Search results for: retirement
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 88

Search results for: retirement

88 The Impact of Financial Literacy to the Retirement Planning on Malaysian Household

Authors: Stanley Yap, Patrick Kee Peng Kong, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei


Purpose: This study examines the comprehensive household retirement planning based on the level of financial literacy in Malaysia. Sufficient financial literacy is essential to make financial decision on Malaysian household retirement planning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Numerous measurements consist of present value of total retirement fund needed, future value of the expenses and inflation-adjusted interest rate are used in this paper. Therefore, we are able to identify the retirement gap that needs to be considered immediately. Findings: Our results show, firstly, adequate financial literacy is vital to achieve long term household retirement planning. Secondly, there is no retirement gap where the future value of the existing financial assets is greater than the lump sum needs during retirement phase. Thirdly, financial assets should be prepared in early age to accumulate substantial funding to support household retirement life. Practical Implications: The outcomes benefit to retiree and working adults. It highlights the importance of financial literacy to retirement planning. It is also a milestone for Malaysian to achieve developed country if Malaysian has sufficient retirement funding. Originality/Value: There is currently lack of in-depth research on financial literacy related to household retirement planning. Further, the paper also focusses on financial literacy, as a means to assist those in funding retirement resources, in order to fulfil the retirement gap.

Keywords: financial literacy, retirement planning, retirement resources, retirement gap, Malaysian household

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
87 Effective Retirement Planning: Exploring Financial Planning Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Stanley Yap Peng Lok, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam


Purpose: This paper examines how people treat on the importance of financial planning for their retirement. There is lack of standard instrument that enable us to access the retirement planning behavior. This paper studies the reliability and validity of a proposed scale for accessing this behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The Retirement Planning Behavior scale (RPB) is developed from the results of reviewing different papers on this topic. A total of 900 Malaysians from the age of 18 and above are used as the sample. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the RPB meets all criteria from the instrument reliability and validity which based on the theory of planned behavior. Second, our findings propose two components for this RPB scale; attitude toward planning for retirement and intention towards retirement planning behavior. Practical implication: An effective retirement planning achieves financial independence after the retirement. Our findings have important implications for the scope and significance of the retirement planning behavior measurement, especially for retirees. Originality/value: This study proposes a new approach to cater consumers’ needs for retirement planning. Therefore, consumers are able to achieve financial independence in their retirement age.

Keywords: retirement planning behavior (RPB) scale, reliability, validity, retirement planning, financial independence

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
86 The Study of the Correlation of Proactive Coping and Retirement Planning: An Example of Senior Civil Servants in Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Chien-Hung Hsieh, Ching-Yi Lu


Demographic aging is the major problem that Taiwanese society is facing, and retirement life adaptation is the most concerning issue. In recent years, studies have suggested that in order to have successful aging and retirement planning, a view for the future is necessary. In Taiwan, civil servants receive better pensions and retirement benefits than do other industries. Therefore, their retirement preparation is considerably more significant than other senior groups in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to understand the correlation of proactive coping and retirement planning of senior civil servants in Taiwan. The method is conducted by questionnaire surveys, with 342 valid questionnaires collected. The results of this study are: 1. The background variables of the interviewees, including age, perceived economic statuses, and retirement statuses, are all significantly related to their proactive coping and retirement planning. 2. Regarding age, the interviewees with ages 55 and above have better proactive coping and retirement planning than those with ages 45 and below. 3. In the aspect of perceived economic statuses, the participants who feel “very good” economic statuses have better proactive coping ability and retirement readiness than those who feel “bad” and “very bad”. 4. Retirees have better proactive coping and retirement planning than those who are still working. 5. Monthly income is significant in retirement planning only. The participants’ retirement planning would be better if they have higher incomes. Furthermore, the participants’ retirement planning would be better if their revenue were €1453~€1937, than if their revenue were below €968. 6. There are positive correlations between proactive coping and retirement planning. 7. Proactive coping can predict retirement planning. The result of this study will be provided as references to the Taiwan government for educational retirement planning policies.

Keywords: proactive coping, retirement planning, civil servants, demographic aging

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85 Malaysian Retirement Savings Behavior

Authors: Haneffa M. G.


Retirement preparedness among Malaysian working individuals found to be poor. Prior research proven women consistently have lower retirement confidence as compared to men. Retirement planning still become the vague issues due to saving for the golden years are being stepsided by many people. Most of them think that their contributions in companies and government retirement plan is enough to comfort them in their golden years. The Employee Provident Fund (EPF) claims that most of nearly retired person have inadequate fund to retire. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the saving behavior of younger cohort of working individuals towards retirement planning in Malaysia. A theoretical framework is developed to understand the relationship between demographic characteristics, financial education, goal clarity, perceived religiosity and retirement savings behavior.

