Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11855

Search results for: World Health Organisation

11855 IT/IS Organisation Design in the Digital Age: A Literature Review

Authors: Dominik Krimpmann

Abstract:

Information technology and information systems are currently at a tipping point. The digital age fundamentally transforms a large number of industries in the ways they work. Lines between business and technology blur. Researchers have acknowledged that this is the time in which the IT/IS organisation needs to re-strategise itself. In this paper, the author provides a structured review of the IS and organisation design literature addressing the question of how the digital age changes the design categories of an IT/IS organisation design. The findings show that most papers just analyse single aspects of either IT/IS relevant information or generic organisation design elements but miss a holistic ‘big-picture’ onto an IT/IS organisation design. This paper creates a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework bringing together the IS research strand, the digital strand and the generic organisation design strand. The research identified four IT/IS organisation design categories (strategy, structure, processes and people) and discusses the importance of two additional categories (sourcing and governance). The authors findings point to a first anchor point from which further research needs to be conducted to develop a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework.

Keywords: IT/IS strategy, IT/IS organisation design, digital age, organisational effectiveness, literature review

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11854 Equity in Public Health: Perception from the Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) Program for HIV- Patients in India

Authors: Koko Wangjam, Naresh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

The concern for most public health policies and decision- makers is the equitable distribution of health care resource of the nation. Also, in public health care system, the primary aim is assuaging the burden of the disease. Objective: This paper captures and evaluates some important theories in equity in health with its relevance with the ART program in India. Methodology: The paper is exploratory and descriptive study based on secondary data. The sources of secondary data are published official reports from NACO (National AIDS Control Organisation), United Nations AIDS Program (UNAIDS), World Health Organisation (WHO) etc. Observation: The roll-out of the ART program in 2004 by the Govt. of India made a paradigm shift in HIV/AIDS scenario in the country. Conclusion: There are many theoretical injunctions in most of the principles and approaches in existing theories of health equity. The enervation of HIV infection by taking ART drugs had helped in curbing the prevalence and the fact that it is provided at free of cost has proven this program to be an epitome in distributive justice in public health.

Keywords: art program, burden of the disease, health equity, hiv/aids

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11853 Role of International Organizations towards Good Governance: Recent Trends

Authors: E. Prema Shyam

Abstract:

The role of international organizations has contributed in various ways for the good governance in the world at large. Since the beginning of the 1990s international organizations, particularly those active in the areas of human rights, trade and economic etc., have embraced a 'good governance'. It is also pertinent to mention that the application of the concept of good governance to international organizations themselves and not exclusively to national or regional polities is a more recent phenomenon. Especially since the second half of the 1990s, a number of international organizations have carried out major governance reforms, assuming that their calls for governments to heed higher standards of good governance will be all the more credible provided that they develop a good governance standard for themselves. In addition to this number of organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), European Union (EU), International Committee of the Red Cross and World Trade Organization (WTO). OECD has been specifically mobilized to fight corruption. The World Bank was the first international organization to address the issue of good governance when it attributed the African development crisis to a crisis of governance in a 1989 report. International organizations are often denounced for their lack of transparency and democracy. However, in the last few years, a number of them have pushed through impressive reforms aimed at enhancing good governance standards within their own organizations, especially in the light of their long-standing secrecy. This is a remnant of the traditional conception of international organizations, which renders them merely answerable to their Members. International organizations have already gone quite some way in the areas of good management and opening up to the public. However, as far as participatory governance is concerned, lot to be done for the larger interest of society. In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus the issues on international organisations with regard to good governance.

Keywords: good governance, World Trade Organisation, international organisation, governance reforms

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11852 Doing Durable Organisational Identity Work in the New World of Work: Meeting the Challenge of Different Workplace Strategies

Authors: Theo Heyns Veldsman, Dieter Veldsman

Abstract:

Organisational Identity (OI) refers to who and what the organisation is, what it stands for and does, and what it aspires to become. OI explores the perspectives of how we see ourselves, are seen by others and aspire to be seen. It provides as rationale the ‘why’ for the organisation’s continued existence. The most widely accepted differentiating features of OI are encapsulated in the organisation’s core, distinctive, differentiating, and enduring attributes. OI finds its concrete expression in the organisation’s Purpose, Vision, Strategy, Core Ideology, and Legacy. In the emerging new order infused by hyper-turbulence and hyper-fluidity, the VICCAS world, OI provides a secure anchor and steady reference point for the organisation, particularly the growing widespread focus on Purpose, which is indicative of the organisation’s sense of social citizenship. However, the transforming world of work (TWOW) - particularly the potent mix of ongoing disruptive innovation, the 4th Industrial Revolution, and the gig economy with the totally unpredicted COVID19 pandemic - has resulted in the consequential adoption of different workplace strategies by organisations in terms of how, where, and when work takes place. Different employment relations (transient to permanent); work locations (on-site to remote); work time arrangements (full-time at work to flexible work schedules); and technology enablement (face-to-face to virtual) now form the basis of the employer/employee relationship. The different workplace strategies, fueled by the demands of TWOW, pose a substantive challenge to organisations of doing durable OI work, able to fulfill OI’s critical attributes of core, distinctive, differentiating, and enduring. OI work is contained in the ongoing, reciprocally interdependent stages of sense-breaking, sense-giving, internalisation, enactment, and affirmation. The objective of our paper is to explore how to do durable OI work relative to different workplace strategies in the TWOW. Using a conceptual-theoretical approach from a practice-based orientation, the paper addresses the following topics: distinguishes different workplace strategies based upon a time/place continuum; explicates stage-wise the differential organisational content and process consequences of these strategies for durable OI work; indicates the critical success factors of durable OI work under these differential conditions; recommends guidelines for OI work relative to TWOW; and points out ethical implications of all of the above.

