Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 859

Search results for: representation

859 The Representation of J. D. Salinger’s Views on Changes in American Society in the 1940s in The Catcher in the Rye

Authors: Jessadaporn Achariyopas

Abstract:

The objectives of this study aim to analyze both the protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye in terms of ideological concepts and narrative techniques which influence the construction of the representation and the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s. This area of study might concern two theories: namely, a theory of representation and narratology. In addition, this research is intended to answer the following three questions. Firstly, how is the production of meaning through language in The Catcher in the Rye constructed? Secondly, what are J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s? Lastly, how is the relationship between the representation and J. D. Salinger’s views? The findings showed that the protagonist’s views, J. D. Salinger’s views, and changes in American society in the 1940s are obviously interrelated. The production of meaning which is the representation of the protagonist’s views was constructed of narrative techniques. J. D. Salinger’s views on changes in American society in the 1940s were the same antisocial perspectives as Holden Caulfield’s which are phoniness, alienation and meltdown.

Keywords: representation, construction of the representation, systems of representation, phoniness, alienation, meltdown

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858 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

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This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
857 Non Commutative Lᵖ Spaces as Hilbert Modules

Authors: Salvatore Triolo

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We discuss the possibility of extending the well-known Gelfand-Naimark-Segal representation to modules over a C*algebra. We focus our attention on the case of Hilbert modules. We consider, in particular, the problem of the existence of a faithful representation. Non-commutative Lᵖ-spaces are shown to constitute examples of a class of CQ*-algebras. Finally, we have shown that any semisimple proper CQ*-algebra (X, A#), with A# a W*-algebra can be represented as a CQ*-algebra of measurable operators in Segal’s sense.

Keywords: Gelfand-Naimark-Segal representation, CQ*-algebras, faithful representation, non-commutative Lᵖ-spaces, operator in Hilbert spaces

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856 Hierarchical Piecewise Linear Representation of Time Series Data

Authors: Vineetha Bettaiah, Heggere S. Ranganath

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This paper presents a Hierarchical Piecewise Linear Approximation (HPLA) for the representation of time series data in which the time series is treated as a curve in the time-amplitude image space. The curve is partitioned into segments by choosing perceptually important points as break points. Each segment between adjacent break points is recursively partitioned into two segments at the best point or midpoint until the error between the approximating line and the original curve becomes less than a pre-specified threshold. The HPLA representation achieves dimensionality reduction while preserving prominent local features and general shape of time series. The representation permits course-fine processing at different levels of details, allows flexible definition of similarity based on mathematical measures or general time series shape, and supports time series data mining operations including query by content, clustering and classification based on whole or subsequence similarity.

Keywords: data mining, dimensionality reduction, piecewise linear representation, time series representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
855 The Potential Benefits of Multimedia Information Representation in Enhancing Students’ Critical Thinking and History Reasoning

Authors: Ang Ling Weay, Mona Masood

Abstract:

This paper discusses the potential benefits of an interactive multimedia information representation in enhancing students’ critical thinking aligned with history reasoning in learning history between Secondary School students in Malaysia. Two modes of multimedia information representation implemented which are chronological and thematic information representation. A qualitative study of an unstructured interview was conducted among two history teachers, one history education lecturer, two i-think expert and program trainers and five form 4 secondary school students. The interview was to elicit their opinions on the implementation of thinking maps and interactive multimedia information representation in history learning. The key elements of interactive multimedia (e.g. multiple media, user control, interactivity, and use of timelines and concept maps) were then considered to improve the learning process. Findings of the preliminary investigation reveal that the interactive multimedia information representations have the potential benefits to be implemented as instructional resource in enhancing students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTs). This paper concludes by giving suggestions for future work.

Keywords: multimedia information representation, critical thinking, history reasoning, chronological and thematic information representation

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854 An Application of Graph Theory to The Electrical Circuit Using Matrix Method

Authors: Samai'la Abdullahi

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A graph is a pair of two set and so that a graph is a pictorial representation of a system using two basic element nodes and edges. A node is represented by a circle (either hallo shade) and edge is represented by a line segment connecting two nodes together. In this paper, we present a circuit network in the concept of graph theory application and also circuit models of graph are represented in logical connection method were we formulate matrix method of adjacency and incidence of matrix and application of truth table.

Keywords: euler circuit and path, graph representation of circuit networks, representation of graph models, representation of circuit network using logical truth table

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853 Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies

Authors: B. A. A. Paixão, J. V. B. Gomide

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This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.

