Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2030

Search results for: Lyme diseases

2030 Better Defined WHO International Classification of Disease Codes for Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, and Lyme Disease Education Aiding Diagnosis, Treatment Improving Human Right to Health

Authors: Mualla McManus, Jenna Luche Thaye

Abstract:

World Health Organisation International Classification of Disease codes were created to define disease including infections in order to guide and educate diagnosticians. Most infectious diseases such as syphilis are clearly defined by their ICD 10 codes and aid/help to educate the clinicians in syphilis diagnosis and treatment globally. However, current ICD 10 codes for relapsing fever Borreliosis and Lyme disease are less clearly defined and can impede appropriate diagnosis especially if the clinician is not familiar with the symptoms of these infectious diseases. This is despite substantial number of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals about relapsing fever and Lyme disease. In the USA there are estimated 380,000 people annually contacting Lyme disease, more cases than breast cancer and 6x HIV/AIDS cases. This represents estimated 0.09% of the USA population. If extrapolated to the global population (7billion), 0.09% equates to 63 million people contracting relapsing fever or Lyme disease. In many regions, the rate of contracting some form of infection from tick bite may be even higher. Without accurate and appropriate diagnostic codes, physicians are impeded in their ability to properly care for their patients, leaving those patients invisible and marginalized within the medical system and to those guiding public policy. This results in great personal hardship, pain, disability, and expense. This unnecessarily burdens health care systems, governments, families, and society as a whole. With accurate diagnostic codes in place, robust data can guide medical and public health research, health policy, track mortality and save health care dollars. Better defined ICD codes are the way forward in educating the diagnosticians about relapsing fever and Lyme diseases.

Keywords: WHO ICD codes, relapsing fever, Lyme diseases, World Health Organisation

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2029 Using Deep Learning in Lyme Disease Diagnosis

Authors: Teja Koduru

Abstract:

Untreated Lyme disease can lead to neurological, cardiac, and dermatological complications. Rapid diagnosis of the erythema migrans (EM) rash, a characteristic symptom of Lyme disease is therefore crucial to early diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we aim to utilize deep learning frameworks including Tensorflow and Keras to create deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) to detect images of acute Lyme Disease from images of erythema migrans. This study uses a custom database of erythema migrans images of varying quality to train a DCNN capable of classifying images of EM rashes vs. non-EM rashes. Images from publicly available sources were mined to create an initial database. Machine-based removal of duplicate images was then performed, followed by a thorough examination of all images by a clinician. The resulting database was combined with images of confounding rashes and regular skin, resulting in a total of 683 images. This database was then used to create a DCNN with an accuracy of 93% when classifying images of rashes as EM vs. non EM. Finally, this model was converted into a web and mobile application to allow for rapid diagnosis of EM rashes by both patients and clinicians. This tool could be used for patient prescreening prior to treatment and lead to a lower mortality rate from Lyme disease.

Keywords: Lyme, untreated Lyme, erythema migrans rash, EM rash

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2028 Obstruction to Treatments Meeting International Standards for Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Patients

Authors: J. Luché-Thayer, C. Perronne, C. Meseko

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We reviewed how certain institutional policies and practices, as well as questionable research, are creating obstacles to care and informed consent for Lyme and relapsing fever Borreliosis patients. The interference is denying access to treatments that meet the internationally accepted standards as set by the Institute of Medicine. This obstruction to care contributes to significant human suffering, disability and negative economic effect across many nations and in many regions of the world. We note how evidence based medicine emphasizes the importance of clinical experience and patient-centered care and how these patients benefit significantly when their rights to choose among treatment options are upheld.  

Keywords: conflicts of interest, obstacles to healthcare accessibility, patient-centered care, the right to informed consent

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2027 Two-Protein Modified Gold Nanoparticles for Serological Diagnosis of Borreliosis

Authors: Mohammed Alasel, Michael Keusgen

Abstract:

Gold is a noble metal; in its nano-scale level (e.g. spherical nanoparticles), the conduction electrons are triggered to collectively oscillate with a resonant frequency when certain wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation interact with its surface; this phenomenon is known as surface plasmon resonance (SPR). SPR is responsible for giving the gold nanoparticles its intense red color depending mainly on its size, shape and distance between nanoparticles. A decreased distance between gold nanoparticles results in aggregation of them causing a change in color from red to blue. This aggregation enables gold nanoparticles to serve as a sensitive biosensoric indicator. In the proposed work, gold nanoparticles were modified with two proteins: i) Borrelia antigen, variable lipoprotein surface-exposed protein (VlsE), and ii) protein A. VlsE antigen induces a strong antibody response against Lyme disease and can be detected from early to late phase during the disease in humans infected with Borrelia. In addition, it shows low cross-reaction with the other non-pathogenic Borrelia strains. The high specificity of VlsE antigen to anti-Borrelia antibodies, combined simultaneously with the high specificity of protein A to the Fc region of all IgG human antibodies, was utilized to develop a rapid test for serological point of care diagnosis of borreliosis in human serum. Only in the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies in the serum probe, an aggregation of gold nanoparticles can be observed, which is visible by a concentration-dependent colour shift from red (low IgG) to blue (high IgG). Experiments showed it is clearly possible to distinguish between positive and negative sera samples using a simple suspension of the two-protein modified gold nanoparticles in a very short time (30 minutes). The proposed work showed the potential of using such modified gold nanoparticles generally for serological diagnosis. Improved specificity and reduced assay time can be archived in applying increased salt concentrations combined with decreased pH values (pH 5).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, gold aggregation, serological diagnosis, protein A, lyme borreliosis

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2026 PolyScan: Comprehending Human Polymicrobial Infections for Vector-Borne Disease Diagnostic Purposes

Authors: Kunal Garg, Louise Theusen Hermansan, Kanoktip Puttaraska, Oliver Hendricks, Heidi Pirttinen, Leona Gilbert

Abstract:

The Germ Theory (one infectious determinant is equal to one disease) has unarguably evolved our capability to diagnose and treat infectious diseases over the years. Nevertheless, the advent of technology, climate change, and volatile human behavior has brought about drastic changes in our environment, leading us to question the relevance of the Germ Theory in our day, i.e. will vector-borne disease (VBD) sufferers produce multiple immune responses when tested for multiple microbes? Vector diseased patients producing multiple immune responses to different microbes would evidently suggest human polymicrobial infections (HPI). Ongoing diagnostic tools are exceedingly unequipped with the current research findings that would aid in diagnosing patients for polymicrobial infections. This shortcoming has caused misdiagnosis at very high rates, consequently diminishing the patient’s quality of life due to inadequate treatment. Equipped with the state-of-art scientific knowledge, PolyScan intends to address the pitfalls in current VBD diagnostics. PolyScan is a multiplex and multifunctional enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) platform that can test for numerous VBD microbes and allow simultaneous screening for multiple types of antibodies. To validate PolyScan, Lyme Borreliosis (LB) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patient groups (n = 54 each) were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia burgdorferi Round Body (RB), Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis against IgM and IgG antibodies. LB serum samples were obtained from Germany and SpA serum samples were obtained from Denmark under relevant ethical approvals. The SpA group represented chronic LB stage because reactive arthritis (SpA subtype) in the form of Lyme arthritis links to LB. It was hypothesized that patients from both the groups will produce multiple immune responses that as a consequence would evidently suggest HPI. It was also hypothesized that the multiple immune response proportion in SpA patient group would be significantly larger when compared to the LB patient group across both antibodies. It was observed that 26% LB patients and 57% SpA patients produced multiple immune responses in contrast to 33% LB patients and 30% SpA patients that produced solitary immune responses when tested against IgM. Similarly, 52% LB patients and an astounding 73% SpA patients produced multiple immune responses in contrast to 30% LB patients and 8% SpA patients that produced solitary immune responses when tested against IgG. Interestingly, IgM immune dysfunction in both the patient groups was also recorded. Atypically, 6% of the unresponsive 18% LB with IgG antibody was recorded producing multiple immune responses with the IgM antibody. Similarly, 12% of the unresponsive 19% SpA with IgG antibody was recorded producing multiple immune responses with the IgM antibody. Thus, results not only supported hypothesis but also suggested that IgM may atypically prevail longer than IgG. The PolyScan concept will aid clinicians to detect patients for early, persistent, late, polymicrobial, & immune dysfunction conditions linked to different VBD. PolyScan provides a paradigm shift for the VBD diagnostic industry to follow that will drastically shorten patient’s time to receive adequate treatment.

Keywords: diagnostics, immune dysfunction, polymicrobial, TICK-TAG

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2025 Autoimmune Diseases Associated to Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Retrospective Study of 24 Tunisian Patients

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Elhem Ben Jazia

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Introduction: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of unknown cause. Concomitant autoimmune disorders have been described in 30–50% of patients with AIH. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence and the type of autoimmune disorders associated with AIH. Material and Methods: It is a retrospective study over a period of 16 years (2000-2015) including all patients followed for AIH. The diagnosis of AHI was based on the criteria of the revised International AIH group scoring system (IAIHG). Results: Twenty-for patients (21 women and 3 men) followed for AIH were collected. The mean age was 39 years (17-65 years). Among these patients, 11 patients(45.8%) had at least one autoimmune disease associated to AIH. These diseases were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 5), Gougerot Sjogren syndrome (n=5), Primary biliary cirrhosis (n=2), Primitive sclerosant Cholangitis (n=1), Addison disease (n = 1) and systemic sclerosis (n=1). Patients were treated with corticosteroids alone or with azathioprine associated to the specific treatment of associated diseases with complete remission of AIH in 90% of cases and clinical improvement of other diseases. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in AIH patients was 45.8%. These diseases were dominated by autoimmune thyroiditis and Gougerot Sjogren syndrome. The investigation of autoimmune diseases in autoimmune hepatitis must be systematic because of their frequency and the importance of adequate management.

