Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1633

Search results for: responses

1633 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung


A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

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1632 Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Responses of the Plate Subjected to Impulsive Loads

Authors: Behzad Mohammadzadeh, Huyk Chun Noh


The plate is one of the popular structural elements used in a wide range of industries and structures. They may be subjected to blast loads during explosion events, missile attacks or aircraft attacks. This study is to investigate dynamic responses of the rectangular plate subjected to explosive loads. The effects of material properties and plate thickness on responses of the plate are to be investigated. The compressive pressure is applied to the surface of the plate. Different amounts of thickness in the range from 10mm to 30mm are considered for the plate to evaluate the changes in responses of the plate with respect to the plate thickness. Two different properties are considered for the steel. First, the analysis is performed by considering only the elastic-plastic properties for the steel plate. Later on damping is considered to investigate its effects on the responses of the plate. To do analysis, the numerical method using a finite element based package ABAQUS is applied. Finally, dynamic responses and graphs showing the relation between maximum displacement of the plate and aim parameters are provided.

Keywords: impulsive loaded plates, dynamic analysis, ABAQUS, material nonlinearity

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1631 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni


Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.

Keywords: MHC, cell-mediated immunity, broiler, chicken

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1630 Investigating the Associative Network of Color Terms among Turkish University Students: A Cognitive-Based Study

Authors: R. Güçlü, E. Küçüksakarya


Word association (WA) gives the broadest information on how knowledge is structured in the human mind. Cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, and applied linguistics are the disciplines that consider WA tests as substantial in gaining insights into the very nature of the human cognitive system and semantic knowledge. In this study, Berlin and Kay’s basic 11 color terms (1969) are presented as the stimuli words to a total number of 300 Turkish university students. The responses are analyzed according to Fitzpatrick’s model (2007), including four categories, namely meaning-based responses, position-based responses, form-based responses, and erratic responses. In line with the findings, the responses to free association tests are expected to give much information about Turkish university students’ psychological structuring of vocabulary, especially morpho-syntactic and semantic relationships among words. To conclude, theoretical and practical implications are discussed to make an in-depth evaluation of how associations of basic color terms are represented in the mental lexicon of Turkish university students.

Keywords: color term, gender, mental lexicon, word association task

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1629 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Evaluation of Tall Building at Structure and Component Level

Authors: Tahir Mehmood, Pennung Warnitchai


Simplified static analysis procedures such Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP) are gaining popularity for the seismic evaluation of buildings. However, these simplified procedures accounts only for the seismic responses of the fundamental vibration mode of the structure. Some other procedures which can take into account the higher modes of vibration, lack in accuracy to determine the component responses. Hence, such procedures are not suitable for evaluating the structures where many vibration modes may participate significantly or where component responses are needed to be evaluated. Moreover, these procedures were found to either computationally expensive or tedious to obtain individual component responses. In this paper, a simplified but accurate procedure is studied. It is called the Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis (UMRHA) procedure. In this procedure, the nonlinear response of each vibration mode is first computed, and they are later on combined into the total response of the structure. The responses of four tall buildings are computed by this simplified UMRHA procedure and compared with those obtained from the NLRHA procedure. The comparison shows that the UMRHA procedure is able to accurately compute the global responses, i.e., story shears and story overturning moments, floor accelerations and inter-story drifts as well as the component level responses of these tall buildings with heights varying from 20 to 44 stories. The required computational effort is also extremely low compared to that of the Nonlinear Response History Analysis (NLRHA) procedure.

