were calculated as 22.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, 27.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 32.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 37.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2, and 47.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Visceral adiposity and BMR values were also within an increasing trend. Percentage values of mineral, protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle masses were decreasing going from normal to TLO. Upon evaluation of the percentages of protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle, statistically significant differences were noted between NW and OW as well as OW and FLO (p < 0.05). However, such differences were not observed for body and bone mineral percentages. Correlation existed between visceral adiposity and BMI was stronger than that detected between visceral adiposity and obesity degree. Correlation between visceral adiposity and BMR was significant at the 0.05 level. Visceral adiposity was not correlated with body mineral mass but correlated with bone mineral mass whereas significant negative correlations were observed with percentages of these parameters (p < 0.001). BMR was not correlated with body mineral percentage whereas a negative correlation was found between BMR and bone mineral percentage (p < 0.01). It is interesting to note that mineral percentages of both body as well as bone are highly affected by the visceral adiposity. Bone mineral percentage was also associated with BMR. From these findings, it is plausible to state that minerals are highly associated with the critical stages of obesity as prominent parameters.

Keywords: bone, men, minerals, obesity

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619 ADCOR © Muscle Damage Rapid Detection Test Based on Skeletal Troponin I Immunochromatography Reaction

Authors: Muhammad Solikhudin Nafi, Wahyu Afif Mufida, Mita Erna Wati, Fitri Setyani Rokim, M. Al-Rizqi Dharma Fauzi

Abstract:

High dose activity without any pre-exercise will impact Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). DOMS known as delayed pain post-exercise and induce skeletal injury which will decrease athletes’ performances. From now on, post-exercise muscle damage can be detected by measuring skeletal troponin I (sTnI) concentration in serum using ELISA but this method needs more time and cost. To prevent decreased athletes performances, screening need to be done rapidly. We want to introduce our new prototype to detect DOMS acutely. Rapid detection tests are based on immunological reaction between skeletal troponin I antibodies and sTnI in human serum or whole blood. Chemical methods that are used in the manufacture of diagnostic test is lateral flow immunoassay. The material used is rat monoclonal antibody sTnI, colloidal gold, anti-mouse IgG, nitrocellulose membrane, conjugate pad, sample pad, wick and backing card. The procedure are made conjugate (colloidal gold and mAb sTnI) and insert into the conjugate pad, gives spray sTnI mAb and anti-mouse IgG into nitrocellulose membrane, and assemble RDT. RDT had been evaluated by measuring the sensitivity of positive human serum (n = 30) and negative human serum (n = 30). Overall sensitivity value was 93% and specificity value was 90%. ADCOR as the first rapid detection test qualitatively showed antigen-antibody reaction and showed good overall performances for screening of muscle damage. Furthermore, these finding still need more improvements to get best results.

Keywords: DOMS, sTnI, rapid detection test, ELISA

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618 Reliability and Validity of Determining Ventilatory Threshold and Respiratory Compensation Point by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Tso-Yen Mao, De-Yen Liu, Chun-Feng Huang

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Purpose: This research intends to investigate the reliability and validity of ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) determined by skeletal muscle hemodynamic status. Methods: One hundred healthy male (age: 22±3 yrs; height: 173.1±6.0 cm; weight: 67.1±10.5 kg) performed graded cycling exercise test which ventilatory and skeletal muscle hemodynamic data were collected simultaneously. VT and RCP were determined by combined V-slope (VE vs. VCO2) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VO2 vs. VE/VCO2) methods. Pearson correlation, paired t-test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze reliability, validity, and similarities. Statistical significance was set at α =. 05. Results: There are high test-retest correlations of VT and RCP in ventilatory or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods (VT vs. VTNIRS: 0.95 vs. 0.94; RCP vs. RCPNIRS: 0.93 vs. 0.93, p<. 05). There are high coefficient of determination at the first timing point of O2Hb decreased (R2 = 0.88, p<. 05) with VT, and high coefficient of determination at the second timing point of O2Hb declined (R2 = 0.89, p< .05) with RCP. VO2 of VT and RCP are not significantly different between ventilatory and NIRS methods (p>. 05). Conclusion: Using NIRS method to determine VT and RCP is reliable and valid in male individuals during graded exercise. Non-invasive skeletal muscle hemodynamics monitor also can be used for controlling training intensity in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic threshold, exercise intensity, hemodynamic, NIRS