Keywords: autoimmune diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune thyroiditis, gougerot sjogren syndrome

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2024 Assessment of Prevalent Diseases Caused by Mining Activities in the Northern Part of Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Odinah Cuartero-Enteria, Kyla Rita Mercado, Jason Salamanes, Aian Pecasales, Sherwin Sabado

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The northern part of Mindanao Island, Philippines has sizable reserve of mineral resources. Years ago, mining activities have been flourishing which resulted to both local economic gain but with environmental concerns. This study investigates the prevalent diseases by mining activities in these areas. The study was done using the secondary data gathered from the Rural Health Units (RHU) of the selected areas. The study further determined the prevalent diseases that existed in the three areas from years 2005, 2010 and 2015 indicating before the mining activities and when mining activities are present. The results show that areas which are far from mining activities have fewer cases of patients suffering from air-borne diseases. The top ten most common diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, influenza, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and skin diseases were caused by air-borne due to air pollution. Hence, the places where mining activities are present contribute to the prevalent diseases. Thus, addressing the air pollution caused by mining activities is very important.

Keywords: Philippines, Mindanao Island, mining activities, pollution, prevalent diseases

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2023 Integrated Management of Diseases of Vegetables and Flower Crops Grown in Protected Condition under Organic Production System

Authors: Shripad Kulkarni

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Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. Disease occurs on different parts of plants and cause heavy losses. Diagnosis of Problem is very important before planning any management practice and this can be done based on appearance of the crop, examination of the root and examination of the soil. There are various types of diseases such as biotic (transmissible) which accounts for ~30% whereas , abiotic (not transmissible) diseases are the major one with ~70% incidence. Plant diseases caused by different groups of organism’s belonging fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and few others have remained important in causing significant losses in different crops indicating the urgent need of their integrated management. Various factors favor disease development and different steps and methods are involved in management of diseases under protected condition. Management of diseases through botanicals and bioagents by modifying root and aerial environment, vector management along with care to be taken while managing the disease are analysed.

Keywords: organic production system, diseases, bioagents and polyhouse, agriculture

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2022 Comparison of the Use of Vaccines or Drugs against Parasitic Diseases

Authors: H. Al-Khalaifa, A. Al-Nasser

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The viewpoint towards the use of drugs or vaccines against avian parasitic diseases is one of the most striking challenges in avian medical parasitology. This includes many difficulties associated with drug resistance and in developing prophylactic vaccines. In many instances, the potential success of a vaccination in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry is well-documented. However, some medical, technical and financial limitations are still paramount. On the other hand, chemotherapy is not very well-recommended due to a number of medical limitations. But in the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are used against parasitic diseases. This paper sheds light on some the advantages and disadvantages of using vaccination and drugs in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry species. The usage of chemotherapeutic drugs is discussed with some examples. Then, more light will be shed on using vaccines as a potentially effective and promising control tool.

Keywords: drugs, parasitology, poultry, vaccines

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2021 Skin Diseases in the Rural Areas in Nepal; Impact on Quality of Life

Authors: Dwarika P. Shrestha, Dipendra Gurung, Rushma Shrestha, Inger Rosdahl

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Introduction: Skin diseases are one of the most common health problems in Nepal. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of skin diseases and impact on quality of life in rural areas in Nepal. Materials and methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted, to obtain socio-demographic data and identify individuals with skin diseases, followed by health camps, where the villagers were examined. A pilot study was conducted in one village, which was then extended to 10 villages in 4 districts. To assess the impact on quality of life, the villagers were interviewed with Skin Disease Disability Index. This is a questionnaire developed and validated by the authors for use in Nepal. Results: In the pilot study, the overall prevalence of skin diseases was 20.1% (645/3207). In the additional 10 villages with 7348 (3651/3787 m/f) inhabitants, 1862 (721/1141 m/f, mean age 31.4 years) had one or more skin diseases. The overall prevalence of skin diseases was 25%. The most common skin disease categories were eczemas (13.7%, percentage among all inhabitants) pigment disorders (6.8%), fungal infections (4.9%), nevi (3.7%) and urticaria (2.9%). These five most common skin disease categories comprise 71% of all skin diseases seen in the study. The mean skin disease disability index score was 13.7, indicating very large impact on the quality of life. Conclusions: This population-based study shows that skin diseases are very common in the rural areas of Nepal and have significant impact on quality of life. Targeted intervention at the primary health care level should help to reduce the health burden due to skin diseases.