Keywords: higher mode effects, seismic evaluation procedure, tall buildings, component responses

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1628 Development of Interactional Competence: Listener Responses of Long-Term Stay Abroad Chinese L1 Speakers in Australian Universities

Authors: Wei Gao


The current study investigates the change of listener responses in social conversations of the second language (L2) speakers who are staying abroad with Chinese L1 speakers in Australian universities and how their long-term stay abroad impacted their design for L2 recipient actions. There is a limited amount of empirical work on L2 English listener response acquisition, particularly regarding the influence of long-term stay abroad in English-speaking countries. Little is known whether the development of L2 listener responses and the improvement of interactional competence is affected by the prolonged residency in the target L2 country. Forty-eight participants were recruited, and they participated in the designed speaking task through Computer-Mediated Communication. Results showed that long-term stay abroad Chinese L1 speakers demonstrated an English-like pattern of listener responses in communication. Long-term stay abroad experience had a significant impact on L2 English listener responses production and organization in social conversation. Long-term stay abroad L1 Chinese speakers had an active and productive response in listenership than their non-stay abroad counterparts in terms of frequency and placement in producing listener responses. However, the L2 English listener response production only occurred to be partial in response tokens, such as backchannels and reactive expressions, also in resumptive openers' employment. This study shows that L2 English listener responses could be acquired during a long-term stay abroad in English-speaking countries but showed partial acquisition in collaborative finishes production. In addition, the most prominent finding was that Chinese L1 speakers changed their overall listener responses pattern from L1 Chinese to L2 English. The study reveals specific interactional changes in English L2 listener responses acquisition. It generates pedagogical implications for cross-cultural communication and L2 pragmatics acquisition during a long-term stay abroad.

Keywords: listener responses, stay abroad, interactional competence, L2 pragmatics acquisition

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1627 Numerical Simulation of a Three-Dimensional Framework under the Action of Two-Dimensional Moving Loads

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu


The objective of this research is to develop a general technique so that one may predict the dynamic behaviour of a three-dimensional scale crane model subjected to time-dependent moving point forces by means of conventional finite element computer packages. To this end, the whole scale crane model is divided into two parts: the stationary framework and the moving substructure. In such a case, the dynamic responses of a scale crane model can be predicted from the forced vibration responses of the stationary framework due to actions of the four time-dependent moving point forces induced by the moving substructure. Since the magnitudes and positions of the moving point forces are dependent on the relative positions between the trolley, moving substructure and the stationary framework, it can be found from the numerical results that the time histories for the moving speeds of the moving substructure and the trolley are the key factors affecting the dynamic responses of the scale crane model.

Keywords: moving load, moving substructure, dynamic responses, forced vibration responses

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1626 Modelling and Optimization of Laser Cutting Operations

Authors: Hany Mohamed Abdu, Mohamed Hassan Gadallah, El-Giushi Mokhtar, Yehia Mahmoud Ismail


Laser beam cutting is one nontraditional machining process. This paper optimizes the parameters of Laser beam cutting machining parameters of Stainless steel (316L) by considering the effect of input parameters viz. power, oxygen pressure, frequency and cutting speed. Statistical design of experiments are carried in three different levels and process responses such as 'Average kerf taper (Ta)' and 'Surface Roughness (Ra)' are measured accordingly. A quadratic mathematical model (RSM) for each of the responses is developed as a function of the process parameters. Responses predicted by the models (as per Taguchi’s L27 OA) are employed to search for an optimal parametric combination to achieve desired yield of the process. RSM models are developed for mean responses, S/N ratio, and standard deviation of responses. Optimization models are formulated as single objective problem subject to process constraints. Models are formulated based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using MATLAB environment. Optimum solutions are compared with Taguchi Methodology results.

Keywords: optimization, laser cutting, robust design, kerf width, Taguchi method, RSM and DOE

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1625 Early Detection of Damages in Railway Steel Truss Bridges from Measured Dynamic Responses

Authors: Dinesh Gundavaram


This paper presents an investigation on bridge damage detection based on the dynamic responses estimated from a passing vehicle. A numerical simulation of steel truss bridge for railway was used in this investigation. The bridge response at different locations is measured using CSI-Bridge software. Several damage scenarios are considered including different locations and severities. The possibilities of dynamic properties of global modes in the identification of structural changes in truss bridges were discussed based on the results of measurement.