Keywords: cities representation, cities simulation, games simulation, immersion, locative games

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852 Knowledge Representation Based on Interval Type-2 CFCM Clustering

Authors: Lee Myung-Won, Kwak Keun-Chang

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This paper is concerned with knowledge representation and extraction of fuzzy if-then rules using Interval Type-2 Context-based Fuzzy C-Means clustering (IT2-CFCM) with the aid of fuzzy granulation. This proposed clustering algorithm is based on information granulation in the form of IT2 based Fuzzy C-Means (IT2-FCM) clustering and estimates the cluster centers by preserving the homogeneity between the clustered patterns from the IT2 contexts produced in the output space. Furthermore, we can obtain the automatic knowledge representation in the design of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN), Linguistic Model (LM), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Networks (ANFN) from the numerical input-output data pairs. We shall focus on a design of ANFN in this paper. The experimental results on an estimation problem of energy performance reveal that the proposed method showed a good knowledge representation and performance in comparison with the previous works.

Keywords: IT2-FCM, IT2-CFCM, context-based fuzzy clustering, adaptive neuro-fuzzy network, knowledge representation

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851 Second Representation of Modules over Commutative Rings

Authors: Jawad Abuhlail, Hamza Hroub

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Let R be a commutative ring. Representation theory studies the representation of R-modules as (possibly finite) sums of special types of R-submodules. Here we are interested in a class of R-modules between the class of semisimple R-modules and the class of R-modules that can be written as (possibly finite) sums of secondary R-submodules (we know that every simple R-submodule is secondary). We investigate R-modules which can be written as (possibly finite) sums of second R-submodules (we call those modules second representable). Moreover, we investigate the class of (main) second attached prime ideals related to a module with such representation. We provide sufficient conditions for an R-module M to get a (minimal) second representation. We also found the collection of second attached prime ideals for some types of second representable R-modules, in particular within the class of injective R-modules. As we know that every simple R-submodule is second and every second R-submodule is secondary, we can see the importance of the second representable R-module.

Keywords: lifting modules, second attached prime ideals, second representations, secondary representations, semisimple modules, second submodules

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850 Me and My Selfie: Identity Building Through Self Representation in Social Media

Authors: Revytia Tanera

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This research is a pilot study to examine the rise of selfie trend in dealing with individual self representation and identity building in social media. The symbolic interactionism theory is used as the concept of the desired self image, and Cooley’s looking glass-self concept is used to analyze the mechanical reflection of ourselves; how do people perform their “digital self” in social media. In-depth interviews were conducted in the study with a non-random sample who owns a smartphone with a front camera feature and are active in social media. This research is trying to find out whether the selfie trend brings any influence on identity building on each individual. Through analysis of interview results, it can be concluded that people take selfie photos in order to express themselves and to boost their confidence. This study suggests a follow up and more in depth analysis on identity and self representation from various age groups.

Keywords: self representation, selfie, social media, symbolic interaction, looking glass-self

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
849 Representation of Reality in Nigerian Poetry

Authors: Zainab Abdulkarim

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Literature is the study of life, a source of knowledge. It involves the truth about many things in life. Most of these creative artistes most especially the poets are representatives of the voices of the people. These set of artistes have been the critics to all involved in the development of their nation. This paper will examine how Nigerian Poets goes further not just by writing but by showing the different ways the country has been convoluted. This paper intends to show the power and ability literature has in representation. The power is to represent the important values of life. There is no doubt that literature asserts truth. Through the various poems examined in this paper, Nigerian Poets have proved to portray the realities of the nation.

Keywords: literature, poets, reality, representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
848 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li

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Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral equation, integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

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847 Representation of the Kurdish Opposition: From Periphery to Center

Authors: Songul Miftakhov

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This study explores political representation and engagement of Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia regions, known to have dense Kurdish population and referred further to as Eastern region, in the Turkish parliament between 1946 and 1980. Traditional local notables had most of the privileges to be represented given their connectedness with political parties. Traditional local notables integrated into right-wing parties considering political and economic aspects. At the same time, they kept control over local political involvement channels. As a result, political representation and presence were monopolized at central, local and civil society levels. One part of Kurdish intellectuals was marginalized from the parliament after addressing issues in Eastern Anatolia and trying to develop solutions apart from the mainstream. Some of them took part in Kurdish oppositional left wing in the 1960s and jounced power of settled notables in 1970s in local administrations or as independent members of the parliament.