Keywords: retirement planning, savings behavior, perceived religiosity, goal clarity, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
84 Well-Being and Helping Technology for Retired Population in Finland

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen


This study aimed to evaluate parameters influencing well-being and how to maintain well-being as long as possible after retirement. There is contradictory information on the health changes after retirement in Finland. This work is based on interviews, statistics, and literature evaluation of Finland. Most often, balance, multitasking reaction time, and adaptation of vision in dim and darks areas are worsened. Slowing is one characteristic that is difficult to measure properly. The most important is try to determine ways to manage daily activities and symptoms of disease after retirement. Medicine is advancing, problems are often also on the economic side. Information of technical aids is important. It is worth planning a retirement age.

Keywords: retirement, working, aging, wellness

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
83 Perceptions of Teachers in South Africa Regarding Retirement in Gauteng Schools in Tshwane North District

Authors: Emily Magoma-Nthite, Nonhlanhla Maseko, Mabatho Sedibe


In this study, the focus is on the exploration and description of the teachers’ perceptions regarding retirement in Gauteng school in Tshwane North districts. From the individual and group interviews, the findings are leading to suggestions that a more comprehensive program for preparing teachers for retirement is highly necessary. All the participants were aware of their retirement age of 60 years as stipulated in the department of education internal memorandum No: 05 of 2021, which states that the compulsory retirement age in the public service is 60 years. It further states that the age restriction is in accordance with Chapter 4 of the Public Service Act, 1994 and Chapter 4 of the Employment of Educators Act, 1998, as amended. It was found out that there are some anxieties and fears as the majority seemed not ready and maybe not prepared enough for the retirement. Recommendations for a pre-retirement programme aimed at timeous preparation, which may include psychological, financial, and ability to keep functioning post retirement, will be proposed to the department of education in Gauteng and for the Tshwane North district as the pilot site on approval.

Keywords: teachers, pre-retirement, preparedness, gauteng schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
82 Retirement Planning and Job Satisfaction: Cushion to Avoid Bridge Employment?

Authors: Zaiton Osman, Imbarine Bujang, Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Grace Phang Ing, Mohd Rizwan Abdul Majid, Izyanti Awang Razli


Retirement forces older workers to disconnect with their previous behavioural patterns and economic position. Transition and adjustment from working life to retirement places create psychological pressure and financial distress on older workers, especially those with dependent children. Bridge employment provides a solution for older workers to continue working after retirement while transitioning into retirement slowly and smoothly. As losing the job role has a significant impact on the psychological well-being of retirees, engageing in bridge employment helps to fulfill the important psychological functions of older workers by providing an adaptive style to retirement. This study investigates the influence of retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study and a total of 523 samples were collected for nine major district in Sabah. Data were analysed using Partial Least Square (PLS) method wersion 2.0. The result shows a significant relationship between retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment, explaining 4.7% the variance in bridge employment and job satisfaction was found to be the strongest predictor of bridge employment.

Keywords: ageing population, retirement planning, job satisfaction, bridge employment

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
81 Retirement and Tourism Consumption - Evidence from the Elderly in China

Authors: Sha Fan, Renuka Mahadevan


In recent years, the subject of how retirement influences consumption behaviours has garnered attention in economic research. However, a significant gap persists in our understanding of how retirement precisely impacts tourism consumption patterns among the elderly demographic. To address this gap, this research conducts an in-depth exploration into the multifaceted relationship between retirement and elderly tourism consumption.To achieve this, the study employs regression discontinuity design, using three waves of panel data from China covering a span of six years. This approach aims to identify the causality between retirement and tourism consumption. Furthermore, the study scrutinizes the pathways through which retirement's impact on tourism consumption unfolds. It adopts a dual-pronged perspective, examining the roles played by economic status and the availability of leisure time. The economic dimension underscores the financial adjustments that retirees make as they transition into a new phase of life, impacting their propensity to allocate resources towards tourism activities. Meanwhile, considering leisure time recognizes that retirement often heralds an era of newfound freedom, allowing retirees the luxury to engage in leisurely pursuits like tourism.

Keywords: tourism consumption, retirement, the elderly, regression discontinuity design

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
80 The Study of the Correlation of Future-Oriented Thinking and Retirement Planning: The Analysis of Two Professions

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Chien Hung, Hsieh


The purpose of this study is to explore the difference between state-owned-enterprise employees and the civil servants regarding their future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. The researchers investigated 687 middle age and older adults (345 state-owned-enterprise employees and 342 civil servants) through survey research, to understand the relevance between and the prediction of their future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. The findings of this study are: 1.There are significant differences between these two professions regarding future-oriented thinking but not retirement planning. The results of the future-oriented thinking of civil servants are overall higher than that of the state-owned-enterprise employees. 2. There are significant differences both in the aspects of future-oriented thinking and retirement planning among civil servants of different ages. The future-oriented thinking and retirement planning of ages 55 and above are more significant than those of ages 45 or under. For the state-owned-enterprise employees, however, there is no significance found in their future-oriented thinking, but in their retirement planning. Moreover, retirement planning is higher at ages 55 or above than at other ages. 3. With regard to education, there is no correlation to future-oriented thinking or retirement planning for civil servants. For state-owned-enterprise employees, however, their levels of education directly affect their future-oriented thinking. Those with a master degree or above have greater future-oriented thinking than those with other educational degrees. As for retirement planning, there is no correlation. 4. Self-assessment of economic status significantly affects the future-oriented thinking and retirement planning of both civil servants and state-owned-enterprise employees. Those who assess themselves more affluently are more inclined to future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. 5. For civil servants, there are significant differences between their monthly income and retirement planning, but none with future-oriented thinking. As for state-owned-enterprise employees, there are significant differences between their monthly income and retirement planning as well as future-oriented thinking. State-owned-enterprise employees who have significantly higher monthly incomes (1,960 euros and above) have more significant future-oriented thinking and retirement planning than those with lower monthly incomes (1,469 euros and below). 6. The middle age and older adults of both professions have positive correlations with future-oriented thinking and retirement planning. Through stepwise multiple regression analysis, the results indicate that future-oriented thinking and retirement planning have positive predictions. The authors then present the findings of this study for state-owned-enterprises, public authorities, and older adult educational program designs in Taiwan as references.