Keywords: bridge, damage, dynamic responses, detection

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1624 Design and Development of the Force Plate for the Study of Driving-Point Biodynamic Responses

Authors: Vikas Kumar, V. H. Saran, Arpit Mathur, Avik Kathuria


The evaluation of biodynamic responses of the human body to whole body vibration exposure is necessary to quantify the exposure effects. A force plate model has been designed with the help of CAD software, which was investigated by performing the modal, stress and strain analysis using finite element approach in the software. The results of the modal, stress and strain analysis were under the limits for measurements of biodynamic responses to whole body vibration. The physical model of the force plate was manufactured and fixed to the vibration simulator and further used in the experimentation for the evaluation of apparent mass responses of the ten recruited subjects standing in an erect posture exposed to vertical whole body vibration. The platform was excited with sinusoidal vibration at vibration magnitude: 1.0 and 1.5 m/s2 rms at different frequency of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12.5, 16 and 20 Hz. The results of magnitude of normalised apparent mass have shown the trend observed in the many past studies. The peak in the normalised apparent mass has been observed at 4 & 5 Hz frequency of vertical whole body vibration. The nonlinearity with respect to vibration magnitude has been also observed in the normalised apparent mass responses.

Keywords: whole body vibration, apparent mass, modeling, force plate

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1623 Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes

Authors: Marlene Weber, Joseph Giacomin, Alessio Malizia, Lee Skrypchuk, Voula Gkatzidou


Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total, 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified.

Keywords: affective computing, case study, emotion recognition, human computer interaction

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1622 The Role of Parental Stress and Emotion Regulation in Responding to Children’s Expression of Negative Emotion

Authors: Lizel Bertie, Kim Johnston


Parental emotion regulation plays a central role in the socialisation of emotion, especially when teaching young children to cope with negative emotions. Despite evidence which shows non-supportive parental responses to children’s expression of negative emotions has implications for the social and emotional development of the child, few studies have investigated risk factors which impact parental emotion socialisation processes. The current study aimed to explore the extent to which parental stress contributes to both difficulties in parental emotion regulation and non-supportive parental responses to children’s expression of negative emotions. In addition, the study examined whether parental use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy facilitates the influence of parental stress on non-supportive responses by testing the relations in a mediation model. A sample of 140 Australian adults, who identified as parents with children aged 5 to 10 years, completed an online questionnaire. The measures explored recent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, the use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy, and hypothetical parental responses to scenarios related to children’s expression of negative emotions. A mediated regression indicated that parents who reported higher levels of stress also reported higher levels of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy and increased use of non-supportive responses in relation to young children’s expression of negative emotions. These findings suggest that parents who experience heightened symptoms of stress are more likely to both suppress their emotions in parent-child interaction and engage in non-supportive responses. Furthermore, higher use of expressive suppression strongly predicted the use of non-supportive responses, despite the presence of parental stress. Contrary to expectation, no indirect effect of stress on non-supportive responses was observed via expressive suppression. The findings from the study suggest that parental stress may become a more salient manifestation of psychological distress in a sub-clinical population of parents while contributing to impaired parental responses. As such, the study offers support for targeting overarching factors such as difficulties in parental emotion regulation and stress management, not only as an intervention for parental psychological distress, but also the detection and prevention of maladaptive parenting practices.

Keywords: emotion regulation, emotion socialisation, expressive suppression, non-supportive responses, parental stress

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1621 A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, dynamic response, artificial neural network, radial basis function network, genetic algorithm

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1620 A Case Study of Ontology-Based Sentiment Analysis for Fan Pages

Authors: C. -L. Huang, J. -H. Ho


Social media has become more and more important in our life. Many enterprises promote their services and products to fans via the social media. The positive or negative sentiment of feedbacks from fans is very important for enterprises to improve their products, services, and promotion activities. The purpose of this paper is to understand the sentiment of the fan’s responses by analyzing the responses posted by fans on Facebook. The entity and aspect of fan’s responses were analyzed based on a predefined ontology. The ontology for cell phone sentiment analysis consists of aspect categories on the top level as follows: overall, shape, hardware, brand, price, and service. Each category consists of several sub-categories. All aspects for a fan’s response were found based on the ontology, and their corresponding sentimental terms were found using lexicon-based approach. The sentimental scores for aspects of fan responses were obtained by summarizing the sentimental terms in responses. The frequency of 'like' was also weighted in the sentimental score calculation. Three famous cell phone fan pages on Facebook were selected as demonstration cases to evaluate performances of the proposed methodology. Human judgment by several domain experts was also built for performance comparison. The performances of proposed approach were as good as those of human judgment on precision, recall and F1-measure.

