Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 915

Search results for: organisation cyber resilience

915 An Investigation on Organisation Cyber Resilience

Authors: Arniyati Ahmad, Christopher Johnson, Timothy Storer

Abstract:

Cyber exercises used to assess the preparedness of a community against cyber crises, technology failures and critical information infrastructure (CII) incidents. The cyber exercises also called cyber crisis exercise or cyber drill, involved partnerships or collaboration of public and private agencies from several sectors. This study investigates organisation cyber resilience (OCR) of participation sectors in cyber exercise called X Maya in Malaysia. This study used a principal based cyber resilience survey called C-Suite Executive checklist developed by World Economic Forum in 2012. To ensure suitability of the survey to investigate the OCR, the reliability test was conducted on C-Suite Executive checklist items. The research further investigates the differences of OCR in ten Critical National Infrastructure Information (CNII) sectors participated in the cyber exercise. The One Way ANOVA test result showed a statistically significant difference of OCR among ten CNII sectors participated in the cyber exercise.

Keywords: critical information infrastructure, cyber resilience, organisation cyber resilience, reliability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
914 Improving Cyber Resilience in Mobile Field Hospitals: Towards an Assessment Model

Authors: Nasir Baba Ahmed, Nicolas Daclin, Marc Olivaux, Gilles Dusserre

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The Mobile field hospital is critical in terms of managing emergencies in crisis. It is a sub-section of the main hospitals and the health sector, tasked with delivering responsive, immediate, and efficient medical services during a crisis. With the aim to prevent further crisis, the assessment of the cyber assets follows different methods, to distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, and in turn achieve cyber resiliency. The work focuses on assessments of cyber resilience in field hospitals with trends growing in both the field hospital and the health sector in general. This creates opportunities for the adverse attackers and the response improvement objectives for attaining cyber resilience, as the assessments allow users and stakeholders to know the level of risks with regards to its cyber assets. Thus, the purpose is to show the possible threat vectors which open up opportunities, with contrast to current trends in the assessment of the mobile field hospitals’ cyber assets.

Keywords: assessment framework, cyber resilience, cyber security, mobile field hospital

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
913 A Systematic Approach for Analyzing Multiple Cyber-Physical Attacks on the Smart Grid

Authors: Yatin Wadhawan, Clifford Neuman, Anas Al Majali

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In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of the smart grid system in the presence of multiple cyber-physical attacks on its distinct functional components. We discuss attack-defense scenarios and their effect on smart grid resilience. Through contingency simulations in the Network and PowerWorld Simulator, we analyze multiple cyber-physical attacks that propagate from the cyber domain to power systems and discuss how such attacks destabilize the underlying power grid. The analysis of such simulations helps system administrators develop more resilient systems and improves the response of the system in the presence of cyber-physical attacks.

Keywords: smart grid, gas pipeline, cyber- physical attack, security, resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
912 Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

Authors: Erdinc Ozturk, Gizem Akcan

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Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students whose ages are between 18 and 35 participated this study. According to findings of this study, men are more prone to cyber bullying than women. Moreover, men are also more prone to cyber victimization than women.

Keywords: cyber bullying, cyber victimization, coping strategies, sex

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
911 Cyber Supply Chain Resilient: Enhancing Security through Leadership to Protect National Security

Authors: Katie Wood

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Cyber criminals are constantly on the lookout for new opportunities to exploit organisation and cause destruction. This could lead to significant cause of economic loss for organisations in the form of destruction in finances, reputation and even the overall survival of the organization. Additionally, this leads to serious consequences on national security. The threat of possible cyber attacks places further pressure on organisations to ensure they are secure, at a time where international scale cyber attacks have occurred in a range of sectors. Stakeholders are wanting confidence that their data is protected. This is only achievable if a business fosters a resilient supply chain strategy which is implemented throughout its supply chain by having a strong cyber leadership culture. This paper will discuss the essential role and need for organisations to adopt a cyber leadership culture and direction to learn about own internal processes to ensure mitigating systemic vulnerability of its supply chains. This paper outlines that to protect national security there is an urgent need for cyber awareness culture change. This is required in all organisations, regardless of their sector or size, to implementation throughout the whole supplier chain to support and protect economic prosperity to make the UK more resilient to cyber-attacks. Through businesses understanding the supply chain and risk management cycle of their own operates has to be the starting point to ensure effective cyber migration strategies.