Keywords: Kurdish representation, parliament, local nobles, Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia

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846 Residential Architecture and Its Representation in Movies: Bangkok's Spatial Research in the Study of Thai Cinematography

Authors: Janis Matvejs

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Visual representation of a city creates unique perspectives that allow to interpret the urban environment and enable to understand a space that is culturally created and territorially organized. Residential complexes are an essential part of cities and cinema is a specific representation form of these areas. There has been very little research done on exploring how these areas are depicted in the Thai movies. The aim of this research is to interpret the discourse of residential areas of Bangkok throughout the 20th and 21st centuries and to examine essential changes in the residential structure. Specific cinematic formal techniques in relation to the urban image were used. The movie review results were compared with changes in Bangkok’s residential development. Movie analysis displayed that residential areas are frequently used in Thai cinematography and they make up an integral part of the urban visual perception.

Keywords: Bangkok, cinema, residential area, representation, visual perception

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845 The Representation of Female Characters by Women Directors in Surveillance Spaces in Turkish Cinema

Authors: Berceste Gülçin Özdemir

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The representation of women characters in cinema has been discussed for centuries. In cinema where dominant narrative codes prevail and scopophilic views exist over women characters, passive stereotypes of women are observed in the representation of women characters. In films shot from a woman’s point of view in Turkish Cinema and even in the films outside the main stream in which the stories of women characters are told, the fact that women characters are discussed on the basis of feminist film theories triggers the question: ‘Are feminist films produced in Turkish Cinema?’ The spaces that are used in the representation of women characters are observed to be used as spaces that convert characters into passive subjects on the basis of the space factor in the narrative. The representation of women characters in the possible surveillance spaces integrates the characters and compresses them in these spaces. In this study, narrative analysis was used to investigate women characters representation in the surveillance spaces. For the study framework, firstly a case study films are selected, and in the second level, women characters representations in surveillance spaces are argued by narrative analysis using feminist film theories. Two questions are argued with feminist film theories: ‘Why do especially women directors represent their female characters to viewers by representing them in surveillance spaces?’ and ‘Can this type of presentation contribute to the feminist film practice and become important with regard to feminist film theories?’ The representation of women characters in a passive and observed way in surveillance spaces of the narrative reveals the questioning of also the discourses of films outside of the main stream. As films that produce alternative discourses and reveal different cinematic languages, those outside the main stream are expected to bring other points of view also to the representation of women characters in spaces. These questionings are selected as the baseline and Turkish films such as Watch Tower and Mustang, directed by women, were examined. This examination paves the way for discussions regarding the women characters in surveillance spaces. Outcomes can be argued from the viewpoint of representation in the genre by feminist film theories. In the context of feminist film theories and feminist film practice, alternatives should be found that can corporally reveal the existence of women in both the representation of women characters in spaces and in the usage of the space factor.

Keywords: feminist film theory, representation, space, women directors

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844 First Time Voters Representation of Leadership as Exemplified by 2016 Presidentiables

Authors: Fevy Kae Mateo, Kimberly Javier, Alyzza Marie Palles

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Leadership is a process of relationship involving interaction with other people. Leaders emphasise authority, which executes and implements regulations, maintains the rules and leads to a better future. The First Time voters are very significant because there are the stakeholders of the type of leader to be deployed. They also have the capacity of engaging the government and can be the agents of change. The objective of the study is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of leader. Moreover, the study identifies the qualities of a leader. Finally, the study determines first-time voter’s representation of a leader. Focus Group Discussion was carried out into two groups of first time voter’s ages 18 to 21 years old. Verbatim transcripts of the discussion were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Overall results showed super ordinate themes for weaknesses of leader: Lace of transparency in the government, poor communication strategy, and valuing experience over potential and other contributory factor; for strength of a leader: analytical skill, emotional intelligence in political work, analytical ability and economic status on political participation; finally, in the representation of a leader: positive representation of a leader and negative representation of a leader.

Keywords: first time voters, focus group discussion, leadership, qualitative research design

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843 The Winning Possibility of Female Candidate in Korea

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

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The majority of Korean female members of parliament(MPs) had been elected from the proportional representation till the 19th assemblies but in the 20th general election women MPs of the district representation is slightly more than women MPs of the proportional representation. The chance of women candidates to win is not as low as we assume. Therefore this study aims to reveal which factors influence the election of women candidates, other factors except the political party, because the effect of political party is already well known. Gangnam Eul is selected because female candidate was elected in spite of the low percentage of vote won by her political party. According to the survey, the female candidate was elected thanks to her policies and election pledges. Therefore, women candidates can be elected when they are nominated as candidates by their party in a safe constituency but also they can be elected with their good policies and election pledges in an unsafe constituency. And also the degree of the education, the age and the profession of voters influenced the support of female candidate.