Keywords: organisational identity, workplace strategies, new world of work, durable organisational identity work

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11851 An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment

Authors: Fumihiko Isada, Yuriko Isada

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.

Keywords: empirical study, industry segment, open innovation, product-development organisation pattern

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11850 Terrorism: A Threat in Constant Evolution Still Misunderstood

Authors: M. J. Gazapo Lapayese

Abstract:

It is a well-established fact that terrorism is one of the foremost threats to present-day international security. The creation of tools or mechanisms for confronting it in an effective and efficient manner will only be possible by way of an objective assessment of the phenomenon. In order to achieve this, this paper has the following three main objectives: Firstly, setting out to find the reasons that have prevented the establishment of a universally accepted definition of terrorism, and consequently trying to outline the main features defining the face of the terrorist threat in order to discover the fundamental goals of what is now a serious blight on world society. Secondly, trying to explain the differences between a terrorist movement and a terrorist organisation, and the reasons for which a terrorist movement can be led to transform itself into an organisation. After analysing these motivations and the characteristics of a terrorist organisation, an example of the latter will be succinctly analysed to help the reader understand the ideas expressed. Lastly, discovering and exposing the factors that can lead to the appearance of terrorist tendencies, and discussing the most efficient and effective responses that can be given to this global security threat.

Keywords: responses, resilience, security, terrorism

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11849 An Evaluation of Rational Approach to Management by Objectives in Construction Contracting Organisation

Authors: Zakir H. Shaik, Punam L. Vartak

Abstract:

Management By Objectives (MBO) is a management technique in which objectives of an organisation are conveyed to the employees to establish the individual goals. These objectives and goals are then monitored and assessed jointly by management and the employee time to time. This tool can be used for planning, monitoring as well as for performance appraisal. The success of an organisation is largely dependent on its’s Vision. Thus, it is of paramount importance to achieve the realm of vision through a mission which is well crafted within the organisation to address the objectives. The success of the mission depends upon how realistic and action oriented philosophical approach, an organisation caters to; and how the individual goals are set to track and meet the objectives. Thus, focused and passionate efforts of the team, assigned for the mission, are an absolute obligation for achieving the vision of any organisation. Any construction site is generally a controlled disorder having huge investments, resources and logistics involved. The Construction progression is time-consuming with many isolated as well as interconnected activities. Traditional MBO approach can be unsuccessful if planning and control is non-realistic and inflexible. Moreover, the Construction Industry is far behind understanding these concepts. It is important to address the employee engagement in defining and creating awareness to achieve the targets. Besides, current economic environment and competitive world demands refined management tools to achieve profit, growth and survival of the business. Therefore, the necessity of rational MBO becomes vital part towards the success of an organisation. This paper details about the philosophical assumptions to develop the grounded theory in lieu of achieving objectives through RATIONAL MBO approach in Construction Contracting Organisations. The goals and objectives of the Construction Contracting Organisations can be achieved efficiently by adopting this RATIONAL MBO approach, as those are based on realistic, logical and balanced assumptions.

Keywords: growth, leadership, management by objectives, Management By Objectives (MBO), profit, rational

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11848 The Global Economic System and the Third World Development

Authors: Monday Dickson

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Shortly before the end of the second world war, allied leaders and other western powers designed an economic regime that would foster, among other things, global economic reconstruction, prosperity and overall development of countries of the world. They founded both the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), with a general consensus that while the latter should specialize in monitoring global and national economies and acting as a lender of last resort, the former should focus on fighting poverty and promoting development. In setting the rules for world trade, the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) evolved into the World Trade Organisation (WTO). This paper, therefore, examines the impact of the activities of these institutions on the transformation and development aspirations of countries of the Third World. The study adopts the descriptive and analytical methods of investigation and derived relevant secondary data from books, journal articles, encyclopedia as well as reports from countries of the Third World. Findings show that rather than fostering poverty reduction and overall development as envisaged, the activities of global economy system leads to the “development of underdevelopment” of the Third World Countries. The strategic options that are available to countries of the Third World derived from the ability of the national governments to develop programmes of systematic exploration and exploitation of vital indices of relations with strategic countries to advance their development agenda.