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617 Effects of Butea superba Roxb. on Skeletal Muscle Functions and Parvalbumin Levels of Orchidectomized Rat

Authors: Surapong Vongvatcharanon, Fardeela Binalee, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Uraporn Vongvatcharanon

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Hypogonadism is characterized by a decline in sex hormone levels, especially testosterone. It has been shown to be an important contributor to the decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength and performance, a condition known as sarcopenia. Preparations from Butea superba Roxb. (red Kwao Krua) have been reported to have androgenic properties. The active compounds are proposed to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. Treatment with B. superba has been shown to improve erectile dysfunction in males. Parvalbumin (PV) is a relaxing factor and identified in fast twitch fibers. Alterations of the PV levels affects skeletal muscle functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of orhchidectomy, testosterone replacement and different doses of Butea superba Roxb. on the structure, performance, levels of parvalbumin, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius muscles of orchidectomized rats. Twelve-week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups; sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized (BS-0), orchidectomized group that was treated with testosterone replacement of 6 µg/kg (TP) or an orchidectomized group that was treated with various doses of an extract from Butea superba Roxb.; 5 mg/kg (BS-5), 50 mg/kg (BS-50) and 500 mg/kg (BS-500) all for 90 days. The testosterone level, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight, muscle fiber size, strength and endurance in both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group. Treatment with the B. superba Roxb. extract replacement group improved muscle fiber size, strength and endurance, but not total testosterone levels, or the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deference weight. Furthermore, the parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen receptor immunoreactivities were reduced in the BS-0 group but increased in the testosterone replacement group and the B. superba Roxb. extract groups for both the EDL and gastrocnemius muscle. This study indicated that the reduction of testosterone level led to a decrease of the androgen receptor density resulting in a decline in the muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The decrease of parvalbumin levels affected muscle performance. Testosterone replacement increased the androgen receptor density and led to an increase of muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. The increase in the parvalbumin levels may result in an improvement of muscle performance. This may explain one mechanism of testosterone on muscle mass and strength in the testosterone dependent sarcopenia. The B. superba Roxb. extract groups also had improved muscle mass, strength and endurance, parvalbumin level, parvalbumin and androgen immunoreactivities compared to the BS-O group . Butea superba Roxb. Extracts contains a flavonoid (3, 7, 3'-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone), flavonoiglycoside (3, 3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and isoflavanolignans (butesuperins A and butesuperins B) all known to inhibit the cAMP phosphodiesterase enzyme. Therefore, cAMP signaling may have adaptive effects on skeletal muscle by increasing muscle mass, strength and endurance.

Keywords: Butea superba, parvalbumin, skeletal muscle, orchidectomy

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616 Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue

Authors: M. Rezki, A. Belaidi

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This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Keywords: EMG, health platform, conductor’s tram, muscle fatigue

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615 Oleuropein Ameliorates Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Increasing GLUT4 Translocation through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Rat Soleus Muscles

Authors: Hakam Alkhateeb

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Oleuropein, the main constituent of leaves and fruits of the olive tree, has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle. However, the antidiabetic effect of oleuropein, to our knowledge, has not been examined. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether oleuropein ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. To examine this question, insulin resistance was rapidly induced by incubating (12h) soleus muscle with a high concentration of palmitate(2mM). Subsequently, we attempted to restore insulin sensitivity by incubating (12h) muscles with oleuropien (1.5mM), while maintaining high concentrations of palmitate. Palmitate treatment for 12 h reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Oleuropein treatment (12 h) fully restoredinsulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4translocationandAS160 phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3K phosphorylation with wortmannin (1µM)did not affect the oleuropein-induced improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation. These results suggested that the improvements in these parameters cannot account for activating PI3K pathway. Taken altogether, it appears that oleuropein, through activation of another pathway like activated protein kinase (AMPK), may provide a possible strategy by which they ameliorate palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscles.