Keywords: prevalence and pattern of skin diseases, impact on quality of life, rural Nepal, interventions

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2020 Text Mining Techniques for Prioritizing Pathogenic Mutations in Protein Families Known to Misfold or Aggregate

Authors: Khaleel Saleh Al-Rababah

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Amyloid fibril forming regions, which are known as protein aggregates, in sequences of some protein families are associated with a number of diseases known as amyloidosis. Mutations play a role in forming fibrils by accelerating the fibril formation process. In this paper we want to extract diseases that caused by those mutations as a result of the impact of the mutations on structural and functional properties of the aggregated protein. We propose a text mining system, to automatically extract mutations, diseases and relations between mutations and diseases. We presented an algorithm based on finite state to cluster mutations found in the same sentence as a sentence could contain different mutation cause different diseases. Also, we presented a co reference algorithm that enables cross-link sentences.

Keywords: amyloid, amyloidosis, co reference, protein, text mining

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2019 Multi-Sectoral Prioritization of Zoonotic Diseases in Uganda, 2017: The Perspective of One Health Experts

Authors: Musa Sekamatte

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Background: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden in countries around the world. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a zoonotic disease prioritization workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of concern to multiple Ugandan ministries. Materials and Methods: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), was used for prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Uganda. Workshop participants included voting members representing human, animal, and environmental health ministries as well as key partners who observed the workshop. Over 100 articles describing characteristics of these zoonotic diseases were reviewed for the workshop. During the workshop, criteria for prioritization were selected, and questions and weights relevant to each criterion were determined. Next steps for multi-sectoral engagement for the prioritized zoonoses were then discussed. Results: 48 zoonotic diseases were considered during the workshop. Criteria selected to prioritize zoonotic diseases in order of importance were (1) severity of disease in humans in Uganda, (2) availability of effective control strategies, (3) potential to cause an epidemic or pandemic in humans or animals, (4) social and economic impacts, and (5) bioterrorism potential. Seven zoonotic diseases were identified as priorities for Uganda: anthrax, zoonotic influenza viruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, brucellosis, African trypanosomiasis, plague, and rabies. Discussion: One Health approaches and multi-sectoral collaborations are crucial in the surveillance, prevention, and control strategies for zoonotic diseases. Uganda used such an approach to identify zoonotic diseases of national concern. Identifying these priority diseases enables the National One Health Platform and the Zoonotic Disease Coordinating Office to address the diseases in the future.

Keywords: national one health platform, zoonotic diseases, multi-sectoral, severity

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2018 Sports: A Vital Tool for Promotion of Good Health and Prevention of Diseases

Authors: Agburuga Obi, Madumere Akuego Jane

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This paper explores the important role sports can play in the promotion of good health and prevention of diseases. Technological advancements in today’s world has come along with some difficulties to man. This is because work formally done by man has been taken over by machines, thus, man has become sedentary. This has created a lot of health problems to man such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. To nip this ugly situation in the bud, the following recommendations are made: specific measures should be taken to raise the awareness within the government, key sectors and the population of the diverse benefits or physical activity and sports and the risk and costs of inactivity, provision of equipment, facilities for sports and recreational activities in every community, participation in physical activities in sports if not on daily basis at least thrice a week.

Keywords: physical activities, sport, good health, prevention, diseases

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2017 Prevalence of Lupus Glomerulonephritis in Renal Biopsies in an Eastern Region of the Arab World

Authors: M. Fayez Al Homsi, Reem Al Homsi

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Renal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Glomerular diseases make a small portion of the renal disease. Lupus glomerulonephritis (GN) is the commonest among the GN of systemic diseases. More than a hundred and eighty-eight consecutive renal biopsies are performed and evaluated for clinically suspected glomerular diseases over a period of two years. As in a standard practice after receiving the ultrasound-guided renal biopsies, the fresh biopsy is divided to three parts, one part is frozen for immunofluorescence evaluation, the second part is placed in 4% glutaraldehyde for electron microscopic evaluation, and the third part is placed in 10% buffered formalin for light microscopic evaluation. Primary glomerular diseases are detected in 83 biopsies; glomerulonephritis (GN) of systemic diseases are identified in 88, glomerular lesions in vascular diseases in 3, glomerular lesions in metabolic diseases in 7, hereditary nephropathies in 2, end-stage kidney in 2, and glomerular lesions in transplantation in 3 biopsies. Among the primary lesions, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28) and mesangial proliferative GN (26) were the most common. Lupus GN (67) and Ig A nephropathy (20) were the most common of the GN of systemic diseases. Lupus nephritis biopsies included one biopsy diagnosed as class 1 (normal), 17 biopsies class 2 (mesangial proliferation), 5 biopsies class 3 (focal proliferative GN), 39 biopsies class 4 diffuse proliferative GN), 3 biopsies class 5 (membranous GN), and 2 biopsies class 6 (crescentic GN). Lupus GN is the most common among GN of systemic diseases. While diabetes is very common here, diabetic GN (3 biopsies) is not as common as might one expects. Most likely this is due to sampling and reluctance on part of nephrologists and patients in sampling the kidney in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, glomerulonephritis, lupus, mesangial proliferation, nephropathy