Keywords: development, global economic system, prosperity, third world

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11847 Dilemmas of HRM in a Project-Oriented Organisation

Authors: Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej

Abstract:

The functioning of a project-oriented organisation creates new and different, from the traditional ones, conditions for human resources management. In the analysed case HRM is primarily characterized by a double-track nature – on the one hand within the framework of permanent structures (departments) and, on the other, within the area of particular projects. The purpose of the article is to present the dilemmas associated with the development of selected HRM areas in project-oriented organisations. Theoretical discussion was supplemented by the results of empirical research.

Keywords: human resources management, tracks of HRM, project, project-oriented organisation

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11846 Better Defined WHO International Classification of Disease Codes for Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, and Lyme Disease Education Aiding Diagnosis, Treatment Improving Human Right to Health

Authors: Mualla McManus, Jenna Luche Thaye

Abstract:

World Health Organisation International Classification of Disease codes were created to define disease including infections in order to guide and educate diagnosticians. Most infectious diseases such as syphilis are clearly defined by their ICD 10 codes and aid/help to educate the clinicians in syphilis diagnosis and treatment globally. However, current ICD 10 codes for relapsing fever Borreliosis and Lyme disease are less clearly defined and can impede appropriate diagnosis especially if the clinician is not familiar with the symptoms of these infectious diseases. This is despite substantial number of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals about relapsing fever and Lyme disease. In the USA there are estimated 380,000 people annually contacting Lyme disease, more cases than breast cancer and 6x HIV/AIDS cases. This represents estimated 0.09% of the USA population. If extrapolated to the global population (7billion), 0.09% equates to 63 million people contracting relapsing fever or Lyme disease. In many regions, the rate of contracting some form of infection from tick bite may be even higher. Without accurate and appropriate diagnostic codes, physicians are impeded in their ability to properly care for their patients, leaving those patients invisible and marginalized within the medical system and to those guiding public policy. This results in great personal hardship, pain, disability, and expense. This unnecessarily burdens health care systems, governments, families, and society as a whole. With accurate diagnostic codes in place, robust data can guide medical and public health research, health policy, track mortality and save health care dollars. Better defined ICD codes are the way forward in educating the diagnosticians about relapsing fever and Lyme diseases.

Keywords: WHO ICD codes, relapsing fever, Lyme diseases, World Health Organisation

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11845 Social Responsibility in the Theory of Organisation Management

Authors: Patricia Crentsil, Alvina Oriekhova

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine social responsibility in the theory of organisation management. The main objectives are to examine the link between accountability,transparency, and ethical onorganisation management. The study seeks to answer questions that have received inadequate attention in social responsibility literature. Specifically, how accountability, transparency of policy, and ethical aspect enhanced organisation management? The target population of the study comprises of Deans and Head of Departments of Public Universities and Technical Universities in Ghana. The study used purposive sampling technique to select the Public Universities and technical universities in Ghana and adopted simple random Technique to select 300 participants from all Technical Universities in Ghana and 500 participants from all Traditional Universities in Ghana. The sample size will be 260 using confidence level = 95%, Margin of Error = 5%. The study used both primary and secondary data. The study adopted exploratory design to address the research questions. Results indicated thataccountability, transparency, and ethical have a positive significant link with organisation management. The study suggested that management can motivate an organization to act in a socially responsible manner.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, organisation management, organisation management theory, social responsibility

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11844 An Investigation on Organisation Cyber Resilience

Authors: Arniyati Ahmad, Christopher Johnson, Timothy Storer

Abstract:

Cyber exercises used to assess the preparedness of a community against cyber crises, technology failures and critical information infrastructure (CII) incidents. The cyber exercises also called cyber crisis exercise or cyber drill, involved partnerships or collaboration of public and private agencies from several sectors. This study investigates organisation cyber resilience (OCR) of participation sectors in cyber exercise called X Maya in Malaysia. This study used a principal based cyber resilience survey called C-Suite Executive checklist developed by World Economic Forum in 2012. To ensure suitability of the survey to investigate the OCR, the reliability test was conducted on C-Suite Executive checklist items. The research further investigates the differences of OCR in ten Critical National Infrastructure Information (CNII) sectors participated in the cyber exercise. The One Way ANOVA test result showed a statistically significant difference of OCR among ten CNII sectors participated in the cyber exercise.

Keywords: critical information infrastructure, cyber resilience, organisation cyber resilience, reliability test

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11843 Disability Discrimination in Nigeria Employment Market: A Case Study of Nigeria Airspace Management Agency

Authors: Okupe Temitope Oluwaseun

Abstract:

Purpose: The paper determines the existing position of attitudes to disability in a Nigerian organisation. It further assessed the progress that has been made in relation to employment matters as an indication of the Nigerian employment market. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses an investigative study which adopted survey research-based approach involving a Nigerian Management Agency. Findings: The paper finds that, although there have been some steps forward, not much has been done with regard to disability equality in the Nigerian employment market. Lack of education, lack of implementing and enforcing the law, inadequate awareness process and international culture have contributed to the current situation. International culture, in particular, is one of the major attributes to lack of disability equality. For example, in the rural areas, the majority of people believe that disability is a form of witchcraft. This paper argues that these traditions, attitudes, and beliefs make it difficult for an organisation to recruit people with disability. Practical Implications: This paper provides a deeper understanding of how organisations can address attitudes to disability within the workplace in Nigeria. The research findings give a fresher perspective on some of the issues associated with disability in this country. This increased understanding has potential to improve the education and training of staff in this area. Originality/value: A paper which human resources managers in Nigerian organisation and the rest of the world can reflect upon in order to assess their own organisation attitudes to the employment of staff with a disability.