Keywords: cyber leadership, cyber migration strategies, resilient supply chain strategy, cybersecurity

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
910 Increasing the Resilience of Cyber Physical Systems in Smart Grid Environments using Dynamic Cells

Authors: Andrea Tundis, Carlos García Cordero, Rolf Egert, Alfredo Garro, Max Mühlhäuser

Abstract:

Resilience is an important system property that relies on the ability of a system to automatically recover from a degraded state so as to continue providing its services. Resilient systems have the means of detecting faults and failures with the added capability of automatically restoring their normal operations. Mastering resilience in the domain of Cyber-Physical Systems is challenging due to the interdependence of hybrid hardware and software components, along with physical limitations, laws, regulations and standards, among others. In order to overcome these challenges, this paper presents a modeling approach, based on the concept of Dynamic Cells, tailored to the management of Smart Grids. Additionally, a heuristic algorithm that works on top of the proposed modeling approach, to find resilient configurations, has been defined and implemented. More specifically, the model supports a flexible representation of Smart Grids and the algorithm is able to manage, at different abstraction levels, the resource consumption of individual grid elements on the presence of failures and faults. Finally, the proposal is evaluated in a test scenario where the effectiveness of such approach, when dealing with complex scenarios where adequate solutions are difficult to find, is shown.

Keywords: cyber-physical systems, energy management, optimization, smart grids, self-healing, resilience, security

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909 Importance of Human Factors on Cybersecurity within Organizations: A Study of Attitudes and Behaviours

Authors: Elham Rajabian

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The ascent of cybersecurity incidents is a rising threat to most organisations in general, while the impact of the incidents is unique to each of the organizations. It is a need for behavioural sciences to concentrate on employees’ behaviour in order to prepare key security mitigation opinions versus cybersecurity incidents. There are noticeable differences among users of a computer system in terms of complying with security behaviours. We can discuss the people's differences under several subjects such as delaying tactics on something that must be done, the tendency to act without thinking, future thinking about unexpected implications of present-day issues, and risk-taking behaviours in security policies compliance. In this article, we introduce high-profile cyber-attacks and their impacts on weakening cyber resiliency in organizations. We also give attention to human errors that influence network security. Human errors are discussed as a part of psychological matters to enhance compliance with the security policies. The organizational challenges are studied in order to shape a sustainable cyber risks management approach in the related work section. Insiders’ behaviours are viewed as a cyber security gap to draw proper cyber resiliency in section 3. We carry out the best cybersecurity practices by discussing four CIS challenges in section 4. In this regard, we provide a guideline and metrics to measure cyber resilience in organizations in section 5. In the end, we give some recommendations in order to build a cybersecurity culture based on individual behaviours.

Keywords: cyber resilience, human factors, cybersecurity behavior, attitude, usability, security culture

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908 IT/IS Organisation Design in the Digital Age: A Literature Review

Authors: Dominik Krimpmann

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Information technology and information systems are currently at a tipping point. The digital age fundamentally transforms a large number of industries in the ways they work. Lines between business and technology blur. Researchers have acknowledged that this is the time in which the IT/IS organisation needs to re-strategise itself. In this paper, the author provides a structured review of the IS and organisation design literature addressing the question of how the digital age changes the design categories of an IT/IS organisation design. The findings show that most papers just analyse single aspects of either IT/IS relevant information or generic organisation design elements but miss a holistic ‘big-picture’ onto an IT/IS organisation design. This paper creates a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework bringing together the IS research strand, the digital strand and the generic organisation design strand. The research identified four IT/IS organisation design categories (strategy, structure, processes and people) and discusses the importance of two additional categories (sourcing and governance). The authors findings point to a first anchor point from which further research needs to be conducted to develop a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework.