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2016 Investigation of Chronic Drug Use Due to Chronic Diseases in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department

Authors: Behcet Al, Şener Cindoruk, Suat Zengin, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Mehmet Mustafa Sunar, Hatice Eroglu, Cuma Yildirim

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Objective: In present study we aimed to investigate the chronic drug use due to chronic diseases in patients admitted to emergency department. Materials-Methods: 144 patients who applied to emergency department (ED) of medicine school of Gaziantep University between June 2013 and September 2013 with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs were included. Information about drugs used by patients were recorded. Results: Of patients, half were male, half were female, and the mean age was 58 years. The first three common diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. Of patients, %79.2 knew their illness. Fifty patients began to use drug within three months, 36 patient began to use within the last one year. While 42 patients brought all of their drugs with themselves, 17 patients brought along a portion of drugs. While three patients stopped their medication completely, 125 patients received medication on a regular basis. Fifty-two patient described the drugs with names, 13 patients described with their colors, 3 patients described by grammes, 45 patients described with the size of the tablet and 13 patients could not describe the drugs. Ninety-two patients explained which kind of drugs were used for each diseases, 17 patient explained partly, and 35 patients had no idea. Hundred patients received medication by themselves, 44 patients medications were giving by their relatives and med carers. Of medications, 140 were written by doctors directly, three medication were given by pharmacist; and one patient bought the drug by himself. For 11 patients the drugs were not harmonious to their diseases. Fifty-one patients admitted to the ED two times within last week, and 73 admitted two times within last month. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs know their diseases and use the drugs in order, but do not have enough information about their medication.

Keywords: chronic disease, drug use, emergency department, medication

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2015 Bioengineering System for Prediction and Early Prenosological Diagnostics of Stomach Diseases Based on Energy Characteristics of Bioactive Points with Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Mahdi Alshamasin, Riad Al-Kasasbeh, Nikolay Korenevskiy

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We apply mathematical models for the interaction of the internal and biologically active points of meridian structures. Amongst the diseases for which reflex diagnostics are effective are those of the stomach disease. It is shown that use of fuzzy logic decision-making yields good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract diseases, depending on the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points). It is shown that good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of diseases from the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points) are obtained by using fuzzy logic decision-making.

Keywords: acupuncture points, fuzzy logic, diagnostically important points (DIP), confidence factors, membership functions, stomach diseases

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2014 Probiotics as Therapeutic Agents in the Treatment of Various Diseases: A Literature Review

Authors: K. B. Chathyushya, M. Shiva Prakash, R. Hemalatha

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Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a number of microorganisms (microbiota) that influences the host’s health. The imbalance in the gut microbiota, which is also called as gut dysbiosis, affects human health which causes various metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Probiotics play an important role in reinstating the gut balance. Probiotics are involved in the maintenance of healthier gut microbiota and have also been identified as effective adjuvants in insulin resistance therapies. Methods: This paper systematically reviews different randomized, controlled, blinded trials of probiotics for the treatment of various diseases along with the therapeutic or prophylactic properties of probiotic bacteria in different metabolic, inflammatory, infectious and anxiety-related disorders. Conclusion: The present review summarises that probiotics have some considerable effect in the management of various diseases, however, the benefits are strain specific, although more clinical trials are need to be carried out with different probiotic and symbiotic combinations as some probiotics have broad spectrum of benefits and few with specific activity

Keywords: life style diseases, cognition, health, gut dysbiosis, probiotics

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2013 Non-Communicable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Risk Factors among Secondary School Students in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: A. Al-Wandi, A. Al-Ali, R. Dali, Y. Al-Karaghouli