Keywords: women candidates, 20th general election, winning in the district representation, policies and election pledges

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842 Knowledge Representation and Inconsistency Reasoning of Class Diagram Maintenance in Big Data

Authors: Chi-Lun Liu

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Requirements modeling and analysis are important in successful information systems' maintenance. Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams are useful standards for modeling information systems. To our best knowledge, there is a lack of a systems development methodology described by the organism metaphor. The core concept of this metaphor is adaptation. Using the knowledge representation and reasoning approach and ontologies to adopt new requirements are emergent in recent years. This paper proposes an organic methodology which is based on constructivism theory. This methodology is a knowledge representation and reasoning approach to analyze new requirements in the class diagrams maintenance. The process and rules in the proposed methodology automatically analyze inconsistencies in the class diagram. In the big data era, developing an automatic tool based on the proposed methodology to analyze large amounts of class diagram data is an important research topic in the future.

Keywords: knowledge representation, reasoning, ontology, class diagram, software engineering

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841 Process Data-Driven Representation of Abnormalities for Efficient Process Control

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho

Abstract:

Unexpected operational events or abnormalities of industrial processes have a serious impact on the quality of final product of interest. In terms of statistical process control, fault detection and diagnosis of processes is one of the essential tasks needed to run the process safely. In this work, nonlinear representation of process measurement data is presented and evaluated using a simulation process. The effect of using different representation methods on the diagnosis performance is tested in terms of computational efficiency and data handling. The results have shown that the nonlinear representation technique produced more reliable diagnosis results and outperforms linear methods. The use of data filtering step improved computational speed and diagnosis performance for test data sets. The presented scheme is different from existing ones in that it attempts to extract the fault pattern in the reduced space, not in the original process variable space. Thus this scheme helps to reduce the sensitivity of empirical models to noise.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, nonlinear technique, process data, reduced spaces

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840 A Method of Representing Knowledge of Toolkits in a Pervasive Toolroom Maintenance System

Authors: A. Mohamed Mydeen, Pallapa Venkataram

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The learning process needs to be so pervasive to impart the quality in acquiring the knowledge about a subject by making use of the advancement in the field of information and communication systems. However, pervasive learning paradigms designed so far are system automation types and they lack in factual pervasive realm. Providing factual pervasive realm requires subtle ways of teaching and learning with system intelligence. Augmentation of intelligence with pervasive learning necessitates the most efficient way of representing knowledge for the system in order to give the right learning material to the learner. This paper presents a method of representing knowledge for Pervasive Toolroom Maintenance System (PTMS) in which a learner acquires sublime knowledge about the various kinds of tools kept in the toolroom and also helps for effective maintenance of the toolroom. First, we explicate the generic model of knowledge representation for PTMS. Second, we expound the knowledge representation for specific cases of toolkits in PTMS. We have also presented the conceptual view of knowledge representation using ontology for both generic and specific cases. Third, we have devised the relations for pervasive knowledge in PTMS. Finally, events are identified in PTMS which are then linked with pervasive data of toolkits based on relation formulated. The experimental environment and case studies show the accuracy and efficient knowledge representation of toolkits in PTMS.

Keywords: knowledge representation, pervasive computing, agent technology, ECA rules

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839 Transgender Community in Pakistan through the Lens of Television Dramas

Authors: Ashbeelah Shafaqat Ali

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Pakistan is a country where the transgender community has not been accepted as a third gender yet, but in recent years Pakistani drama industry has taken an initiative to include Transgender characters in the past few years. This research based on qualitative method i.e. content analysis and in-depth interviews investigates the depiction of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas. This study examined two dramas i.e.' Khuda Mera Bhi Hai' and 'Alif Allah Aur Insaan' to analyze the representation of transgender community whereas, in-depth Interviews from 15 transgender people lived in Lahore to observe their opinion regarding their representation in Pakistani television dramas. Snow-ball sampling technique was used for conducting interviews from the transgender community. The results concluded that transgender community did not get equal coverage in Pakistani television dramas but inclusion as characters were observed. This study is helpful in providing a base for observing role of Pakistani television dramas in the development of transgender identity. The major finding revealed is that the inclusion of representation of transgender community in Pakistani television dramas has indicated a successful development towards positive representation. Although, it was suggested by the interviewers that before producing a television drama, appropriate research must be conducted to depict the real life story, problems and struggles of the transgender community. Furthermore, it was analyzed that only fair and equal representation of transgender community by Pakistani drama industry can be beneficial in promoting the third gender rights in the society.