Keywords: disability, international culture, Nigeria, attitudes

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11842 Strategic Maintenance Management of Built Facilities in an Organisation

Authors: Anita D. Adamu, Winston M. W. Shakantu

Abstract:

Maintenance management is no longer a stand-alone activity. It has now assumed a strategic position in many organisations that have recognised its importance in achieving primary goals and a key aspect of effective management of facilities. This paper aims at providing an understanding of the role and function of strategic management in creating and sustaining an effective maintenance management system in an organisation. The background provides an articulated concept and principles of strategic management. The theoretical concepts paved way for a conceptual framework for which strategic management can be integrated into the maintenance management system of an organisation to improve effectiveness in the maintenance of facilities.

Keywords: facilities, maintenance management, organisations, strategic management

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11841 Information Technology: Assessing Indian Realities Vis-à-Vis World Trade Organisation Disciplines

Authors: Saloni Khanderia

Abstract:

The World Trade Organisation’s (WTO) Information Technology Agreement (ITA), was concluded at the Singapore Ministerial Conference in 1996. The ITA is considered to be one of the biggest tariff-cutting deals because it eliminates all customs-related duties on the exportation of specific categories of information technology products to the territory of any other signatory to the Agreement. Over time, innovations in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector mandated the consideration of expanding the list of products covered by the ITA, which took place in the form of ITA-II negotiations during the WTO’s Nairobi Ministerial Conference. India, which was an original Member of the ITA-I, however, decided to opt-out of the negotiations to expand the list of products covered by the agreement. Instead, it preferred to give priority to its national policy initiative, namely the ‘Make-in-India’ programme [the MiI programme], which embarks upon fostering the domestic production of, inter alia, the ICT sector. India claims to have abstained from the ITA-II negotiations by stating that the zero-tariff regime created by the ITA-I debilitated its electronics-manufacturing sectors and on the contrary resulted in an over-reliance on imported electronic inputs. The author undertakes doctrinal research to examine India’s decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations, against the backdrop of the MiI Programme, which endeavours to improve productivity across-the-board. This paper accordingly scrutinises the tariff-cutting strategies of India to weigh the better alternative for India. Apropos, it examines whether initiatives like the MiI programme could plausibly resuscitate the ailing domestic electronics-manufacturing sector. The author opines that the country’s present decision to opt-out of ITA-II negotiations should be perceived as a welcome step. Thus, market-oriented reforms such as the MiI Programme, which focuses on indigenous innovation to improve domestic manufacturing in the ICT sector, should instead, in the present circumstances gain priority. Consequently, the MiI Programme would aid in moulding the country’s current tariff policy in a manner that will concurrently assist the promotion and sustenance of domestic manufacturing in the IT sector.

Keywords: electronics-manufacturing sector, information technology agreement, make in india programme, world trade organisation

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11840 Opportunity Development and Entrepreneurial Process

Authors: Abosede Mosunmola Odeseye

Abstract:

The sustainability of nations’ economies today have proven to be unrealistic in a constantly changing world without appropriate accordance to entrepreneurship role and its processes. This role has therefore proven to be a product of the available and discoverable opportunities by an individual/organisation in any pattern – innovation, discovery, diffusion, imitation amidst possible challenges. In light of these, this paper examined the relationship between opportunity development and entrepreneurial processes as well as the factors determining individual’s opportunity development and the success of entrepreneurial processes. Systematic review method was adopted for selecting relevant academic materials. The theoretical base of this paper was anchored on Schumpeter’s entrepreneurial innovation model and Drucker and Stevenson’s opportunity-based entrepreneurship theory. Based on the reviewed literature, it was discovered that rough business idea “opportunity” in any form – techniques/product encounter various obstacles to achieve its development, acceptability and sustainability. In essence, the findings revealed that the birth of every opportunity is as a result of the individual/organisation and environmental factors to be able to scale through the whole process successfully. Due to the outcome of this paper, it was recommended that the organisations/government should endeavour to create an enabling environment for a rough business idea to come to life amidst the hurdles of the entrepreneurial process.