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Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become an alarming health problem across the globe. The risk of developing those diseases begins in childhood and develops gradually under the influence of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking and decreased physical activity. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the risk factors of lifestyle induced chronic diseases (non-communicable diseases) among secondary school students in Sharjah city. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-one school children, from grades 10 to 12, formed the study sample, using the multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Four governmental schools were chosen, for each gender. Data was collected through a pretested, close-ended questionnaire consisting of five sections; demographics, physical activity, diet, smoking and sleeping patterns. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data through SPSS 23. Results: The data showed 64.6% of students had low knowledge of risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Concerning physical activity, 58.2 % were physically inactive and females being less active than males. More than 2/3 of students didn’t fulfill the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables (75.9%). 8% reported to be smokers with cigarettes being the most encountered tobacco product. Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated a low level of knowledge and practices yet, positive attitudes towards risk factors of chronic diseases. We recommend implementation of thorough awareness campaigns through public health education about the risk factors of non-communicable diseases.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, physical activity, diet, knowledge, attitudes, practices, smoking

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2012 Prevalence of Life Style Diseases and Physical Activities among Older in India

Authors: Vaishali Chaurasia

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Ageing is the universal phenomenon that is associated with deteriorating health status. As the human becomes old, certain changes take place in an organism leading to morbidities, disabilities, and event death. Furthermore, older people are more vulnerable for the various kinds of diseases and health problem. Due to the some unhealthy conventions like smoking, drinking and unhealthy foods is the genesis of the lifestyle diseases. These diseases associated with the way a person or group of people lives. The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of lifestyle diseases and its association with physical activity as well as the risk factors associated with it among the adult population in India. Longitudinal Aging Study in India and Study on Global Aging and Adult Health in India were used in the study. We will take population aged 50 and older, began in 1935, and regularly refreshed at younger ages with new birth cohorts. Life style diseases are more prominent in 65+ age group. The study finds an association between prevalence of life style diseases and life style risk factors. The lifestyle disease prevalence is more among higher age group people, female, richest quintile, and doing lesser physical activity. A higher prevalence of lifestyle diseases associated with the multiple risk factors. The occurrence of three and four risk factors was more prevalent in India. The frequency of different type of life style disease is higher among those who hardly or never do any physical activity as compare to those who do physical activity every day. The pattern remains the same in Moderate as well as vigorous physical activity. Those who are regularly doing physical activities have lesser percentage of having any disease and those who hardly ever or never do any physical activities and equally involve with some risk factors have higher percentage of having all type of diseases.

Keywords: lifestyle disease, morbidity, disability, physical activity

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2011 Nutrition Strategy Using Traditional Tibetan Medicine in the Preventive Measurement

Authors: Ngawang Tsering

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Traditional Tibetan medicine is primarily focused on promoting health and keeping away the diseases from it’s unique in prescribing specific diet and lifestyle. The prevalence of chronic diseases has been rising day by day and kills a number of people due to the lack of proper nutritional design in modern time. According to Traditional Tibetan medicine, chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and arthritis are heavily associated with an unwholesome diet and inappropriate lifestyles. Diet and lifestyles are the two main conditions of diseases and healthy life. The prevalence of the chronic disease is one of the challenges, massive economic impact, and expensive health issues. Though the chronic diseases are challenges, it has a solution in the preventive measurements with using proper nutrition design based on Traditional Tibetan medicine. Until today, it is hard to evaluate whether Traditional Tibetan medicine nutrition strategy could play a major role in the preventive measurement as of the lack of current research evidence. However, compared with modern nutrition, it has an exclusive valuable concept, such as a holistic way and diet or nutrition recommendation based on different aspects. Traditional Tibetan medicine is one of the oldest ancient existing medical systems known as Sowa Rigpa (Science of Healing) highlights different aspects of dietetic and nutrition, namely geographical, seasonal, ages, personality, emotional, food combination, the process of individual metabolism, potency and amount of food. This article offers a critical perspective on the preventive measurement against chronic diseases through nutrition design using Traditional Tibetan medicine and also needs attention for the deeper understanding with Traditional Tibetan medicine in the modern world.

Keywords: traditional Tibetan medicine, nutrition, chronic diseases, preventive measurement, holistic approach, integrative

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2010 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

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Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: cytokines, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases, vaccination

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2009 Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease in India: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Yadav, F. Ram

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In present study is an effort to analyse the burden of diseases in the state. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is estimated non-communicable diseases. Multi-rounds (52nd, 60th and 71st round) of the National Sample Surveys (NSSO), conducted in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 respectively, and Million Deaths Study (MDS) of 2001-03, 2006 and 2013-14 datasets are used. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are carried out to identify the determinants of different types of self-reported morbidity and DALY. The prevalence was higher for population aged 60 and above, among females, illiterates, and rich across the time period and for all the selected morbidities. The results were found to be significant at P<0.001. The estimation of DALY revealed that, the burden of communicable diseases was higher during infancy, noticeably among males than females in 2002. However, females aged 1-5 years were more vulnerable to report communicable diseases than the corresponding males. The age distribution of DALY indicates that individuals aged below 5 years and above 60 year were more susceptible to ill health. The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases especially among the older generations put additional burden on the health system in the state. The state has to grapple with the unsettled preventable infectious diseases in one hand and growing non-communicable in other hand.