Keywords: Pakistani dramas, portrayal, stereotypes, transgender

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838 Lexical Semantic Analysis to Support Ontology Modeling of Maintenance Activities– Case Study of Offshore Riser Integrity

Authors: Vahid Ebrahimipour

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Word representation and context meaning of text-based documents play an essential role in knowledge modeling. Business procedures written in natural language are meant to store technical and engineering information, management decision and operation experience during the production system life cycle. Context meaning representation is highly dependent upon word sense, lexical relativity, and sematic features of the argument. This paper proposes a method for lexical semantic analysis and context meaning representation of maintenance activity in a mass production system. Our approach constructs a straightforward lexical semantic approach to analyze facilitates semantic and syntactic features of context structure of maintenance report to facilitate translation, interpretation, and conversion of human-readable interpretation into computer-readable representation and understandable with less heterogeneity and ambiguity. The methodology will enable users to obtain a representation format that maximizes shareability and accessibility for multi-purpose usage. It provides a contextualized structure to obtain a generic context model that can be utilized during the system life cycle. At first, it employs a co-occurrence-based clustering framework to recognize a group of highly frequent contextual features that correspond to a maintenance report text. Then the keywords are identified for syntactic and semantic extraction analysis. The analysis exercises causality-driven logic of keywords’ senses to divulge the structural and meaning dependency relationships between the words in a context. The output is a word contextualized representation of maintenance activity accommodating computer-based representation and inference using OWL/RDF.

Keywords: lexical semantic analysis, metadata modeling, contextual meaning extraction, ontology modeling, knowledge representation

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837 The Different Improvement of Numerical Magnitude and Spatial Representation of Numbers to Symbolic Approximate Arithmetic: A Training Study of Preschooler

Authors: Yu Liang, Wei Wei

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Spatial representation of numbers and numerical magnitude are important for preschoolers’ mathematical ability. Mental number line, a typical index to measure numbers spatial representation, and numerical comparison are both related to arithmetic obviously. However, they seem to rely on different mechanisms and probably influence arithmetic through different mechanisms. In line with this idea, preschool children were trained with two tasks to investigate which one is more important for approximate arithmetic. The training of numerical processing and number line estimation were proved to be effective. They both improved the ability of approximate arithmetic. When the difficulty of approximate arithmetic was taken into account, the performance in number line training group was not significantly different among three levels. However, two harder levels achieved significance in numerical comparison training group. Thus, comparing spatial representation ability, symbolic approximation arithmetic relies more on numerical magnitude. Educational implications of the study were discussed.

Keywords: approximate arithmetic, mental number line, numerical magnitude, preschooler

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836 Arabic Text Classification: Review Study

Authors: M. Hijazi, A. Zeki, A. Ismail

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An enormous amount of valuable human knowledge is preserved in documents. The rapid growth in the number of machine-readable documents for public or private access requires the use of automatic text classification. Text classification can be defined as assigning or structuring documents into a defined set of classes known in advance. Arabic text classification methods have emerged as a natural result of the existence of a massive amount of varied textual information written in the Arabic language on the web. This paper presents a review on the published researches of Arabic Text Classification using classical data representation, Bag of words (BoW), and using conceptual data representation based on semantic resources such as Arabic WordNet and Wikipedia.

Keywords: Arabic text classification, Arabic WordNet, bag of words, conceptual representation, semantic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
835 A Sparse Representation Speech Denoising Method Based on Adapted Stopping Residue Error

Authors: Qianhua He, Weili Zhou, Aiwu Chen

Abstract:

A sparse representation speech denoising method based on adapted stopping residue error was presented in this paper. Firstly, the cross-correlation between the clean speech spectrum and the noise spectrum was analyzed, and an estimation method was proposed. In the denoising method, an over-complete dictionary of the clean speech power spectrum was learned with the K-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. In the sparse representation stage, the stopping residue error was adaptively achieved according to the estimated cross-correlation and the adjusted noise spectrum, and the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) approach was applied to reconstruct the clean speech spectrum from the noisy speech. Finally, the clean speech was re-synthesised via the inverse Fourier transform with the reconstructed speech spectrum and the noisy speech phase. The experiment results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional methods in terms of subjective and objective measure.