Keywords: state-owned-enterprise employees, civil servants, future-oriented thinking, retirement planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
79 Digital Individual Benefit Statement: The Use of a Triangulation Methodology to Design a Digital Platform for Switzerland

Authors: Catherine Equey Balzli


Old age retirement pensions are an important concern among the Swiss but estimating one’s income after retirement is difficult due to the Swiss insurance system’s complexity. This project’s aim is to prepare for developing a digital platform that will allow individuals to plan for retirement in a simplified manner. The main objective of the platform will be to give individuals the tools to check that their savings and retirement benefits will allow them to continue the lifestyle to which they are accustomed once they are retired. The research results from qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (survey) methodologies, recommend the scope and functionalities for a digital platform to be developed. A main outcome is the need to limit the platform’s scope to old-age pension only (excluding survivors’ or disability pensions, for instance). Furthermore, an outcome regarding the functionalities is the proposition of scenarios such as early retirement, changes to income, or modifications to personal status. The development of the digital platform will be a subsequent project.

Keywords: benefit statement, digital platform, retirement financial planning, social insurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
78 Feels Like Home: A Study Of The Role Of Material Culture In Older Adults' Transition To A Retirement Village

Authors: Sharon Ganzer


Older adults want choices about where they ‘age-in-place’ and express the desire to remain in their home for as long as possible because it maintains feelings of independence and autonomy, perpetuates a sense of identity, enable people to have space for their belongings and supports connections and social engagement. When circumstances change, and alternative living arrangements are required, more and more older adults are considering a transition to a retirement village – the liminal space between home and residential care. This qualitative study explores the lived experience of older adults who relocate to a retirement village in Queensland, Australia, and the role that material culture plays in this process.

Keywords: material culture, social gerontology, concepts of home, retirement villages

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
77 Financial Planning Framework: A Perspective of Wealth Accumulation and Retirement Planning

Authors: Stanley Yap, Mahadevan Supramaniam, Chong Wei Ying, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam


Purpose: The paper shows the framework of financial planning in a different paradigm. It highlights the results from a focus group on retirement planning in the aspect of financial literacy and wealth accumulation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group consisted of thirty individuals and divided into six different clusters amongst 25 to 55 years old. The selection of focus group members is pertaining to retirement planning behavior and saving profile from the different level of educations. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the focus group reflects individual capacity on saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness towards financial products. Secondly, availability, accessibility and affordability which are the significant factors that influence saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness on personal retirement planning behavior. Practical implications: The participants express the concerns of retirement planning during their golden years and the current financial products in the Malaysian financial market. Originality/value: This study is a different approach that recognizes the needs of the consumers in the context of retirement planning and wealth accumulation. Therefore, customers should obtain financial services and products from financial providers to achieve financial independence.

Keywords: retirement planning, wealth accumulation, financial literacy, focus group, saving attitude, availability, accessibility, affordability

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
76 Pension Policy and Police Retirement: An Exploratory Study Applied to Special Policy Enforcement in Taiwan

Authors: Yung-Ching Chou, Albert Shangpao Yeh, Luke H. C. Hsiao


Police used to be an honor job. However, the police are no longer concerned about the mission and public safety instead of the issue of retirement. The main reason is the amendment of 'Public Servants Retirement Act' in Taiwan was effective since January 2011. The purposes of change were to solve the problem of the financial crisis which caused by the Hugh deficit of the civil servants pension fund. The policy of the civil servants pension reform was not only seriously impact the motives of policy, but also negatively impact the workforce of police. This research conducted a secondary data of Baoanjingcha Fifth Police Corps during the period between 2011 and 2015. Secondly, the research interviewed six representatives from the retired police in order to explore the retirement motives. In short, there were several major findings and suggestions in the following: 1. The police won't choice to retire which the nature of task is simple. 2. The ranking level of positions positively correlated with the retired age of police. 3. The police officers who are categorized as 'hazardous work' first class personnel should decrease the standard of the retirement age and allow the option of a monthly pension. 4. The information of the retirees' rights, as well as protection, are correlated with the service as well professional of personnel officer. More findings, as well as suggestions, will be elaborated on the content of this paper.