Keywords: IT/IS strategy, IT/IS organisation design, digital age, organisational effectiveness, literature review

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907 Review of Cyber Security in Oil and Gas Industry with Cloud Computing Perspective: Taxonomy, Issues and Future Direction

Authors: Irfan Mohiuddin, Ahmad Al Mogren

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In recent years, cloud computing has earned substantial attention in the Oil and Gas Industry and provides services in all the phases of the industry lifecycle. Oil and gas supply infrastructure, in particular, is more vulnerable to accidental, natural and intentional threats because of its widespread distribution. Numerous surveys have been conducted on cloud security and privacy. However, to the best of our knowledge, hardly any survey is carried out that reviews cyber security in all phases with a cloud computing perspective. Moreover, a distinctive classification is performed for all the cloud-based cyber security measures based on the cloud component in use. The classification approach will enable researchers to identify the required technique used to enhance the security in specific cloud components. Also, the limitation of each component will allow the researchers to design optimal algorithms. Lastly, future directions are given to point out the imminent challenges that can pave the way for researchers to further enhance the resilience to cyber security threats in the oil and gas industry.

Keywords: cyber security, cloud computing, safety and security, oil and gas industry, security threats, oil and gas pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
906 Terrorism: A Threat in Constant Evolution Still Misunderstood

Authors: M. J. Gazapo Lapayese

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It is a well-established fact that terrorism is one of the foremost threats to present-day international security. The creation of tools or mechanisms for confronting it in an effective and efficient manner will only be possible by way of an objective assessment of the phenomenon. In order to achieve this, this paper has the following three main objectives: Firstly, setting out to find the reasons that have prevented the establishment of a universally accepted definition of terrorism, and consequently trying to outline the main features defining the face of the terrorist threat in order to discover the fundamental goals of what is now a serious blight on world society. Secondly, trying to explain the differences between a terrorist movement and a terrorist organisation, and the reasons for which a terrorist movement can be led to transform itself into an organisation. After analysing these motivations and the characteristics of a terrorist organisation, an example of the latter will be succinctly analysed to help the reader understand the ideas expressed. Lastly, discovering and exposing the factors that can lead to the appearance of terrorist tendencies, and discussing the most efficient and effective responses that can be given to this global security threat.

Keywords: responses, resilience, security, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
905 New Requirements of the Fifth Dimension of War: Planning of Cyber Operation Capabilities

Authors: Mehmet Kargaci

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Transformation of technology and strategy has been the main factor for the evolution of war. In addition to land, maritime, air and space domains, cyberspace has become the fifth domain with emerge of internet. The current security environment has become more complex and uncertain than ever before. Moreover, warfare has evaluated from conventional to irregular, asymmetric and hybrid war. Weak actors such as terrorist organizations and non-state actors has increasingly conducted cyber-attacks against strong adversaries. Besides, states has developed cyber capabilities in order to defense critical infrastructure regarding the cyber threats. Cyber warfare will be key in future security environment. Although what to do has been placed in operational plans, how to do has lacked and ignored as to cyber defense and attack. The purpose of the article is to put forward a model for how to conduct cyber capabilities in a conventional war. First, cyber operations capabilities will be discussed. Second put forward the necessities of cyberspace environment and develop a model for how to plan an operation using cyber operation capabilities, finally the assessment of the applicability of cyber operation capabilities and offers will be presented.

Keywords: cyber war, cyber threats, cyber operation capabilities, operation planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
904 Developing Cyber Security Asset Mangement Framework for UK Rail

Authors: Shruti Kohli

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The sophistication and pervasiveness of cyber-attacks are constantly growing, driven partly by technological progress, profitable applications in organized crime and state-sponsored innovation. The modernization of rail control systems has resulted in an increasing reliance on digital technology and increased the potential for security breaches and cyber-attacks. This research track showcases the need for developing a secure reusable scalable framework for enhancing cyber security of rail assets. A cyber security framework has been proposed that is being developed to detect the tell-tale signs of cyber-attacks against industrial assets.

Keywords: cyber security, rail asset, security threat, cyber ontology

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
903 Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

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Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.