Keywords: entrepreneurial process, entrepreneurship, opportunity, opportunity development, organisation, sustainability

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11839 Caring for the Carers: A Qualitative Study to Evaluate the Perspective of Mental Health Carers on the Effectiveness of Community Services in the Illawarra Region (NSW)

Authors: Mona Nikidehaghani, Freda Hui

Abstract:

In Australia, one-third of mental health carers provide 40 hours or more of unpaid care per week. These hidden workers contribute significantly to the Australian mental health workforce by providing unpaid services both direct and indirect to people in their care. However, carers are often neglected in the healthcare system because Government services focus on those with a mental health condition rather than those supporting them. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perceptions of mental health carers on the effectiveness of community services designed for carers and how these services could be improved. We collaborated with One Door Mental Health, a community organisation that supports mental health carers. Through semi-structured interviews with 27 mental health carers residing in the Illawarra region (NSW), we documented their daily challenges and evaluated outcomes of the current programs for carers. Our findings demonstrate that services such as education programs enable capacity building and improve the social life and mental health of carers. Drawing on the perceptions of mental health carers, this study maps pathways for making meaningful changes in the lives of carers and proposes an outcome framework to evaluate the impact of a community organisation on the lives of their clients. The framework prepared by this project would be replicable, allowing other community organisations to measure the outcomes and improve their services.

Keywords: capacity building, community development, community service, mental health carers

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11838 Solving One of the Variants of Necktie Paradox for Business Proposals

Authors: Natarajan Vijayarangan, Viswanath Kumar Ganesan, G. Kumudhavalli

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This abstract figures out an uncertainty problem pertaining to evaluating business proposals or concept notes in an organisation. Let us consider business proposal evaluation process (BPEP) for execution of corporate research cum business projects in the organisation. Assume that two concept notes X and Y of BPEP are approved: one of them is a full-fledged type (100% financial approval given by the organisation) - X and other one is a conditional type (a partial financial approval given by the organisation) - Y. Then a penalty criteria has been introduced during the process. At the end of annual appraisal, if both of them complete as per the goals and objectives committed or figured out at the time of concept note submission, then both will get an incentive of $N from the organisation. If one of them doesn't fulfill the goals and objectives at the year-end appraisal, then d% reduction or cut will be levied on the project budget for the next year. If X fulfills the goals and objectives and Y doesn't , then X gets a gain of d% on Y's previous year budget and Y gets a loss of d% from the previous year budget for the next year. And vice-versa. Further, an incentive of $N will be given to those who gains. This process is a part of Necktie paradox and inherits an uncertainty principle on X or Y getting more than $N even if X or Y performs well.Solving the above problem and generalizing on finitely many concept notes will be a challenging task.

Keywords: concept notes, necktie paradox, annual appraisal, project budget and gain or loss

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11837 China’s Health Silk Road in Southeast Asia and Europe during COVID-19

Authors: Wanda Luen-Wun Siu, Xiaowen Zhang

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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportune time for China to deploy its health diplomacy around the world. This paper focused on China’s health diplomacy along the path of its Health Silk Road, with particular emphasis on the Middle East and Europe amid COVID-19. This paper employed a retrospective literature review, analyzed China’s health diplomacy in such regions to cultivate bilateral and multilateral relationships. And findings argued that such health diplomacy is a success, and Beijing has assumed a leadership role in the world’s health governance. This research contributes to the literature in health diplomacy and suggests that amid the ever changing international order, China has exerted great effort in its health diplomacy and established itself as a responsible world power.

Keywords: china’s health silk road, COVID-19, europe, middle east

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11836 Review of Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in Organisation

Authors: Mariya Salihu Ingawa, Sani Suleiman Isah

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The assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organisation is an important initiative to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the success status of their investment in IS integration efforts. However, without a proper assessment, an organisation will not know its IIS status, which may affect their judgment on what action should be taken onwards. Current research on IIS assessment is lacking and those related literature on IIS assessment focus more on assessing the technical aspect of IIS. It is argued that assessing technical aspect alone is inadequate since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered. Current methods, techniques and tools used by vendors for IIS assessment also are lack of comprehensive measures to fully assess the Integrated Information System in term of technical, organisational and strategic domains. The purpose of this study is to establish critical success factors for measuring success of an Integrated Information System. These factors are used as the basis for constructing an approach to comprehensively assess IIS in an organisation. A comprehensive list of success factors for IIS assessment, established from literature, was initially presented. An expert surveys using both manual and online methods were conducted to verify the factors. Based on the factors, an instrument for IIS assessment was constructed. The results from a case study indicate that through comprehensive assessment approach, not only the level of success been known, but also reveals the contributing factors. This research contributes to the field of Information Systems specifically in the area of Integrated Information System assessment.

Keywords: integrated information system, expert surveys, organisation, assessment

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11835 Evaluation of the Trauma System in a District Hospital Setting in Ireland