Keywords: AS160, diabetes, GLUT4, oleuropein

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614 The Effect of Physical Therapy on Triceps Surae Myofascial Trigger Point

Authors: M. Simon, O. Peillon, R. Seijas, P. Alvarez, A. Pérez-Bellmunt

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Introduction: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are defined as hyperirritable areas within taut bands of skeletal muscle and classified as either active or latent. Although they could be present in any muscle, the triceps surae is one of the most affected of the lower limb. The aim of this study was described which treatments are more used and their principal results. Study design: We performed a systematic literature search using strategies for the concepts of “Trigger Points and Gastrocnemius and Soleus not Trapezius” in Medline. Articles were screened by authors and included if they contained a rehabilitation intervention of MTrPs in healthy subjects or patients. Results: The treatments used were mostly invasive interventions and only a small part of the studies used non-invasive treatments. The methodology (time o type of intervention, characteristics of treatment, etc.) used in these treatments were frequently undefined. Overall, examination variables varied significantly among the included studies, but they were improving their parameters when the MTrPs were treated. Conclusions: There are a high variety of physical therapy treatments to improve the symptomatology of MTrPs when affect triceps surae muscle. Even so, not a single study analyzing the skeletal muscle contractile parameters (as maximal displacement or delay time) change with MTrPS therapy has been found. The treatments have to better specificity the methodology used in the futures investigation.

Keywords: fascia, myofascial trigger points, physical therapy, triceps surae

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613 Effect of Aging on the Second Law Efficiency, Exergy Destruction and Entropy Generation in the Skeletal Muscles during Exercise

Authors: Jale Çatak, Bayram Yılmaz, Mustafa Ozilgen

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The second law muscle work efficiency is obtained by multiplying the metabolic and mechanical work efficiencies. Thermodynamic analyses are carried out with 19 sets of arms and legs exercise data which were obtained from the healthy young people. These data are used to simulate the changes occurring during aging. The muscle work efficiency decreases with aging as a result of the reduction of the metabolic energy generation in the mitochondria. The reduction of the mitochondrial energy efficiency makes it difficult to carry out the maintenance of the muscle tissue, which in turn causes a decline of the muscle work efficiency. When the muscle attempts to produce more work, entropy generation and exergy destruction increase. Increasing exergy destruction may be regarded as the result of the deterioration of the muscles. When the exergetic efficiency is 0.42, exergy destruction becomes 1.49 folds of the work performance. This proportionality becomes 2.50 and 5.21 folds when the exergetic efficiency decreases to 0.30 and 0.17 respectively.

Keywords: aging mitochondria, entropy generation, exergy destruction, muscle work performance, second law efficiency

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612 Radiological Analysis of Skeletal Metastases from Cervical Cancer

Authors: Jacklynn Walters, Amanda A. Alblas, Linda M. Greyling

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Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer found in women. Diagnosis of skeletal metastases is uncommon in cervical cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of skeletal metastases in in a Western Cape skeletal population. Skeletal samples (n=14) from the Kirsten Skeletal Collection at Stellenbosch University, diagnosed pre-mortem with cervical cancer, were examined. Macroscopic analysis was done using low magnification to examine each skeletal element for signs of disease. Skeletons were also x-rayed using the Lodox® Statscan® Imaging system and the scans evaluated by a musculoskeletal radiologist. Three (21%) of the skeletons showed metastases, with the os coxae and lower vertebral column affected in all three cases. Furthermore, metastases occurred in the scapulae and ribs in two of the cases and in one case the skull, mandible, and long bones were affected. Additionally, three skeletons without evidence of skeletal metastases presented with a periosteal reaction on the os coxae in response to the diseased adjacent soft tissue. Previous studies observed that skeletal metastases are more common than what is diagnosed pre-mortem with the vertebral spine most commonly affected. The findings of this study agree with previous reports and illustrate the effectiveness of the Lodox® scanner in diagnoses of metastases in skeletal material.

Keywords: cancer, cervix, radiology, skeletal metastases

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611 The Impact of P108L Genetic Variant on Calcium Release and Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility

Authors: Mohammed Althobiti, Patrick Booms, Dorota Fiszer, Philip Hopkins

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Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle. MH results from anaesthetics induced breakdown of calcium homeostasis. RYR1 and CACN1AS mutations represent the aetiology in ~70% of the MH population. Previous studies indicate that up to 25% of MH patients carry no variants in these genes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between MH susceptibility and genes encoding skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels as well as accessory proteins. The JSRP, encoding JP-45, was previously sequenced and novel genetic variants were identified. The variant p.P108L (c.323C > T) was identified in exon 4 and encodes a change from a proline at amino acid 108 to leucine residue. The variant P108L was detected in two patients out of 50 with 4% frequency in the sample population. The alignment of DNA sequences in different species indicates highly conserved proline sequences involved in the substitution of the P108L variant. In this study, the variant P108L co-segregates with the SNP p.V92A (c.275T > C) at the same exon, both variants being inherited in the same two patients only. This indicates that the two variants may represent a haplotype. Therefore, a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and statistical analysis will be used to investigate the effects of haplotypes on MH susceptibility. Furthermore, investigating the effect of the P108L variant in combination with RYR1 mutations or other genetic variants in other genes as a combination of two or more genetic variants, haplotypes may then provide stronger genetic evidence indicating that JSRP1 is associated with MH susceptibility. In conclusion, these preliminary results lend a potential modifier role of the variant P108L in JSRP1 in MH susceptibility and further investigations are suggested to confirm these results.

Keywords: JSRP1, malignant hyperthermia, RyR1, skeletal muscle

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610 Altered Proteostasis Contributes to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy during Chronic Hypobaric Hypoxia: An Insight into Signaling Mechanisms

Authors: Akanksha Agrawal, Richa Rathor, Geetha Suryakumar

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Muscle represents about ¾ of the body mass, and a healthy muscular system is required for human performance. A healthy muscular system is dynamically balanced via the catabolic and anabolic process. High altitude associated hypoxia altered this redox balance via producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that ultimately modulates protein structure and function, hence, disrupts proteostasis or protein homeostasis. The mechanism by which proteostasis is clinched includes regulated protein translation, protein folding, and protein degradation machinery. Perturbation in any of these mechanisms could increase proteome imbalance in the cellular processes. Altered proteostasis in skeletal muscle is likely to be responsible for contributing muscular atrophy in response to hypoxia. Therefore, we planned to elucidate the mechanism involving altered proteostasis leading to skeletal muscle atrophy under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods-Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing about 200-220 were divided into five groups - Control (Normoxic animals), 1d, 3d, 7d and 14d hypobaric hypoxia exposed animals. The animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia equivalent to 282 torr pressure (equivalent to an altitude of 7620m, 8% oxygen) at 25°C. On completion of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) exposure, rats were sacrificed, muscle was excised and biochemical, histopathological and protein synthesis signaling were studied. Results-A number of changes were observed with the CHH exposure time period. ROS was increased significantly on 07 and 14 days which were attributed to protein oxidation via damaging muscle protein structure by oxidation of amino acids moiety. The oxidative damage to the protein further enhanced the various protein degradation pathways. Calcium activated cysteine proteases and other intracellular proteases participate in protein turnover in muscles. Therefore, we analysed calpain and 20S proteosome activity which were noticeably increased at CHH exposure as compared to control group representing enhanced muscle protein catabolism. Since inflammatory markers (myokines) affect protein synthesis and triggers degradation machinery. So, we determined inflammatory pathway regulated under hypoxic environment. Other striking finding of the study was upregulation of Akt/PKB translational machinery that was increased on CHH exposure. Akt, p-Akt, p70 S6kinase, and GSK- 3β expression were upregulated till 7d of CHH exposure. Apoptosis related markers, caspase-3, caspase-9 and annexin V was also increased on CHH exposure. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of disrupted proteostasis under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. A profound loss of muscle mass is accompanied by the muscle damage leading to apoptosis and cell death under CHH. These cellular stress response pathways may play a pivotal role in hypobaric hypoxia induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Further research in these signaling pathways will lead to development of therapeutic interventions for amelioration of hypoxia induced muscle atrophy.

Keywords: Akt/PKB translational machinery, chronic hypobaric hypoxia, muscle atrophy, protein degradation

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609 Sulforaphane Attenuates Fibrosis of Dystrophic Muscle in Mdx Mice via Nrf2-Mediated Inhibition of TGF-β/Smad Signaling

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Backgrounds: A few lines of evidence show that Sulforaphane (SFN) has anti-fibrosis effect in liver tissue via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling. However, its effects on muscular dystrophic fibrosis remain unknown. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SFN on fibrosis in dystrophic muscle. Methods: 3-month-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 3 months. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Fibrosis in skeletal muscles was analyzed by Sirius red staining. Histology and morphology of skeletal muscles were investigated by H&E staining. Moreover, the expressions of Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment significantly decreased and improved morphological features in mdx muscles. Moreover, SFN increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes NQO1 and HO-1 and significantly decreased the expression of TGF-β1,p-smad2, p-smad3, α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I, PAI-1, and TIMP-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Additionally, SFN significantly decreased the expression of CD45 and TNF-α. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle fibrosis in mdx mice by Nrf2-induced inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, which indicate Nrf2 may be useful for the treatment of muscular dystrophy.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Nrf2, TGF-β/smad signaling, duchenne muscular dystrophy, fibrosis