Keywords: human resource management, pension policy change, police retirement rush, public servants retirement act

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
75 Modelling Retirement Outcomes: An Australian Case Study

Authors: Colin O’Hare, Zili Zho, Thomas Sneddon


The Australian superannuation system has received high praise for its participation rates and level of funding in retirement yet it is only 25 years old. In recent years, with increasing longevity and persistent lower rates of investment return, how adequate will the funds accumulated through a superannuation system be? In this paper we take Australia as a case study and build a stochastic model of accumulation and decummulation of funds and determine the expected number of years a fund may last an individual in retirement.

Keywords: component, mortality, stochastic models, superannuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
74 Predictive Models of Ruin Probability in Retirement Withdrawal Strategies

Authors: Yuanjin Liu


Retirement withdrawal strategies are very important to minimize the probability of ruin in retirement. The ruin probability is modeled as a function of initial withdrawal age, gender, asset allocation, inflation rate, and initial withdrawal rate. The ruin probability is obtained based on the 2019 period life table for the Social Security, IRS Required Minimum Distribution (RMD) Worksheets, US historical bond and equity returns, and inflation rates using simulation. Several popular machine learning algorithms of the generalized additive model, random forest, support vector machine, extreme gradient boosting, and artificial neural network are built. The model validation and selection are based on the test errors using hyperparameter tuning and train-test split. The optimal model is recommended for retirees to monitor the ruin probability. The optimal withdrawal strategy can be obtained based on the optimal predictive model.

Keywords: ruin probability, retirement withdrawal strategies, predictive models, optimal model

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
73 Matching Coping Strategies to Athletic Retirement Stressors among Japanese Female Athletes

Authors: Miyako Oulevey, David Lavallee, Naohiko Kohtake


Retirement from sport can be stressful to athletes for many reasons. Accordingly, it is necessary to match coping strategies depending on the stressors. One of the athlete career assistance programs for Japanese top athletes in Japan, the Japan Olympic Committee Career Academy (JCA), has focused on the service contents regarding occupational supports which can be said to cope with financial and occupational stress; however, other supports such as psychological support were unclear due to the lack of psychological professionals in the JCA. Tailoring the program, it is important to match the needs of the athletes at athletic retirement with the service contents. Japanese Olympic athletes have been found to retire for different reasons. Especially female athletes who competed in the Summer Olympic Games were found to retire with psychological reasons. The purpose of this research was to investigate the types of stressors Japanese female athletes experience as a result of athletic retirement. As part of the study, 44 female retired athletes from 13 competitive sports completed an open-ended questionnaire. The KJ method was used to analyze stress experienced as a result of retirement. As a result, nine conceptualized stressors were aggregated such as “Conflict with athletic identity”, “Desire to live as an athlete”, and “Career plan after retirement”. In order to match the coping strategies according to the stressors, each stressor was classified with the four types of adjustments; psychological, social, financial, and occupational changes. As a result, the stressor relating to psychological adjustment accounted for 69.0% of coping-related needs, the financial and occupational adjustment was 21.8%, and social adjustment was 9.2%. In conclusion, coping strategies according to the stressors are suggested.

Keywords: athletic retirement, coping, female athlete, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
72 Effective Financial Planning: A Study of Comprehensive Retirement Planning for Financial Independence

Authors: Stanley Yap, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei


Purpose: In Malaysia, an effective financial planning is vital to accumulate wealth and financial independence. However, retirees are required to resume working due to insufficient pension fund. This study examines how the financial decision in retirement planning is being made based on the net worth from the household. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses financial data from a married working couple with children to evaluate their composition of financial position. Numerous financial methods are made pertaining to net worth analysis, insurance needs analysis, investment portfolio rebalancing, estate planning, education planning and retirement planning to enhance the financial decision. Findings: Our results show, firstly, financial planning is essential to achieve financial independence; secondly, insurance needs, education and retirement funding are the most significant for household. Thirdly, current resources are critical to maintain family lifestyle after retirement, emergency funds for critical illness, and the long term children education funding. Practical implications: Refer to the findings, sufficient net worth is priority in financial planning. Different suggestions for household include reduction of unnecessary expenses, re-allocate of cash flow, adequate insurance coverage and re-balancing of investment portfolios to accumulate wealth. It is a challenge to obtain financial independence, hence, there is a need to increase the literature on financial planning. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the important paper that uses financial information from household to provide solutions to enhance the efficiency of financial planning industry.

Keywords: net worth, financial planning, wealth and financial independence, retirement planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
71 Financial Literacy and Entrepreneurship-Business Startup for Effective Post-retirement Life Management Among Pre-retirees in Universities in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Obose Angela Oriazowanlan


The role of entrepreneurship in preventing poverty and mitigating other post-retirement challenges has been acknowledged to be crucial for effective post-retirement life management, but financial constraints could constitute a bane to pre-retirees’ entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, the study determined the financial knowledge that could spur their intentions and readiness for a business start that could enable them to surmount post-retirement life challenges. Two research questions guided the study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted and the population comprised all the pre-retirees in universities in Edo State. 250 respondents were randomly selected using the simple random sampling technique from three purposive selected universities. Primary data were gathered through the use of a structured questionnaire, which was validated and tested to have a reliability coefficient value of 0.84. The descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and test the respondents’ homogeneity. The findings revealed, among others, that the respondents perceived the benefits of entrepreneurship-business startups to ensure their effective post-retirement life management but intended to rely totally on their retirement savings benefits with the Contributory Pension Scheme (CPS) for business startups. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that pre-retirees should make contingency savings plans and that the employers and government should provide them with financial education in order to acquaint them with relevant financial knowledge to access other forms of business financing such as loans, bank overdraft, angel investors, venture capital and government grants among others prior to final disengagement.