Keywords: disease burden, non-communicable, communicable, India and region

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2008 Foodborne Disease Risk Factors Among Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdullah Alsayeqh

Abstract:

The burden of foodborne diseases in Saudi Arabia is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with these diseases among women in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March to July, 2013 where participants’ responses indicated that they were at risk of these diseases through improper food-holding temperature (45.28%), inadequate cooking (35.47%), cross-contamination (32.23%), and food from unsafe sources (22.39%). The claimed food safety knowledge by 22.04% of participants was not evidenced by their reported behaviors (p > 0.05). This is the first study to identify the gap in food safety knowledge among women in Riyadh which needs to be addressed by the concerned authorities in the country by engaging women more effectively in food safety educational campaigns.

Keywords: foodborne diseases, risk factors, knowledge, women, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
2007 Proposition of an Ontology of Diseases and Their Signs from Medical Ontologies Integration

Authors: Adama Sow, Abdoulaye Guiss´e, Oumar Niang

Abstract:

To assist medical diagnosis, we propose a federation of several existing and open medical ontologies and terminologies. The goal is to merge the strengths of all these resources to provide clinicians the access to a variety of shared knowledges that can facilitate identification and association of human diseases and all of their available characteristic signs such as symptoms and clinical signs. This work results to an integration model loaded from target known ontologies of the bioportal platform such as DOID, MESH, and SNOMED for diseases selection, SYMP, and CSSO for all existing signs.

Keywords: medical decision, medical ontologies, ontologies integration, linked data, knowledge engineering, e-health system

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
2006 Challenges of eradicating neglected tropical diseases

Authors: Marziye Hadian, Alireza Jabbari

Abstract:

Background: Each year, tropical diseases affect large numbers of tropical or subtropical populations and give rise to irreparable financial and human damage. Among these diseases, some are known as Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) that may cause unusual dangers; however, they have not been appropriately accounted for. Taking into account the priority of eradication of the disease, this study explored the causes of failure to eradicate neglected tropical diseases. Method: This study was a systematized review that was conducted in January 2021 on the articles related to neglected tropical diseases on databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, Pro-Quest, and Google Scholar. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines as well as Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) for articles and AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) for grey literature (provides five criteria for judging the quality of grey information) were integrated. Finding: The challenges in controlling and eradicating neglected tropical diseases in four general themes are as follows: shortcomings in disease management policies and programs, environmental challenges, executive challenges in policy disease and research field and 36 sub-themes. Conclusion: To achieve the goals of eradicating forgotten tropical diseases, it seems indispensable to free up financial, human and research resources, proper management of health infrastructure, attention to migrants and refugees, clear targeting, prioritization appropriate to local conditions and special attention to political and social developments. Reducing the number of diseases should free up resources for the management of neglected tropical diseases prone to epidemics as dengue, chikungunya and leishmaniasis. For the purpose of global support, targeting should be accurate.

Keywords: neglected tropical disease, NTD, preventive, eradication

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2005 Assessing the Incapacity of Indonesian Aviators Medical Conditions in 2016 – 2017

Authors: Ferdi Afian, Inne Yuliawati

Abstract:

Background: The change in causes of death from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases also occurs in the aviation community in Indonesia. Non-communicable diseases are influenced by several internal risk factors, such as age, lifestyle changes and the presence of other diseases. These risk factors will increase the incidence of heart diseases resulting in the incapacity of Indonesian aviators which will disrupt flight safety. Method: The study was conducted by collecting secondary data. The retrieval of primary data was obtained from medical records at the Indonesian Aviation Health Center in 2016-2017. The subjects in this study were all cases of incapacity in Indonesian aviators medical conditions. Results: In this study, there were 15 cases of aviators in Indonesia who experienced incapacity of medical conditions related to heart and lung diseases in 2016-2017. Based on the secondary data contained in the flight medical records at the Aviation Health Center Aviation, it was found that several factors related to aviators incapacity causing its inability to carried out flight duties. Conclusion: Incapacity of Indonesian aviators medical conditions are most affected by the high value of Body Mass Index (86%) and less affected by high of Uric Acid in the blood (26%) and Hyperglycemia (26%).