Keywords: opinion mining, ontology, sentiment analysis, text mining

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1619 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Visual Evoked Responses Using Dense EEG

Authors: Rima Hleiss, Elie Bitar, Mahmoud Hassan, Mohamad Khalil


A comprehensive study of object recognition in the human brain requires combining both spatial and temporal analysis of brain activity. Here, we are mainly interested in three issues: the time perception of visual objects, the ability of discrimination between two particular categories (objects vs. animals), and the possibility to identify a particular spatial representation of visual objects. Our experiment consisted of acquiring dense electroencephalographic (EEG) signals during a picture-naming task comprising a set of objects and animals’ images. These EEG responses were recorded from nine participants. In order to determine the time perception of the presented visual stimulus, we analyzed the Event Related Potentials (ERPs) derived from the recorded EEG signals. The analysis of these signals showed that the brain perceives animals and objects with different time instants. Concerning the discrimination of the two categories, the support vector machine (SVM) was applied on the instantaneous EEG (excellent temporal resolution: on the order of millisecond) to categorize the visual stimuli into two different classes. The spatial differences between the evoked responses of the two categories were also investigated. The results showed a variation of the neural activity with the properties of the visual input. Results showed also the existence of a spatial pattern of electrodes over particular regions of the scalp in correspondence to their responses to the visual inputs.

Keywords: brain activity, categorization, dense EEG, evoked responses, spatio-temporal analysis, SVM, time perception

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1618 A Mixed Method Study Investigating Dyslexia and Students Experiences of Anxiety and Coping

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones


Adult students with dyslexia can receive support for cognitive needs but may also experience anxiety, which is less understood. This study aims to test the hypothesis that dyslexic learners in higher education have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers and explores wider emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the ways that adults with dyslexia cope cognitively and emotionally. A mixed-method approach was used in two stages. Stage one compared survey responses from students with dyslexia (N = 102) and students without dyslexia (N = 72) after completion of an anxiety inventory. Stage two explored the emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the types of coping strategies used through semi-structured interviews with 20 dyslexic students. Results revealed a statistically significant effect for academic anxiety but not for social anxiety. Findings for stage two showed that: (1) students’ emotional consequences were characterised by a mixture of negative and positive responses, yet negative responses were more frequent in response to questions about academic tasks than positive responses; (2) participants had less to say on coping emotionally, than coping cognitively.

Keywords: dyslexia, higher education, anxiety, emotion

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1617 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav


Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst, cell death, plant defense

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1616 Bilateral Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex during Voluntary Regulated Breathing (Pranayama) Practices: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, Suhas Vinchurkar


Similar to neuroimaging findings through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessing regional cerebral blood oxygenation, the functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has also been used to assess hemodynamic responses in the imaged region of the brain. The present study assessed hemodynamic responses in terms of changes in oxygenation (HbO), deoxygenation (HbR) and total hemoglobin (THb) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilaterally, using fNIRS in 10 participants who performed three voluntary regulated breathing (pranayama) practices viz. (i) Left nostril breathing (LNB), (ii) Right nostril breathing (RNB); and (iii) Alternating nostril breathing (ANB) and compared with normal breathing as baseline (BS). For this, we used 64 channel NIRS system covering left and the right prefrontal cortex. The normal breathing kept as baseline (BS) measures as regressors in the investigation of hemodynamic responses when compared with LNB, RNB and ANB. In the results, we found greater oxygenation in contralateral side i.e., higher activation on the left prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during RNB, and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) during LNB, whereas ANB showed greater deoxygenation responses on both sides of PFC. Interestingly, LNB showed increased oxygenation on ipsilateral side i.e., lPFC but not during RNB. This suggests that voluntary regulated breathing produced an immediate effect not only on contralateral but ipsilateral sides of the brain as well. In conclusion, breathing practices are tightly coupled to cerebral rhythms of alternating cerebral hemispheric activity during particular nostril breathing. These results of the specific nostril breathing do not support previous findings of contralateral hemispheric improvement while left or right nostril breathing only.