Keywords: resilience, community resilience, urban resilience, construction strategies

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902 Cyber Security in Russia: Offense, Defense and Strategy in Cyberspace

Authors: Da Eun Sung

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In today’s world, cyber security has become an important international agenda. As the information age has arrived, the need for cyber defense against cyber attacks is mounting, and the significance of cyber cooperation in the international community is drawing attention. Through the course, international society has agreed that the institutionalization of international norms dealing with cyber space and cyber security is crucial ever. Nevertheless, the West, led by the United States of America, and 'the East', composed of Russia and China, have shown conflicting views on forming international norms and principles which would regulate and ward off the possible threats in cyber space. Thus, the international community hasn’t yet to reach an agreement on cyber security. In other words, the difference between both sides on the approach and understanding of principles, objects, and the definition has rendered such. Firstly, this dissertation will cover the Russia’s perception, strategy, and definition on cyber security through analyzing primary source. Then, it will delve into the two contrasting cyber security strategy between Russia and the US by comparing them. And in the conclusion, it will seek the possible solution for the cooperation in the field of cyber security. It is quite worthwhile to look into Russia’s views, which is the main counterpart to the US in this field, especially when the efforts to institutionalize cyber security by the US-led international community have met with their boundaries, and when the legitimacy of them have been challenged.

Keywords: cyber security, cyber security strategic, international relation in cyberspace, Russia

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901 Supply Chain Resilience Triangle: The Study and Development of a Framework

Authors: M. Bevilacqua, F. E. Ciarapica, G. Marcucci

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Supply Chain Resilience has been broadly studied during the last decade, focusing the research on many aspects of Supply Chain performance. Consequently, different definitions of Supply Chain Resilience have been developed by the research community, drawing inspiration also from other fields of study such as ecology, sociology, psychology, economy et al. This way, the definitions so far developed in the extant literature are therefore very heterogeneous, and many authors have pointed out a lack of consensus in this field of analysis. The aim of this research is to find common points between these definitions, through the development of a framework of study: the Resilience Triangle. The Resilience Triangle is a tool developed in the field of civil engineering, with the objective of modeling the loss of resilience of a given structure during and after the occurrence of a disruption such as an earthquake. The Resilience Triangle is a simple yet powerful tool: in our opinion, it can summarize all the features that authors have captured in the Supply Chain Resilience definitions over the years. This research intends to recapitulate within this framework all these heterogeneities in Supply Chain Resilience research. After collecting a various number of Supply Chain Resilience definitions present in the extant literature, the methodology approach provides a taxonomy step with the scope of collecting and analyzing all the data gathered. The next step provides the comparison of the data obtained with the plotting of a disruption profile, in order to contextualize the Resilience Triangle in the Supply Chain context. The tool and the results developed in this research will allow to lay the foundation for future Supply Chain Resilience modeling and measurement work.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, resilience definition, supply chain resilience triangle

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900 Making Sense of Adversity Triggers Using Organisational Resilience, a Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Luke McGowan, David Pickernell, Martini Battisti

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In this paper, Adversity Triggers were explored through the lens of Organisational Resilience. Adversity Triggers are contextualized by temporal factors, thus, naturally aligning to Resilience literature. Resilience has been chosen as the theoretical framework as risk management approaches are often not geared towards providing meaningful responses to high-impact, low-probability events. Adversity Triggers and Organisational Resilience both consider temporal factors which enabled investigation of each phase of recovery. A systematic literature was employed to assess previous literature and define further areas of research. The systematic literature review method was chosen to catalogue and identify gaps in current literature.

Keywords: adversity triggers, crisis, extreme events, organisational resilience, resilience

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899 The Relationship between Resource Sharing and Economic Resilience: An Empirical Analysis of Firms’ Resilience from the Perspective of Resource Dependence Theory

Authors: Alfredo R. Roa-Henriquez

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This paper is about organizational-level resilience and decision-making in the face of natural hazards. Research on resilience emerged to explain systems’ ability to absorb and recover in the midst of adversity and uncertainty from natural disasters, crises, and other disruptive events. While interest in resilience has accelerated, research multiplied, and the number of policies and implementations of resilience to natural hazards has increased over the last several years, mainly at the level of communities and regions, there has been a dearth of empirical work on resilience at the level of the firm. This paper uses empirical data and a sample selection model to test some hypotheses related to the firm’s dependence on critical resources, the sharing of resources and its economic resilience. The objective is to understand how the sharing of resources among organizations is related to economic resilience. Empirical results that are obtained from a sample of firms affected by Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Harvey indicate that there is unobserved heterogeneity that explains the strategic behavior of firms in the post-disaster and that those firms that are more likely to resource share are also the ones that exhibit higher economic resilience. The impact of property damage on the sharing of resources and economic resilience is explored.