Authors: Ahmeda Ali, Mary Codd, Susan Brundage

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Importance: This research focuses on devising and improving Health Service Executive (HSE) policy and legislation and therefore improving patient trauma care and outcomes in Ireland. Objectives: The study measures components of the Trauma System in the district hospital setting of the Cavan/Monaghan Hospital Group (CMHG), HSE, Ireland, and uses the collected data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the CMHG Trauma System organisation, to include governance, injury data, prevention and quality improvement, scene care and facility-based care, and rehabilitation. The information will be made available to local policy makers to provide objective situational analysis to assist in future trauma service planning and service provision. Design, setting and participants: From 28 April to May 28, 2016 a cross-sectional survey using World Health Organisation (WHO) Trauma System Assessment Tool (TSAT) was conducted among healthcare professionals directly involved in the level III trauma system of CMHG. Main outcomes: Identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the Trauma System of CMHG. Results: The participants who reported inadequate funding for pre hospital (62.3%) and facility based trauma care at CMHG (52.5%) were high. Thirty four (55.7%) respondents reported that a national trauma registry (TARN) exists but electronic health records are still not used in trauma care. Twenty one respondents (34.4%) reported that there are system wide protocols for determining patient destination and adequate, comprehensive legislation governing the use of ambulances was enforced, however, there is a lack of a reliable advisory service. Over 40% of the respondents reported uncertainty of the injury prevention programmes available in Ireland; as well as the allocated government funding for injury and violence prevention. Conclusions: The results of this study contributed to a comprehensive assessment of the trauma system organisation. The major findings of the study identified three fundamental areas: the inadequate funding at CMHG, the QI techniques and corrective strategies used, and the unfamiliarity of existing prevention strategies. The findings direct the need for further research to guide future development of the trauma system at CMHG (and in Ireland as a whole) in order to maximise best practice and to improve functional and life outcomes.

Keywords: trauma, education, management, system

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11834 Transforming Health Information from Manual to Digital (Electronic) World: A Reference and Guide

Authors: S. Karthikeyan, Naveen Bindra

Abstract:

Introduction: To update ourselves and understand the concept of latest electronic formats available for Health care providers and how it could be used and developed as per standards. The idea is to correlate between the patients Manual Medical Records keeping and maintaining patients Electronic Information in a Health care setup in this world. Furthermore this stands with adapting to the right technology depending upon the organization and improve our quality and quantity of Healthcare providing skills. Objective: The concept and theory is to explain the terms of Electronic Medical Record (EMR), Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Personal Health Record (PHR) and selecting the best technical among the available Electronic sources and software before implementing. It is to guide and make sure the technology used by the end users without any doubts and difficulties. The idea is to evaluate is to admire the uses and barriers of EMR-EHR-PHR. Aim and Scope: The target is to achieve the health care providers like Physicians, Nurses, Therapists, Medical Bill reimbursements, Insurances and Government to assess the patient’s information on easy and systematic manner without diluting the confidentiality of patient’s information. Method: Health Information Technology can be implemented with the help of Organisations providing with legal guidelines and help to stand by the health care provider. The main objective is to select the correct embedded and affordable database management software and generating large-scale data. The parallel need is to know how the latest software available in the market. Conclusion: The question lies here is implementing the Electronic information system with healthcare providers and organisation. The clinicians are the main users of the technology and manage us to ‘go paperless’. The fact is that day today changing technologically is very sound and up to date. Basically the idea is to tell how to store the data electronically safe and secure. All three exemplifies the fact that an electronic format has its own benefit as well as barriers.

Keywords: medical records, digital records, health information, electronic record system

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11833 The Need for a One Health and Welfare Approach to Industrial Animal Farming

Authors: Clinton Adas

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Industrial animal farming contributes to numerous problems that humans face, and among these, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified by the World Health Organisation as a real possibility for the 21st Century. While numerous factors contribute to AMR, one of them is industrial animal farming and its effect on the food chain and environment. In 2017, livestock were given around 73% of all antibiotics worldwide to make them grow faster for profit purposes, to prevent illness caused by unhealthy living conditions, and to treat disease when it breaks out. Many of the antibiotics used provide little benefit to animals, and most are the same as those used by humans - including many deemed critical to human health that should be used sparingly. AMR contributes to millions of illnesses, and in 2019 was responsible for around 4.95 million deaths worldwide. It costs Europe around nine billion euros per year, while it costs the United States (US) around 20 billion dollars per year. While not a simple or quick solution, one way to begin to address the challenge of AMR and other harms from this type of farming is to focus on animal welfare as part of a One Health and Welfare approach, as better welfare requires less antibiotics usage, which may begin to break the cycle.

Keywords: animal and human welfare, industrial animal farming, antimicrobial resistance, one health and welfare, sustainable development goals

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11832 The Relationship Between Soldiers’ Psychological Resilience, Leadership Style and Organisational Commitment

Authors: Rosita Kanapeckaite

Abstract:

The modern operational military environment is a combination of factors such as change, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity. Stiehm (2002) refers to such situations as VUCA situations. VUCA is an acronym commonly used to describe the volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of various situations and conditions. Increasingly fast-paced military operations require military personnel to demonstrate readiness and resilience under stressful conditions in order to maintain the optimum cognitive and physical performance necessary to achieve success. Military resilience can be defined as the ability to cope with the negative effects of setbacks and associated stress on military performance and combat effectiveness. In the volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous modern operational environment, both current and future operations require and place a higher priority on enhancing and maintaining troop readiness and resilience to win decisively in multidimensional combat. This paper explores the phenomenon of soldiers' psychological resilience, theories of leadership, and commitment to the organisation. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between soldiers' psychological resilience, leadership style and commitment to the organisation. The study involved 425 professional soldiers, the research method was a questionnaire survey. The instruments used were measures of psychological resilience, leadership styles and commitment to the organisation. Results: transformational leadership style predicts higher psychological resilience, and psychologically resilient professional servicemen are more committed to the organisation. The study confirms the importance of soldiers' psychological resilience for their commitment to the organisation. The paper also discusses practical applications.