Keywords: incapacity, aviators, flight, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
2004 The Same Rules of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Hypertension

Authors: Heng W. Chang, Mao F. Sun

Abstract:

Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) and hypertension are rarely discussed together in modern and traditional Chinese medicine, and often belong to different medical departments. However, in traditional Chinese medicinal theory, the two diseases have some similar characters. For example, they are both relevant to 'wind'. This study conducted a literature review using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify herbs yielding the same effect for the two diseases. The finding showed that the common herbs used most frequently is Rehmanniae. The conclusion is that the same TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) mechanism of the two diseases may be 'blood heat'. It requires further study to prove it in the future.

Keywords: urticaria, herbs, hypertension, Rehmanniae

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2003 Resistance Evaluation of Common Wheat Varieties/Lines to Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust at Seedling and Adult-Plant Stage in China, Gansu Province

Authors: Shelin Jin, Jin Huang, Shiqin Cao, Qiuzhen Jia, Bo Zhang, Zhenyu Sun

Abstract:

Stripe rust and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici and Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici are two of the most damaging diseases of wheat in China. In recent years, leaf rust has migrated to some wheat growing areas previously suitable for stripe rust, resulting in a mixture of the two diseases occurring in the same area and at the same time, and seriously damage wheat production in China, Gansu Province. The most effective method of prevention those two diseases are through the use of resistant cultivars. However, many studies have only carried out of resistance of wheat varieties for a single disease; resistance to both diseases is unknown. In order to definite the resistance composition of wheat varieties to these two diseases, 715 wheat varieties/lines from 8 breeding units in Gansu province were collected to test for the resistance to stripe rust and leaf rust at seedling stage in greenhouse and at adult plant stage in field in 2016-2018, respectively. Spore suspensions with the fresh mixture races of CYR32, CYR33, and CYR34 of Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici and mixture races of THTP, THTT, TKTT, and THTS of Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici were used for inoculation separately. The result shows that only 4.74% of the varieties/lines show comprehensive resistance to strip rust and leaf rust at all growth stages, and there are 34 wheat varieties/lines including Tianxuan 67, 2006-1-4-1-4-2-7-2-3-10, 03-139-1-2-2-1-2-1, Qingnong 21, Lenghan 5, 04-203-1-1-1 and so on. In seedling stage, the frequencies of resistant varieties/lines to wheat strip rust and leaf rust were 56.64% and 30.23%. While the materials were susceptible to these diseases were 43.36% and 69.77%. 71 varieties/lines were resistant to those two diseases, accounted for 9.93%. 10 varieties/lines, accounted for 1.4%, were highly resistant (including immune/near immune) to those two diseases. In adult-plant stage, the frequencies of resistant varieties/lines to wheat strip rust and leaf rust were 76.53% and 36.11%. While the materials were susceptible to these diseases were 23.47% and 63.89%. 137 varieties/lines were resistant to those two diseases, accounted for 19.16%. 59 varieties/lines, accounted for 8.25%, were highly resistant (including immune/near immune) to those two diseases. Overall, the 715 varieties /lines had high resistance to wheat strip rust, but poor resistance to leaf rust. This study found out some resistant materials which had better comprehensive resistance to leaf rust and strip rust, also pointed out the resistance characteristics of 715 varieties/lines to those two diseases at the seedling stage and adult-plant stage, which will be of great guiding significance in wheat resistance breeding and comprehensive control those two diseases in China, Gansu Province in the future.

Keywords: Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici, resistance of variety, wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2002 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China

Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang

Abstract:

Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.

Keywords: air temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference, respiratory diseases, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2001 A Framework for Early Differential Diagnosis of Tropical Confusable Diseases Using the Fuzzy Cognitive Map Engine

Authors: Faith-Michael E. Uzoka, Boluwaji A. Akinnuwesi, Taiwo Amoo, Flora Aladi, Stephen Fashoto, Moses Olaniyan, Joseph Osuji

Abstract:

The overarching aim of this study is to develop a soft-computing system for the differential diagnosis of tropical diseases. These conditions are of concern to health bodies, physicians, and the community at large because of their mortality rates, and difficulties in early diagnosis due to the fact that they present with symptoms that overlap, and thus become ‘confusable’. We report on the first phase of our study, which focuses on the development of a fuzzy cognitive map model for early differential diagnosis of tropical diseases. We used malaria as a case disease to show the effectiveness of the FCM technology as an aid to the medical practitioner in the diagnosis of tropical diseases. Our model takes cognizance of manifested symptoms and other non-clinical factors that could contribute to symptoms manifestations. Our model showed 85% accuracy in diagnosis, as against the physicians’ initial hypothesis, which stood at 55% accuracy. It is expected that the next stage of our study will provide a multi-disease, multi-symptom model that also improves efficiency by utilizing a decision support filter that works on an algorithm, which mimics the physician’s diagnosis process.

Keywords: medical diagnosis, tropical diseases, fuzzy cognitive map, decision support filters, malaria differential diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 241