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608 Creatine Associated with Resistance Training Increases Muscle Mass in the Elderly

Authors: Camila Lemos Pinto, Juliana Alves Carneiro, Patrícia Borges Botelho, João Felipe Mota

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Sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, currently affects over 50 million people and increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life and death. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training on muscle mass in the elderly. A 12-week, double blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the following groups: placebo with resistance training (PL+RT, n=14) and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR + RT, n=13). The subjects from CR+RT group received 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate and the subjects from the PL+RT group were given the same dose of maltodextrin. Participants were instructed to ingest the supplement on non-training days immediately after lunch and on training days immediately after resistance training sessions dissolved in a beverage comprising 100 g of maltodextrin lemon flavored. Participants of both groups undertook a supervised exercise training program for 12 weeks (3 times per week). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary outcome was muscle mass, assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The secondary outcome included diagnose participants with one of the three stages of sarcopenia (presarcopenia, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia) by skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), handgrip strength and gait speed. CR+RT group had a significant increase in SMI and muscle (p<0.0001), a significant decrease in android and gynoid fat (p = 0.028 and p=0.035, respectively) and a tendency of decreasing in body fat (p=0.053) after the intervention. PL+RT only had a significant increase in SMI (p=0.007). The main finding of this clinical trial indicated that creatine supplementation combined with resistance training was capable of increasing muscle mass in our elderly cohort (p=0.02). In addition, the number of subjects diagnosed with one of the three stages of sarcopenia at baseline decreased in the creatine supplemented group in comparison with the placebo group (CR+RT, n=-3; PL+RT, n=0). In summary, 12 weeks of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training resulted in increases in muscle mass. This is the first research with elderly of both sexes that show the same increase in muscle mass with a minor quantity of creatine supplementation in a short period. Future long-term research should investigate the effects of these interventions in sarcopenic elderly.

Keywords: creatine, dietetic supplement, elderly, resistance training

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607 Determination of Skeletal Age in Nigerian Children: Applicability of the Greulich and Pyle Atlas

Authors: Udoaka A. I., Didia B. C.

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Background: The maturation of a child’s bones as it grows to adulthood can be viewed radiologically. The skeletal age (bone age) is the average age at which a particular stage of bone maturation is achieved. The Greulich and Pyle standard is the commonest method used to assess the skeletal age using the hand and wrist radiograph throughout the world. This atlas was compiled solely from Caucasian children and made use of the orderly sequence of carpal ossification to determine the skeletal age. Several authors have faulted this atlas for not being suitable for other races. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine if the Greulich and Pyle Atlas is applicable to Nigerian children when compared to their chronological ages. Methods: The total number of 78 normal radiographs of the hand and wrist of Nigerian children obtained from several hospitals were used for this study . These radiographs were compared with the atlas and their skeletal ages noted form the atlas. The child’s chronological age in each case was also recorded. Results: The result shows a mean increase of two months in the skeletal ages of the Nigerian children compared to the atlas. This difference, however, was not significant. The skeletal age (in months) was greater in 77% of the children than the expected age in the atlas. Conclusion: The mean skeletal age of Nigerian children, though more than the standard in the atlas, is not statistically significant; as a result the study finds the radiographic atlas of Greulich and Pyle atlas applicable to Nigerian children.

Keywords: Greulich and Pyle Atlas, radiograph, skeletal age

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
606 Cephalometric Changes of Patient with Class II Division 1 [Malocclusion] Post Orthodontic Treatment with Growth Stimulation: A Case Report