Keywords: hemodynamic responses, brain, pranayama, voluntary regulated breathing practices, prefrontal cortex

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1615 Identifying Unknown Dynamic Forces Applied on Two Dimensional Frames

Authors: H. Katkhuda


A time domain approach is used in this paper to identify unknown dynamic forces applied on two dimensional frames using the measured dynamic structural responses for a sub-structure in the two dimensional frame. In this paper a sub-structure finite element model with short length of measurement from only three or four accelerometers is required, and an iterative least-square algorithm is used to identify the unknown dynamic force applied on the structure. Validity of the method is demonstrated with numerical examples using noise-free and noise-contaminated structural responses. Both harmonic and impulsive forces are studied. The results show that the proposed approach can identify unknown dynamic forces within very limited iterations with high accuracy and shows its robustness even noise- polluted dynamic response measurements are utilized.

Keywords: dynamic force identification, dynamic responses, sub-structure, time domain

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1614 3D Modeling for Frequency and Time-Domain Airborne EM Systems with Topography

Authors: C. Yin, B. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Cai


Airborne EM (AEM) is an effective geophysical exploration tool, especially suitable for ridged mountain areas. In these areas, topography will have serious effects on AEM system responses. However, until now little study has been reported on topographic effect on airborne EM systems. In this paper, an edge-based unstructured finite-element (FE) method is developed for 3D topographic modeling for both frequency and time-domain airborne EM systems. Starting from the frequency-domain Maxwell equations, a vector Helmholtz equation is derived to obtain a stable and accurate solution. Considering that the AEM transmitter and receiver are both located in the air, the scattered field method is used in our modeling. The Galerkin method is applied to discretize the Helmholtz equation for the final FE equations. Solving the FE equations, the frequency-domain AEM responses are obtained. To accelerate the calculation speed, the response of source in free-space is used as the primary field and the PARDISO direct solver is used to deal with the problem with multiple transmitting sources. After calculating the frequency-domain AEM responses, a Hankel’s transform is applied to obtain the time-domain AEM responses. To check the accuracy of present algorithm and to analyze the characteristic of topographic effect on airborne EM systems, both the frequency- and time-domain AEM responses for 3 model groups are simulated: 1) a flat half-space model that has a semi-analytical solution of EM response; 2) a valley or hill earth model; 3) a valley or hill earth with an abnormal body embedded. Numerical experiments show that close to the node points of the topography, AEM responses demonstrate sharp changes. Special attentions need to be paid to the topographic effects when interpreting AEM survey data over rugged topographic areas. Besides, the profile of the AEM responses presents a mirror relation with the topographic earth surface. In comparison to the topographic effect that mainly occurs at the high-frequency end and early time channels, the EM responses of underground conductors mainly occur at low frequencies and later time channels. For the signal of the same time channel, the dB/dt field reflects the change of conductivity better than the B-field. The research of this paper will serve airborne EM in the identification and correction of the topographic effects.

Keywords: 3D, Airborne EM, forward modeling, topographic effect

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1613 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han


For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: algorithm, ground motion, response history analysis, selection

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1612 Spectral Assessing of Topographic Effects on Seismic Behavior of Trapezoidal Hill

Authors: M. Amelsakhi, A. Sohrabi-Bidar, A. Shareghi


One of the most important issues about the structural damages caused by earthquake is the evaluating of the spectral response of the site on which the construction is built. This fact has demonstrated during many earlier earthquakes and many researchers’ reports have concerned with it. According to these reports, features of the site materials and geometry of the ground surface are considered the main factors. This study concentrates on the specific form of topographies like hills. Assessing of spectral responses of different points on the hills and beside demonstrates considerable differences between 1D and 2D methods of geotechnical analyses. A general trend of amplifications on the top of the hills and de-amplifications near the toe of the hills has been appeared within the acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectrums of horizontal motion. Evaluating of spectral responses of different sizes of the hills revealed that as much as the hill-size enlarges differences between spectral responses of 1D and 2D analyses transfers to longer range of periods and becomes wider.