Keywords: financial knowledge, entrepreneurial intentions, availability of business funds, business investment and fulfilled post-retirement living.

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70 Psychosocial Development: The Study of Adaptation and Development and Post-Retirement Satisfaction in Ageing Australians

Authors: Sahar El-Achkar, Mizan Ahmad


Poor adaptation of developmental milestones over the lifespan can significantly impact emotional experiences and Satisfaction with Life (SWL) post-retirement. Thus, it is important to understand how adaptive behaviour over the life course can predict emotional experiences. Broadly emotional experiences are either Positive Affect (PA) or Negative Affect (NA). This study sought to explore the impact of successful adaptation of developmental milestones throughout one’s life on emotional experiences and satisfaction with life following retirement. A cross-sectional self-report survey was completed by 132 Australian retirees between the ages 55 and 70 years. Three hierarchical regression models were fitted, controlling for age and gender, to predict PA, NA, and SWL. The full model predicting PA was statistically significant overall, F (8, 121) = 17.97, p < .001, account for 57% of the variability in PA. Industry/Inferiority were significantly predictive of PA. The full model predicting NA was statistically significant overall, F (8, 121) = 12.00, p < .001, accounting for 51% of the variability in NA. Age and Trust/Mistrust were significantly predictive of NA. The full model predicting NA was statistically significant overall, F (8, 121) = 12.00, p < .001, accounting for 51% of the variability in NA. Age and Trust/Mistrust were significantly predictive of NA. The full model predicting SWL, F (8, 121) = 11.05, p < .001, accounting for 45% of the variability in SWL. Trust/Mistrust and Ego Integrity/Despair were significantly predictive of SWL. A sense of industry post-retirement is important in generating PA. These results highlight that individuals presenting with adaptation and identity issues are likely to present with adjustment challenges and unpleasant emotional experiences post-retirement. This supports the importance of identifying and understanding the benefits of successful adaptation and development throughout the lifespan and its significance for the self-concept. Most importantly, the quality of lives of many may be improved, and the future risk of continued poor emotional experiences and SWL post-retirement may be mitigated. Specifically, the clinical implications of these findings are that they support the promotion of successful adaption over the life course and healthy ageing.

Keywords: adaptation, development, negative affect, positive affect, retirement, satisfaction with life

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69 Sustainable Housing and Urban Development: A Study on the Soon-To-Be-Old Population's Impetus to Migrate

Authors: Tristance Kee


With the unprecedented increase in elderly population globally, it is critical to search for new sustainable housing and urban development alternatives to traditional housing options. This research examines concepts of elderly migration pattern in the context of a high density city in Hong Kong to Mainland China. The research objectives are to: 1) explore the relationships between soon-to-be-old elderly and their intentions to move to Mainland upon retirement and their demographic characteristics; and 2) What are the desired amenities, locational factors and activities that are expected in the soon-to-be-old generation’s retirement housing environment? Primary data was collected through questionnaire survey conducted using random sampling method with respondents aged between 45-64 years old. The face-to-face survey was completed by 500 respondents. The survey was divided into four sections. The first section focused on respondent’s demographic information such as gender, age, education attainment, monthly income, housing tenure type and their visits to Mainland China. The second section focused on their retirement plans in terms of intended retirement age, prospective retirement funding and retirement housing options. The third section focused on the respondent’s attitudes toward retiring in Mainland for housing. It asked about their intentions to migrate retire into Mainland and incentives to retire in Hong Kong. The fourth section focused on respondent’s ideal housing environment including preferred housing amenities, desired living environment and retirement activities. The dependent variable in this study was ‘respondent’s consideration to move to Mainland China upon retirement’. Eight primary independent variables were integrated into the study to identify the correlations between them and retirement migration plan. The independent variables include: gender, age, marital status, monthly income, present housing tenure type, property ownership in Hong Kong, relationship with Mainland and the frequency of visiting Mainland China. In addition to the above independent variables, respondents were asked to indicate their retirement plans (retirement age, funding sources and retirement housing options), incentives to migrate to retire (choices included: property ownership, family relations, cost of living, living environment, medical facilities, government welfare benefits, etc.), perceived ideal retirement life qualities including desired amenities (sports, medical and leisure facilities etc.), desired locational qualities (green open space, convenient transport options and accessibility to urban settings etc.) and desired retirement activities (home-based leisure, elderly friendly sports, cultural activities, child care, social activities, etc.). The finding shows correlations between the used independent variables and consideration to migrate for housing options. The two independent variables indicated a possible correlation were gender and the frequency of visiting Mainland at present. When considering the increasing property prices across the border and strong social relationships, potential retirement migration is a very subjective decision that could vary from person to person. This research adds knowledge to housing research and migration study. Although the research is based in Mainland, most of the characteristics identified including better medical services, government welfare and sound urban amenities are shared qualities for all sustainable urban development and housing strategies.