Keywords: economic resilience, resource sharing, critical resources, strategic management

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
898 Nursing Workers’ Capacity of Resilience at a Psychiatric Hospital in Brazil

Authors: Cheila Cristina Leonardo Oliveira Gaioli, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Sandra Cristina Pillon

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Resilience is a psychological process that facilitates the maintenance of health, developed in response to numerous existing stressors in daily life. Furthermore, resilience can be described as the ability which allows an individual or group to hold up well before unfavorable situations. This study aimed to identify nursing workers’ resilience at a psychiatric hospital in Brazil. This is an exploratory research with quantitative data approach. The sample consisted of 56 workers, using the Resilience Scale. Of the 56 subjects, 45 (80.4%) were women; 22 (39.2%) were 20- to 40-years-old and 30 (53.6%) were 41- to 60-years-old; 11 (19.6%) were nurses and 45 (80.4%) were technicians or nursing assistants. The results also showed that 50% of subjects showed a high resilience degree and 42.9% an average resilience degree. Thus, it was found that workers seek to develop protective factors in coping with a work environment that does not value the individual subjectivity and does not allow professional development, discouraging workers.

Keywords: health promotion, nursing, occupational health, resilience

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897 An Empirical Study Comparing Industry Segments as Regards Organisation Management in Open Innovation - Based on a Questionnaire of the Pharmaceutical Industry and IT Component Industry Segment

Authors: Fumihiko Isada, Yuriko Isada

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The aim of this research is to clarify the difference by industry segment or product characteristics as regards organisation management for an open innovation to raise R&D performance. In particular, the trait of the pharmaceutical industry is defined in comparison with IT component industry segment. In considering open innovation, both inter-organisational relation and the management in an organisation are important issues. As methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In conclusion, suitable organisation management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.

Keywords: empirical study, industry segment, open innovation, product-development organisation pattern

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896 Resilience in Children: A Comparative Analysis between Children with and without Parental Supervision Bandar Abbas

Authors: N. Taghinejad, F. Dortaj, N. Khodabandeh

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This research aimed at comparing resilience among male and female children with and without parental supervision in Bandar Abbas. The sample consists of 200 subjects selected through cluster sampling. The research method was comparative causal and Conner and Davidson’s questionnaire form resilience was used for data collection. Results indicated that there is no difference between children with and without parental supervision regarding their resilience capacity. These findings may be challenging and useful for psychologists, officials of children’s affairs and legislators.

Keywords: resilience, children , children with parental supervision, children without parental supervision

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
895 The Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Relationship between Cultural Identity and Self-Concordance among Tibetan, Han and Hui Students

Authors: Chunhua Ma

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Background: There is a relationship between cultural identity and psychological health. Resilience is an important factor of psychological health, and cultural identity will protect the resilience. The research showed that the cultural identity, resilience, and self-concordance of students from different cultures. It should be a theoretical basis to improve mental health of different nationalities students. And the role of resilience factors for adults’ cultural identity and self-concordance was deserve studied. Aims: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between cultural identity and self-concordance among Chinese academician from 3 minorities, postulating mediating by resilience. Methods: This study used cross-sectional and correlational design. Participants were 328 Chinese aged between 18 and 25 years. Data was collected via self-reports including both closed and opened questions. Results: Linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, the result showed that: (a) Cultural identity was related to self-concordance, resilience was related to self-concordance and cultural identity was related to resilience, (b) Resilience mediated the link between cultural identity and self-concordance, respectively. Discussion: Our findings suggested that resilience and cultural identity are important factors in self-concordance. If minority college students realized the heterogeneous culture, it would alleviate their psychological conflict, stimulate their strength potential and improve their self-concordance.