Keywords: topography effect, amplification ratio, response spectrum, earth resources engineering

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1611 Climate Change Effects on Agriculture

Authors: Abdellatif Chebboub


Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

Keywords: climate change, agriculture, weather change, danger of climate change

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1610 The Consumer Responses toward the Offensive Product Advertising

Authors: Chin Tangtarntana


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of animation in offensive product advertising. Experiment was conducted to collect consumer responses toward animated and static ads of offensive and non-offensive products. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to the target respondents. According to statistics from Innovative Internet Research Center, Thailand, majority of internet users are 18 – 44 years old. The results revealed an interaction between ad design and offensive product. Specifically, when used in offensive product advertisements, animated ads were not effective for consumer attention, but yielded positive response in terms of attitude toward product. The findings support that information processing model is accurate in predicting consumer cognitive response toward cartoon ads, whereas U&G, arousal, and distinctive theory is more accurate in predicting consumer affective response. In practical, these findings can also be used to guide ad designers and marketers that are suitable for offensive products.

Keywords: animation, banner ad design, consumer responses, offensive product advertising, stock exchange of Thailand

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1609 Theoretical Study on the Nonlinear Optical Responses of Peptide Bonds Created between Alanine and Some Unnatural Amino Acids

Authors: S. N. Derrar, M. Sekkal-Rahal


The Nonlinear optics (NLO) technique is widely used in the field of biological imaging. In fact, grafting biological entities with a high NLO response on tissues and cells enhances the NLO responses of these latter, and ameliorates, consequently, their biological imaging quality. In this optics, we carried out a theoretical study, in the aim of analyzing the peptide bonds created between alanine amino acid and both unnatural amino acids: L-Dopa and Azatryptophan, respectively. Ramachandran plots have been performed for these systems, and their structural parameters have been analyzed. The NLO responses of these peptides have been reported by calculating the first hyperpolarizability values of all the minima found on the plots. The use of such unnatural amino acids as endogenous probing molecules has been investigated through this study. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been used for structural properties, while the Second-order Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2) has been employed for the NLO calculations.

Keywords: biological imaging, hyperpolarizability, nonlinear optics, probing molecule

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1608 Dynamic Behaviors of a Floating Bridge with Mooring Lines under Wind and Wave Excitations

Authors: Chungkuk Jin, Moohyun Kim, Woo Chul Chung


This paper presents global performance and dynamic behaviors of a discrete-pontoon-type floating bridge with mooring lines in time domain under wind and wave excitations. The structure is designed for long-distance and deep-water crossing and consists of the girder, columns, pontoons, and mooring lines. Their functionality and behaviors are investigated by using elastic-floater/mooring fully-coupled dynamic simulation computer program. Dynamic wind, first- and second-order wave forces, and current loads are considered as environmental loads. Girder’s dynamic responses and mooring tensions are analyzed under different analysis methods and environmental conditions. Girder’s lateral responses are highly influenced by the second-order wave and wind loads while the first-order wave load mainly influences its vertical responses.

Keywords: floating bridge, mooring line, pontoon, wave excitation

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1607 Self-Reported Health Status and Its Consistency: Evidence from India