Keywords: elderly migration, housing alternative, soon-to-be-old, sustainable environment

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68 Investment Decision among Public Sector Retirees: A Behavioural Finance View

Authors: Bisi S. Olawoyin


This study attempts an exploration into behavioural finance in which the traditional assumptions of expected utility maximization with rational investors in efficient markets are dropped. It reviews prior research and evidence about how psychological biases affect investors behaviour and stock selection. This study examined the relationship between demographic variables and financial behaviour biases among public sector retirees who invested in the Nigerian Stock Exchange prior to their retirement. By using questionnaire survey method, a total of 214 valid convenient samples were collected in order to determine how specific demographic and psychological trait affect stock selection between dividend paying and non-dividend paying stocks. Descriptive statistics and OLS were used to analyse the results. Findings showed that most of the retirees prefer dividend paying stocks in few years preceding their retirement but still hold on to their non-dividend paying stock on retirement. A significant difference also exists between senior and junior retirees in preference for non-dividend paying stocks. These findings are consistent with the clientele theories of dividend.

Keywords: behavioural finance, clientele theories, dividend paying stocks, stock selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
67 Adult Education for Transformation and Security Challenges in Nigeria

Authors: Asmau Zarma Gogaram


The paper examines adult education and how it can be employed as a strategy for transformation and security challenges in Nigeria. It defines the meaning of adult education and its objectives.The issue of the necessity of employing adult education as a strategy for transformation and security challenges was also examined in the paper.In doing this it discussed the different types of adult education programmes, i.e.continuing education, literacy education, retirement and pre-retirement education and civic education. The paper concluded by stating that if the programmes stated are internalizes and applied they can help to raise awareness. Finally the paper proffered some recommendations one of which was that government should at all levels increase their efforts or promoting acquisition of adult education.

Keywords: adult education, transformation and security challenges, Nigeria, education and human development

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
66 International Retirement Migration of Westerners to Thailand: Well-Being and Future Migration Plans

Authors: Kanokwan Tangchitnusorn, Patcharawalai Wongboonsin


Following the ‘Golden Age of Welfare’ which enabled post-war prosperity to European citizens in 1950s, the world has witnessed the increasing mobility across borders of older citizens of First World countries. Then, in 1990s, the international retirement migration (IRM) of older persons has become a prominent trend, in which, it requires the integration of several fields of knowledge to explain, i.e. migration studies, tourism studies, as well as, social gerontology. However, while the studies of the IRM to developed destinations in Europe (e.g. Spain, Malta, Portugal, Italy), and the IRM to developing countries like Mexico, Panama, and Morocco have been largely studied in recent decades due to their massive migration volume, the study of the IRM to remoter destinations has been far more relatively sparse and incomplete. Developing countries in Southeast Asia have noticed the increasing number of retired expats, particularly to Thailand, where the number of foreigners applying for retirement visa increased from 10,709 in 2005 to 60,046 in 2014. Additionally, it was evident that the majority of Thailand’s retirement visa applicants were Westerners, i.e. citizens of the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, and the Nordic countries, respectively. As such trend just becoming popular in Thailand in recent decades, little is known about the IRM populations, their well-being, and their future migration plans. This study aimed to examine the subjective wellbeing or the self-evaluations of own well-being among Western retirees in Thailand, as well as, their future migration plans as whether they planned to stay here for life or otherwise. The author employed a mixed method to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data during October 2015 – May 2016, including 330 self-administered questionnaires (246 online and 84 hard-copied responses), and 21 in-depth interviews of the Western residents in Nan (2), Pattaya (4), and Chiang Mai (15). As derived from the integration of previous subjective well-being measurements (i.e. Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), Global AgeWatch Index, and OECD guideline on measuring subjective wellbeing), this study would measure the subjective well-being of Western retirees in Thailand in 7 dimensions, including standard of living, health status, personal relationships, social connections, environmental quality, personal security and local infrastructure.

Keywords: international retirement migration, ageing, mobility, wellbeing, Western, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
65 Health Trajectory Clustering Using Deep Belief Networks

Authors: Farshid Hajati, Federico Girosi, Shima Ghassempour


We present a Deep Belief Network (DBN) method for clustering health trajectories. Deep Belief Network (DBN) is a deep architecture that consists of a stack of Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM). In a deep architecture, each layer learns more complex features than the past layers. The proposed method depends on DBN in clustering without using back propagation learning algorithm. The proposed DBN has a better a performance compared to the deep neural network due the initialization of the connecting weights. We use Contrastive Divergence (CD) method for training the RBMs which increases the performance of the network. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated extensively on the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) database. The University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal study that has surveyed more than 27,000 elderly and near-elderly Americans since its inception in 1992. Participants are interviewed every two years and they collect data on physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning. The dataset is publicly available and we use the RAND HRS version L, which is easy to use and cleaned up version of the data. The size of sample data set is 268 and the length of the trajectories is equal to 10. The trajectories do not stop when the patient dies and represent 10 different interviews of live patients. Compared to the state-of-the-art benchmarks, the experimental results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in clustering health trajectories.