Keywords: resilience, commitment, solders, leadership style

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11831 Health Post A Sustainable Prototype for the Third World

Authors: Chizzoniti Domenico, Beggiora Klizia, Cattani Letizia, Moscatelli Monica

Abstract:

This paper concerns the study of sustainable construction materials applied on the "Health Post", a prototype for the primary health care situated in alienated areas of the world. It's suitable for social and climatic Sub-Saharan context; however, it could be moved in other countries of the world with similar urgent needs. The idea is to create a Health Post with local construction materials that have a low environmental impact and promote the local workforce allowing reuse of traditional building techniques lowering production costs and transport. The aim of Primary Health Care Centre is to be a flexible and expandable structure identifying a modular form that can be repeated several times to expand its existing functions. In this way it could be not only a health care centre but also a socio-cultural facility.

Keywords: low costs building, sustainable construction materials, green construction system, prototype, health care, emergency

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
11830 Impact of Covid-19 on Digital Transformation

Authors: Tebogo Sethibe, Jabulile Mabuza

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has been commonly referred to as a ‘black swan event’; it has changed the world, from how people live, learn, work and socialise. It is believed that the pandemic has fast-tracked the adoption of technology in many organisations to ensure business continuity and business sustainability; broadly said, the pandemic has fast-tracked digital transformation (DT) in different organisations. This paper aims to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on DT in organisations in South Africa by focusing on the changes in IT capabilities in the DT framework. The research design is qualitative. The data collection was through semi-structured interviews with information communication technology (ICT) leaders representing different organisations in South Africa. The data were analysed using the thematic analysis process. The results from the study show that, in terms of ICT in the organisation, the pandemic had a direct and positive impact on ICT strategy and ICT operations. In terms of IT capability transformation, the pandemic resulted in the optimisation and expansion of existing IT capabilities in the organisation and the building of new IT capabilities to meet emerging business needs. In terms of the focus of activities during the pandemic, there seems to be a split in organisations between the primary focus being on ‘digital IT’ or ‘traditional IT’. Overall, the findings of the study show that the pandemic had a positive and significant impact on DT in organisations. However, a definitive conclusion on this would require expanding the scope of the research to all the components of a comprehensive DT framework. This study is significant because it is one of the first studies to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organisations, on ICT in the organisation, on IT capability transformation and, to a greater extent, DT. The findings from the study show that in response to the pandemic, there is a need for: (i) agility in organisations; (ii) organisations to execute on their existing strategy; (iii) the future-proofing of IT capabilities; (iv) the adoption of a hybrid working model; and for (v) organisations to take risks and embrace new ideas.

Keywords: digital transformation, COVID-19, bimodal-IT, digital transformation framework

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
11829 Transition towards a Market Society: Commodification of Public Health in India and Pakistan

Authors: Mayank Mishra

Abstract:

Market Economy can be broadly defined as economic system where supply and demand regulate the economy and in which decisions pertaining to production, consumption, allocation of resources, price and competition are made by collective actions of individuals or organisations with limited government intervention. On the other hand Market Society is one where instead of the economy being embedded in social relations, social relations are embedded in the economy. A market economy becomes a market society when all of land, labour and capital are commodified. This transition also has effect on people’s attitude and values. Such a transition commence impacting the non-material aspect of life such as public education, public health and the like. The inception of neoliberal policies in non-market norms altered the nature of social goods like public health that raised the following questions. What impact would the transition to a market society make on people in terms of accessibility to public health? Is healthcare a commodity that can be subjected to a competitive market place? What kind of private investments are being made in public health and how do private investments alter the nature of a public good like healthcare? This research problem will employ empirical-analytical approach that includes deductive reasoning which will be using the existing concept of market economy and market society as a foundation for the analytical framework and the hypotheses to be examined. The research also intends to inculcate the naturalistic elements of qualitative methodology which refers to studying of real world situations as they unfold. The research will analyse the existing literature available on the subject. Concomitantly the research intends to access the primary literature which includes reports from the World Bank, World Health Organisation (WHO) and the different departments of respective ministries of the countries for the analysis. This paper endeavours to highlight how the issue of commodification of public health would lead to perpetual increase in its inaccessibility leading to stratification of healthcare services where one can avail the better services depending on the extent of one’s ability to pay. Since the fundamental maxim of private investments is to churn out profits, these kinds of trends would pose a detrimental effect on the society at large perpetuating the lacuna between the have and the have-nots.The increasing private investments, both, domestic and foreign, in public health sector are leading to increasing inaccessibility of public health services. Despite the increase in various public health schemes the quality and impact of government public health services are on a continuous decline.