Keywords: cultural identity, resilience, self-concordance, mediating effect

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894 A Holistic Approach to Institutional Cyber Security

Authors: Mehmet Kargaci

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It is more important to access information than to get the correct information and to transform it to the knowledge in a proper way. Every person, organizations or governments who have the knowledge now become the target. Cyber security involves the range of measures to be taken from individual to the national level. The National institutions refer to academic, military and major public and private institutions, which are very important for the national security. Thus they need further cyber security measures. It appears that the traditional cyber security measures in the national level are alone not sufficient, while the individual measures remain in a restricted level. It is evaluated that the most appropriate method for preventing the cyber vulnerabilities rather than existing measures are to develop institutional measures. This study examines the cyber security measures to be taken, especially in the national institutions.

Keywords: cyber defence, information, critical infrastructure, security

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893 Community Resilience to Violent Extremism: A Case Study of Swat in the Wake of Operation Rah-E-Raast

Authors: Khushboo Ejaz

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Community Resilience to Violent Extremism gain importance in the post 9/11 scenario. Resilience is a word that came from the engineering domain. Prior to 9/11, this word community resilience has been used in disasters and natural hazards. The literature on Community Resilience has been published in different multiethnic and multi-religious communities. There is less data and research done on Pakistan’s Community resilience experience. This research is a case study; how local community showed resilience against violent extremism of Tehrik-e-Taliban Swat in the wake of Operation Rah-e- Raast. Qualitative research based on interviews and focus group discussions from male and female groups of different Tehsils of Swat has been carried out to highlight the Community Resilience to Violent Extremism of Tehrik- e- Taliban and Tehrik- e- Nifaz- e -Shariat- e-Muhamadi (TNSM) .NVivo software has been used for data analysis and highlighting all factors of Community Resilience to Violent extremism (CRVE) in Swat . Recommendations has been made in the end to suggest Civil Society Organizations, NGOs and government departments in order to facilitate and enhance community resilience of tribal and rural areas affected by violent elements in Pakistan. This study will fill the gap in literature related to CRVE policies in Pakistani context.

Keywords: community resilience, operation Rah -e Raast, counter extremism, swat, Pakistan

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892 Quick Reference: Cyber Attacks Awareness and Prevention Method for Home Users

Authors: Haydar Teymourlouei

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It is important to take security measures to protect your computer information, reduce identify theft, and prevent from malicious cyber-attacks. With cyber-attacks on the continuous rise, people need to understand and learn ways to prevent from these attacks. Cyber-attack is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious attacks. Without proper security measures, most computer technology would hinder home users more than such technologies would help. Knowledge of how cyber-attacks operate and protective steps that can be taken to reduce chances of its occurrence are key to increasing these security measures. The purpose of this paper is to inform home users on the importance of identifying and taking preventive steps to avoid cyberattacks. Throughout this paper, many aspects of cyber-attacks will be discuss: what a cyber-attack is, the affects of cyber-attack for home users, different types of cyber-attacks, methodology to prevent such attacks; home users can take to fortify security of their computer.

Keywords: cyber-attacks, home user, prevention, security, technology

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891 Active Cyber Defense within the Concept of NATO’s Protection of Critical Infrastructures

Authors: Serkan Yağlı, Selçuk Dal

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Cyber-attacks pose a serious threat to all states. Therefore, states constantly seek for various methods to encounter those threats. In addition, recent changes in the nature of cyber-attacks and their more complicated methods have created a new concept: active cyber defence (ACD). This article tries to answer firstly why ACD is important to NATO and find out the viewpoint of NATO towards ACD. Secondly, infrastructure protection is essential to cyber defence. Critical infrastructure protection with ACD means is even more important. It is assumed that by implementing active cyber defence, NATO may not only be able to repel the attacks but also be deterrent. Hence, the use of ACD has a direct positive effect in all international organizations’ future including NATO.