Keywords: health trajectory, clustering, deep learning, DBN

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64 Journey of Silver Workers Post Retirement in India: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Avani Maniar, Shivani Mehta


Population aging is one of the most challenging issues of the twenty-first century, facing both developed and developing countries worldwide. In the developed world, there has already been a substantial amount of research on aging and work to help understand the capacity and potential of older people. They attract ever ones attention. Their existence in human society gives rise to variety of responses, reactions and apprehensions, because it connotes on greater part, to some kind of compulsion or willingness that prompt elderly to decide to work after retirement. Work due to social attention and assurance for security both economical and social. In this age, elderly aspire for psychological security with due attention. But the fact remains that despite age related limitations good number of persons in their age of sixty and beyond were hunting for work that would support them and get them some kind of support and in it turns helps them to remain physically and mentally active. Based on the existing diversities in the ageing process, it may be stated that there is a need to pay greater attention to the increasing awareness on the ageing issues and its socio-economic effects and to promote the development of policies and programmes for dealing with an ageing society. Addressing the needs, wants, and well-being of elderly people is essential for maintaining a healthy productive workforce in an aging society. This paper will draw on the results of the study about reasons of elderly working post retirement, problems faced by them and about the future of retirement to ask how widespread negative attitudes and stereotypes among employers are and whether these attitudes influence behavior towards older employees. The aim of research is not only to point out certain stereotypes concerning the elderly labour force, but also to stress that unless preconditions for overcoming these stereotypes are created and employment opportunities are given to this segment of the labour force, full employment as an ultimate goal of global economic policy cannot be achieved.

Keywords: employers, India, inequality, problems, reasons of working, silver workers

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63 Equity Investment Restrictions and Pension Replacement Rates in Nigeria: A Ruin-Risk Analysis

Authors: Uche A. Ibekwe


Pension funds are pooled assets which are established to provide income for retirees. The funds are usually regulated to check excessive risk taking by fund managers. In Nigeria, the current defined contribution (DC) pension scheme appears to contain some overly stringent restrictions which might be hampering its successful implementation. Notable among these restrictions is the 25 percent maximum limit on investment in ordinary shares of quoted companies. This paper examines the extent to which these restrictions affect pension replacement rates at retirement. The study made use of both simulated and historical asset return distributions using mean-variance, regression analysis and ruin-risk analyses, the study found that the current equity investment restriction policy in Nigeria reduces replacement rates at retirement.

Keywords: equity investment, replacement rates, restrictions, ruin-risk

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62 The Relationship between Quality of Work and Employment, Self-Perceived Health and Use of Health Services among the Older Japanese Workforce

Authors: Jacques Wels


Japan has one of the highest average retirement ages within the OCDE and is paving the way to raise the retirement age to 70. However, the Japanese labour market is facing two main issues that can have detrimental effects on health: non-standard employment forms are widespread among the ageing workforce, and poor working conditions can contribute to explain poor health in late career. To assess such a relationship, the study uses data from JSTAR. Using mediation analysis, it particularly looks at the association between job dissatisfaction, employment status, self-perceived health (SPH), and use of health care services. Results show that work quality and employment status are associated with SPH. Contract work has a particularly negative impact and therefore contributes to explain the use of health care services but is not significantly associated with lower job satisfaction levels. SPH is a good predictor of the use of health care services.

Keywords: self-reported health, occupational health, employment, older workers, mediation

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61 Analyzing the Job Satisfaction of Silver Workers Using Structural Equation Modeling

Authors: Valentin Nickolai, Florian Pfeffel, Christian Louis Kühner


In many industrialized nations, the demand for skilled workers rises, causing the current market for employees to be more candidate-driven than employer-driven. Therefore, losing highly skilled and experienced employees due to early or partial retirement negatively impacts firms. Therefore, finding new ways to incentivize older employees (Silver Workers) to stay longer with the company and in their job can be crucial for the success of a firm. This study analyzes how working remotely can be a valid incentive for experienced Silver Workers to stay in their job and instead work from home with more flexible working hours. An online survey with n = 684 respondents, who are employed in the service sector, has been conducted based on 13 constructs that influence job satisfaction. These have been further categorized into three groups “classic influencing factors,” “influencing factors changed by remote working,” and new remote working influencing factors,” and were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Here, Cronbach’s alpha of the individual constructs was shown to be suitable. Furthermore, the construct validity of the constructs was confirmed by face validity, content validity, convergent validity (AVE > 0.5: CR > 0.7), and discriminant validity. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the model fit for the investigated sample (CMIN/DF: 2.567; CFI: 0.927; RMSEA: 0.048). It was shown in the SEM-analysis that the influencing factor on job satisfaction, “identification with the work,” is the most significant with β = 0.540, followed by “Appreciation” (β = 0.151), “Compensation” (β = 0.124), “Work-Life-Balance” (β = 0.116), and “Communication and Exchange of Information” (β = 0.105). While the significance of each factor can vary depending on the work model, the SEM-analysis also shows that the identification with the work is the most significant factor in all three work models mentioned above and, in the case of the traditional office work model, it is the only significant influencing factor. The study shows that employees between the ages of 56 and 65 years have the highest job satisfaction when working entirely from home or remotely. Furthermore, their job satisfaction score of 5.4 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied) is the highest amongst all age groups in any of the three work models. Due to the significantly higher job satisfaction, it can be argued that giving Silver Workers the offer to work from home or remotely can incentivize them not to opt for early retirement or partial retirement but to stay in their job full-time Furthermore, these findings can indicate that employees in the Silver Worker age are much more inclined to leave their job for early retirement if they have to entirely work in the office.