Keywords: commodity, India and Pakistan, market society, public health

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11828 Case Study: 3000acres Facilitating Urban Agriculture in Melbourne, Australia

Authors: Philippa Anne French

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study of 3000acres, a for-purpose organisation established in 2013 to improve the health of Melbournians by enabling them to grow more of their own food. Over the past four years, the organisation has encountered a number of barriers, both obvious and less obvious, which discourage communities from beginning their own food-growing projects. These include soil contamination, planning policies, public perception and access to land. 3000acres has been working to remove these barriers if possible, or otherwise to find ways around them. Strategies have included the use of removable planter boxes on temporarily vacant land, separating the site soil from above-ground garden beds, writing planning exemptions, developing relationships with land management authorities and recording both the quantitative and qualitative products of food gardens in Melbourne. While creating change in policy and legal requirements will be a gradual process, discernable progress has been made in the attitudes of land management authorities and the establishment of new food gardens is becoming easier. Over the past four years, 3000acres has supported the establishment of 14 food gardens in and around Melbourne, including public community gardens, fenced community gardens and urban farms supplying food to a food relief organisation.

Keywords: case study, community gardens, land access, land contamination, urban agriculture

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11827 Psychopathic Manager Behavior and the Employee Workplace Deviance: The Mediating Role of Revenge Motive, the Moderating Roles of Core Self-Evaluations and Attitude Importance

Authors: Sinem Bulkan

Abstract:

This study introduces the construct of psychopathic manager behaviour and aims for the development of psychopathic manager behaviour (Psycho-Man B) measure. The study also aims for the understanding of the relationship between psychopathic manager behaviour and workplace deviance while investigating the mediating role of a revenge motive and the moderating roles of the core self-evaluations and the attitude importance. Data were collected from 519 employees from a wide variety of jobs and industries who currently work for or previously worked for a manager in a collectivist culture, Turkey. Psycho-Man B Measure was developed resulting in five dimensions as opposed to the proposed ten dimensions. Simple linear and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. The results of simple linear regression analyses showed that psychopathic manager behaviour was positively significantly related to supervisor-directed and organisation-directed deviance. Revenge motive towards the manager partially mediated the relationship between psychopathic manager behaviour and supervisor-directed deviance. Similarly, revenge motive towards the organisation partially mediated the relationship between psychopathic manager behaviour and organisation-directed deviance. Furthermore, no support was found for the expected moderating role of core self-evaluations in the revenge motive towards the manager-supervisor-directed deviance and revenge motive towards the organisation-organisation-directed deviance relationships. Attitude importance moderated the relationship between revenge motive towards the manager and supervisor-directed deviance; revenge motive towards the organisation and organisation-directed deviance. Moderated-mediation hypotheses were not supported for core self-evaluations but were supported for the attitude importance. Additional analyses for sub-dimensions were conducted to further examine the hypotheses. Demographic variables were examined through independent samples t-tests, and one way ANOVA. Finally, findings are discussed; limitations, suggestions and implications are presented. The major contribution of this study is that ‘psychopathic manager behaviour’ construct was introduced to the literature and a scale for the reliable identification of psychopathic manager behaviour was developed in to evaluate managers’ level of sub-clinical psychopathy in the workforce. The study introduced that employees engage in different forms of supervisor-directed deviance and organisation-directed deviance depending on the level of the emotions and personal goals. Supervisor-directed deviant behaviours and organisation-directed deviant behaviours became distinct in a way as impulsive and premeditated, active or passive, direct and indirect actions. Accordingly, it is important for organisations to notice that employees’ level of affective state and attitude importance for psychopathic manager behaviours predetermine the certain type of employee deviant behaviours.

Keywords: attitude importance, core self evaluations, psychopathic manager behaviour, revenge motive, workplace deviance

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11826 Exploring the Relationship between Organisational Identity and Value Systems: Reflecting on the Values-Crafting Process in a Multi-National Organisation within the Entertainment Industry

Authors: Dieter Veldsman, Theo Heyns Veldsman

Abstract:

The knowledge economy demands an organisation that is flexible, adaptable and able to navigate the ever-changing environment. This fast-paced environment has however resulted in an organizational landscape that battles to engage employees, retain top talent and create meaningful work for its members. In the knowledge economy, the concept of organizational identity has become an important consideration as organisations aim to create a compelling and inviting narrative for all stakeholders across the business value chain. Values are often seen as the behavioural framework that informs organisational culture, yet often values are perceived to be inauthentic and misaligned with the true character or identity of the organisation and how it is perceived by different role players. This paper focuses on exploring the relationship between organisational identity and value systems by focusing on a case study within a multi-national organisation within South Africa. The paper evaluates the implementation of mixed methods OD approach that gathered collaborative inputs of more than 4500 employees who participated in crafting the newly established values system post a retrenchment process. The paper will evaluate the relationship between the newly crafted value system and the identity of the organisation as described by various internal and external stakeholders in order to explore potential alignment, dissonance and key insights into understanding the relationship between organisational identity and values. The case study will be reported from the perspective of an OD consultant who supported the transformation process over a period of 8 months and aims to provide key insights into values and identity alignment within knowledge economy organisations. From a practical perspective, the paper provides insights into how values are created, perceived and lived within organisations and the impact on employee engagement and culture.

Keywords: culture, organisational development, organisational identity, values

Procedia PDF Downloads 244