Keywords: active cyber defence, advanced persistent treat, critical infrastructure, NATO

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890 Cyber Operational Design and Military Decision Making Process

Authors: M. Karaman, H. Catalkaya

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Due to the complex nature of cyber attacks and their effects ranging from personal to governmental level, it becomes one of the priority tasks for operation planners to take into account the risks, influences and effects of cyber attacks. However it can also be embedded or integrated technically with electronic warfare planning, cyber operation planning is needed to have a sole and broadened perspective. This perspective embodies itself firstly in operational design and then military decision making process. In order to find out the ill-structured problems, understand or visualize the operational environment and frame the problem, operational design can help support cyber operation planners and commanders. After having a broadened and conceptual startup with cyber operational design, military decision making process will follow the principles of design into more concrete elements like reaching results after risk management and center of gravity analysis of our and the enemy. In this paper we tried to emphasize the importance of cyber operational design, cyber operation planning and its integration to military decision making problem. In this foggy, uncertain and unaccountable cyber security environment, it is inevitable to stay away from cyber attacks. Therefore, a cyber operational design should be formed with line of operations, decisive points and end states in cyber then a tactical military decision making process should be followed with cyber security focus in order to support the whole operation.

Keywords: cyber operational design, military decision making process (MDMP), operation planning, end state

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889 Dilemmas of HRM in a Project-Oriented Organisation

Authors: Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej

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The functioning of a project-oriented organisation creates new and different, from the traditional ones, conditions for human resources management. In the analysed case HRM is primarily characterized by a double-track nature – on the one hand within the framework of permanent structures (departments) and, on the other, within the area of particular projects. The purpose of the article is to present the dilemmas associated with the development of selected HRM areas in project-oriented organisations. Theoretical discussion was supplemented by the results of empirical research.

Keywords: human resources management, tracks of HRM, project, project-oriented organisation

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888 Resilience, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Saba Harati, Nasrin Arian Parsa

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The current research was an attempt to investigate the effect of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction. In one Cross Sectional research, 287 (173 females and 114 males) students of Tehran University were participated their average age was 23.17 years old (SD=4.9). The instruments used for assessing the research variables included: Cutter and Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), the short form of the depression-anxiety-stress scale, and life satisfaction scale. The data analysis was done in the form of structural equation model. The results of Simultaneous Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that there was a significant mediating role of the negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and stress), in the relationship between the family resilience (p < 0.001) and satisfaction with life (p < 0.001). Resilience results in life satisfaction by reducing the emotional problems (or increasing the mental health level). The effect of the resilience variable on life satisfaction was indirect.

Keywords: resilience, negative emotion, mental health, life satisfaction

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887 Understanding Cyber Terrorism from Motivational Perspectives: A Qualitative Data Analysis

Authors: Yunos Zahri, Ariffin Aswami

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Cyber terrorism represents the convergence of two worlds: virtual and physical. The virtual world is a place in which computer programs function and data move, whereas the physical world is where people live and function. The merging of these two domains is the interface being targeted in the incidence of cyber terrorism. To better understand why cyber terrorism acts are committed, this study presents the context of cyber terrorism from motivational perspectives. Motivational forces behind cyber terrorism can be social, political, ideological and economic. In this research, data are analyzed using a qualitative method. A semi-structured interview with purposive sampling was used for data collection. With the growing interconnectedness between critical infrastructures and Information & Communication Technology (ICT), selecting targets that facilitate maximum disruption can significantly influence terrorists. This work provides a baseline for defining the concept of cyber terrorism from motivational perspectives.

Keywords: cyber terrorism, terrorism, motivation, qualitative analysis

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886 Cyber Aggression, Cyber Bullying and the Dark Triad: Effect on Workplace Behavior and Performance

Authors: Anishya Obhrai Madan

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In an increasingly connected world, where speed of communication attempts to match the speed of thought and thus intentions; conflict gets actioned faster using media like the internet and telecommunication technology. This has led to a new form of aggression: “cyber bullying”. The present paper attempts to integrate existing theory on bullying, and the dark triad personality traits in a work environment and extrapolate it to the cyber context.

Keywords: conflict at work, cyber bullying, dark triad of personality, toxic employee

Procedia PDF Downloads 151