Authors: Dona Ghosh, Zakir Husain


In India, the increase in share of aged has generated many social and economic issues, of which health concerns is a major challenge that society must confront in coming years. Self-reported health (SRH) is a popular health measure in this regard but has been questioned in recent years due to its heavy dependence on the socioeconomic status. So, the validity of SRH, as a measure of health status during old age, is needed to be verified. This paper emphasizes on the self-reported health and related inconsistent responses among elderly in India. The objective of the study is bifurcated into two parts: firstly, to identify the socioeconomic determinants of subjective health status and its change over time; and secondly, to analyse the role of the socioeconomic components in providing inconsistent responses regarding the health status of elderly. Inconsistency in response can rise in two ways: positive response bias (if an individual has a health problem but reports his/her health as good) and negative response bias (if bad health is reported even if there is no health problem). However, in the present study, we focus only on the negative response bias of elderly individuals. To measure the inconsistencies in responses, self-reported health is compared with two types of physical health conditions – existence of chronicle ailment and physical immobility. Using NSS dataset of 60th and 71st rounds, the study found that subjective health has worsened over time in both rural and urban areas. Findings suggest that inconsistency in responses, related to chronic ailment, vary across social classes, living environments, geographical regions, age groups and education levels. On the contrary, variation in inconsistent responses regarding physical mobility is quite rare and difficult to explain by socioeconomic characteristics because most of the indicators are found to be insignificant in this regard. The findings indicate that in case of chronicle ailment, inconsistency between objective and subjective health status largely depends on socioeconomic conditions but the importance of such factors disappears for physical immobility.

Keywords: India, aging, self-reported health, inconsistent responses

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1606 Analysing Responses of Intermediate and Expert Karate Athletes towards the Gyaku-Zuki Using Virtual Reality

Authors: Nicole Bandow, Peter Emmermacher, Oliver Wienert, Steffen Masik, Kerstin Witte


Karate-kumite is a fast sport where a good perception and anticipation of movements is needed in order to respond appropriately. Perception and anticipation are therefore essential for an efficient and precise movement control and a limiting factor in karate kumite. Previous studies only used 2D video technologies combined with the occlusion technique to study anticipation in sports. These studies showed limitations in the usage of 2D video footage in regards to realism and the presentation of depth information. To overcome these issues a virtual 3D environment was developed to create a similar to real life environment. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in responses of intermediate and expert karate athletes towards temporally and spatially occluded virtual karate attacks from two attackers. Five male expert and five intermediate karate athletes responded physically to nine (3 temporal combined with 3 spatial) occluded attacks of the Gyaku-Zuki of each attacker in the 3D virtual environment. The responses were evaluated in regards to correct point of time and appropriate response technique. Significant differences between the expertises’ responses for the attackers were found. Experts respond more often correct to early information of attacks than novices.

Keywords: anticipation, karate, occlusion, virtual reality

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1605 Analysis of Plates with Varying Rigidities Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Karan Modi, Rajesh Kumar, Jyoti Katiyar, Shreya Thusoo


This paper presents Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the internal responses generated in thin rectangular plates with various edge conditions and rigidity conditions. Comparison has been made between the FEM (ANSYS software) results for displacement, stresses and moments generated with and without the consideration of hole in plate and different aspect ratios. In the end comparison for responses in plain and composite square plates has been studied.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element method, plates, static analysis

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1604 Analysis of the Learners’ Responses of the Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System: Critical Psychological Perspective

Authors: Mokgadi Moletsane-Kekae, Robert Kananga Mukuna


The study focuses on the analysis of the Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System’s responses. The purpose of the study is to analyse the participants’ rate responses of the Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System with regards to critical psychology approach. The use of critical psychology theory in this study was crucial because it responds to the current inadequate western theory or practice in the field of psychology. The participants were learners in previously disadvantaged school in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study adopted a qualitative approach and a case study design. The study was grounded on interpretivist paradigm. The sample size comprised six learners (three boys and three girls, aged of 14 years) from historically disadvantaged school. The Adjusted Rorschach Comprehensive System (ARCS) administration procedure, biographical information, semi-structured interviews, and observation were used to collect data. Data was analysed using thematic framework. The study found out that, factors that increased the response rates during the administration of ARCS were, language, seating arrangement, drawing, viewing, and describing. The study recommended that, psychological test designers take into consideration the philosophy or worldviews of the local people for whom the test is designed to minimize low response rates.

Keywords: adjusted rorschach comprehensive system, critical psychology, learners, responses

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