Authors: Pricillia Priska Sianita

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An aesthetic facial profile is one of the goals in Orthodontics treatment. However, this is not easily achieved, especially in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who have the clinical characteristics of convex profile and significant skeletal discrepancy due to mandibular growth deficiency. Malocclusion with skeletal problems require proper treatment timing for growth stimulation, and it must be done in early age and in need of good cooperation from the patient. If this is not done and the patient has passed the growth period, the ideal treatment is orthognathic surgery which is more complicated and more painful. The growth stimulation of skeletal malocclusion requires a careful cephalometric evaluation ranging from diagnosis to determine the parts that require stimulation to post-treatment evaluation to see the success achieved through changes in the measurement of the skeletal parameters shown in the cephalometric analysis. This case report aims to describe skeletal changes cephalometrically that were achieved through orthodontic treatment in growing period. Material and method: Lateral Cephalograms, pre-treatment, and post-treatment of cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion is selected from a collection of cephalometric radiographic in a private clinic. The Cephalogram is then traced and measured for the skeletal parameters. The result is noted as skeletal condition data of pre-treatment and post-treatment. Furthermore, superimposition is done to see the changes achieved. The results show that growth stimulation through orthodontic treatment can solve the skeletal problem of Class II Division 1 malocclusion and the skeletal changes that occur can be verified through cephalometric analysis. The skeletal changes have an impact on the improvement of patient's facial profile. To sum up, the treatment timing on a skeletal malocclusion is very important to obtain satisfactory results for the improvement of the aesthetic facial profile, and skeletal changes can be verified through cephalometric evaluation of pre- and post-treatment.

Keywords: cephalometric evaluation, class II division 1 malocclusion, growth stimulation, skeletal changes, skeletal problems

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605 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu

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Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface

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604 Reverse Twin Block with Expansion Screw for Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patient: Case Report

Authors: Alfrina Marwan, Erna Sulistyawati

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Class III malocclusion shows both skeletal and dentoalveolar component. Sketal Class III malocclusion can have variants in different region, maxilla or mandibular. Skeletal Class III malocclusion during growth period is considered to treat to prevent its severity in adulthood. Orthopedics treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient can be treated by using reverse twin block with expansion screw to modify the growth pattern. The objective of this case report was to describe the functional correction of skeletal Class III maloclussion using reverse twin block with expansion screw in growing patient. A patient with concave profile came with a chief complaint of aesthetic problems. The cephalometric analysis showed that patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB -50, SNA 75º, Wits appraisal -3 mm) with anterior cross bite and deep bite (overjet -3 mm, overbite 6 mm). In this case report, the patient was treated with reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw. After three months of treatment, the skeletal problems have been corrected (ANB -1°), overjet, overbite and aesthetic were improved. Reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw can be used as orthopedics treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient and can improve the aesthetic with great satisfaction which was the main complaint in this patient.

Keywords: maxilla retrognatism, reverse twin block, skeletal class III malocclusion, growing patient

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
603 Micro RNAs (194 and 135a) as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: H. Haseena Banu, D. Karthick, R. Stalin, E. Nandha Kumar, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi

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Background of the study: Type 2 diabetes is emerging as the predominant metabolic disorder in the world among adults characterized mainly by the resistance of the insulin sensitive tissues towards insulin followed by the decrease in the insulin secretion. The treatment for this disease usually involves treatment with oral synthetic drugs which are known to cause several side effects. Therefore, identification of new biomarkers as therapeutic target is the need of the hour. miRNAs are small, non–protein-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by promoting degradation and/or inhibit the translation of target mRNAs and have emerged as biomarkers in predicting diabetes mellitus. Objective of the study: To elucidate the therapeutic role of gallic acid in modulating the alterations in glucose metabolism induced by miRNAs 194 and 135a in Type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: T2D was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg/body weight (b.wt.) of streptozotocin. Microarrays were used to assess the expression of miRNAs in control, diabetic and gallic acid treated rats. Gene expression studies were carried out by RT PCR analysis. Results: Forty one miRNAs were differentially expressed in Type 2 diabetic rats. Among these, the expression of miRNA 194 was significantly decreased whereas miRNA 135a was significantly increased in Type 2 diabetic rats. The glucose metabolism was also altered significantly in skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: T2D is associated with alterations in the expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle. Both these miRNAs 194 and 135a play an important role in glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Gallic acid effectively ameliorated the alterations in glucose metabolism. Hence, both these miRNAs can serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in diabetes mellitus. The study also establishes the role of gallic acid as therapeutic agent. Acknowledgment: The financial assistance provided in the form of ICMR women scientist by ICMR DHR INDIA is gratefully acknowledged here.

Keywords: gallic acid, high fat diet, type 2 diabetes mellitus, miRNAs

Procedia PDF Downloads 256