Keywords: home office, remote work instead of early or partial retirement, silver worker, structural equation modeling

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60 The Effect of the Contributory Pension Scheme on Employees’ Performance

Authors: Oladipo Jimoh Ayanda, Fashagba Mathew Olasehinde


Pension is a post retirement benefit paid to employees after retirement to cushion the effects of severance from monthly emoluments. It serves the dual purpose of providing financial succour to retired employees as well as motivating employees currently in service to greater performance on duty. However, the scheme, as operated in Nigeria, is prone to some pitfalls such as delayed and irregular payments, inadequate budgetary provisions, employee sufferings and deaths arising from the rigors of verification exercises, among others. This necessitated the replacement of the old scheme with the contributory pension scheme through an enabling law in 2004. The implementation of the new scheme has its own challenges especially in connection with administration. These challenges pose a fundamental problem of establishing a nexus between pension benefits and work performance which represent the focus of the study. The study objectives were to: determine the effect of contributory pension scheme on employees’ performance. The study population consisted of National Universities Commission recognized public and private universities in the South West Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling method involving stratified sampling and systematic sampling was used in selecting 359 respondents while data were collected through questionnaire administration. The procedure for analyzing the data included descriptive statistic, normal distribution test and cross-tabulation (gamma coefficient). The findings of the study showed that the existence of the scheme positively enhances employees’ performance as indicated by normal distribution test with Z-score (10.169) which is greater than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the scope for enhancing employee current job performance can be quite elastic if future retirement benefits are guaranteed through proper and efficient administration and management of the contributory pension scheme. The study recommended that certain factors such as employers’ commitment which account for different levels of confidence between public and private universities should be looked into in order to improve confidence across board while the provisions of the scheme as they affect the PFAs should be properly monitored to ensure compliance.

Keywords: pension, retirement, performance, employees, benefit

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59 A Sociological Study of the Potential Role of Retired Soldiers in the Post War Development and Reconstruction in Sri Lanka

Authors: Amunupura Kiriwandeiye Gedara, Asintha Saminda Gnanaratne


The security forces can be described as a workforce that goes beyond the role of ensuring the national security and contributes to the development process of the country. Soldiers are following combatant training courses during their tenure, they are equipped with a variety of vocational training courses to satisfy the needs of the army, to equip them with vocational training capabilities to achieve the development and reconstruction goals of the country as well as for the betterment of society in the event of emergencies. But with retirement, their relationship with the military is severed, and they are responsible for the future of their lives. The main purpose of this study was to examine how such professional capabilities can contribute to the development of the country, the current socio-economic status of the retired soldiers, and the current application of the vocational training skills they have mastered in the army to develop and rebuild the country in an effective manner. After analyzing the available research literature related to this field, a conceptual framework was developed and according to qualitative research methodology, and data obtained from Case studies and interviews are analyzed by using thematic analysis. Factors influencing early retirement include a lack of understanding of benefits, delays in promotions, not being properly evaluated for work, getting married on hasty decisions, and not having enough time to spend on family and household chores. Most of the soldiers are not aware about various programs and benefits available to retirees. They do not have a satisfactory attitude towards the retirement guidance they receive from the army at the time of retirement. Also, due to the lack of understanding about how to use their vocational capabilities successfully pursue their retirement life, the majority of people are employed in temporary jobs, and some are successful in post-retirement life due to their successful use of training received. Some live on pensions without engaging in any income-generating activities, and those who retire after 12 years of service are facing severe economic hardships as they do not get pensions. Although they have received training in various fields, they do not use them for their benefit due to lack of proper guidance. Although the government implements programs, they are not clearly aware of them. Barriers to utilization of training include an absence of a system to identify the professional skills of retired soldiers, interest in civil society affairs, exploration of opportunities in the civil and private sectors, and politicization of services. If they are given the opportunity, they will be able to contribute to the development and reconstruction process. The findings of the study further show that it has many social, economic, political, and psychological benefits not only for individuals but also for a country. Entrepreneurship training for all retired soldiers, improving officers' understanding, streamlining existing mechanisms, creating new mechanisms, setting up a separate unit for retirees, and adapting them to civil society, private and non-governmental contributions, and training courses can be identified as potential means to improve the current situation.

Keywords: development, reconstruction, retired soldiers, vocational capabilities

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