Keywords: speech denoising, sparse representation, k-singular value decomposition, orthogonal matching pursuit

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834 Beauty Representation and Body Politic of Women Writers in Magdalene

Authors: Putri Alya Ramadhani

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This research analysed how women writers represent their beauty in a platform called Magdalene. With the vision “Supporting diversity, empowering minds,” Magdalene is a new media that seeks to represent women's voices rarely heard in mainstream media. This research elaborates further on how women writers, through their writing, use their body politic to subvert patriarchal values. This research used a qualitative method with an explorative design by using text analysis based on the representation theory of Stuart Hall and in-dept-interview with Women Writers in Magdalene. The result illustrated that women writers represent their beauty in Magdalene to subvert body and beauty-representation in mainstream discourse. Furthermore, the authors have identified an identity negotiation as tension from inevitable oppression and power towards and from women’s bodies. In addition, Women Writers showed the power of their bodies through the redefinition of beauty practices and self. Hence, they subvert body dichotomy to redefine body values in society. In conclusion, this study shows various representations of beauty and body that are underrepresented in the mainstream media through the innovative new medium, Magdalena.

Keywords: women writers, beauty-representation, body politic, new media, identity negotiation

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833 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

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The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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832 Identity (Mis)Representation and Ideological Struggles in Discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Ogungbemi

Abstract:

Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (also called Boko Haram) in the North-East of Nigeria has facilitated ideological binarity in discourses on the crisis. Since its proliferation, media representation of the crisis has facilitated identity contamination and ideological struggle through which other critical issues, such as religious intolerance, ethnic diversity and other forms of class conflict in the Nigerian state, are brought to public notice. Though Boko Haram insurgency is ideological laden, the manifestation of the inherent ideologies requires extensive scholarly attention in order deconstruct the veiled ideologies. Therefore, the thrust of this study is to critically investigate identity (mis)representation as a basis for ideological mapping in discourses on Boko Haram in Nigeria, adopting critical discourse analytical tools supported with insights from systemic functional linguistics and critical discourse analysis. The data for this study consist of articles on Boko Haram in Nigerian newspapers published in English. The data selection is purposive and aimed at responding to challenges that are inherent in Nigeria's multifaithism and multiculturalism, and their effects on the construction of narratives on Boko Haram. The study reveals that identity manipulation is a constructive device for ideological mapping, realised through labeling, agency activation, and transitivity. Identity representation in discourses on Boko Haram depicted four dichotomous binarities using exclusion, generalisation, contrasting and attribution.

Keywords: identity representation, ideology, Boko Haram, newspapers

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831 Evaluating Closed-List Proportional Representation System and Its Compatibility in Contemporary Indonesian Election

Authors: Ridho Al-Hamdi, Sakir, Tanto Lailam

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During the democratic period of 1999-present, Indonesia has consistently applied a List Proportional Representation (List PR) system in the parliamentary election. Between 1999 and 2004, it adopted a closed-list proportional representation (CLPR) system. In the meantime, it employed open-list proportional representation (OLPR) system from 2009 to 2019. Recently, some parties intended to propose the application of CLPR while others are still consistent in adopting OLPR. An unfinished debate is taking place. Thus, this article aims to evaluate the application of CLPR in Indonesia and, in turn, analyze its compatibility in contemporary parliamentary election system. From a methodological standpoint, it is qualitative research by applying a case study approach. Data-gathering relies on field data, mainly focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interviews with political parties, electoral management bodies (EMBs), NGO activists, and scholars spread in six provinces and nine regencies/cities across the country. Using SWOT analysis and the compatibility of CLPR and embedded democracy framework, the finding demonstrates that CLPR is no longer relevant for contemporary Indonesian elections. This paper recommends OLPR by considering that CLPR has numerous weaknesses and threats that can jeopardize embedded democracy. More importantly, CLPR can remove inclusive suffrage significantly.

Keywords: closed-list proportional representation, embedded democracy, Indonesia, parliamentary election

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830 21st Century Islam: Global Challenges of Islamic Representation and Knowledge Acquisition

Authors: M. M. Muhammed, O. Khuzaima

Abstract:

This research examined and outlined some of the challenges facing Islam and Muslims in the 21st century, considering global Islamic representation and knowledge acquisition as key objectives. It was observed that the Western media misrepresentation of Islam and the Western ethos embodied by the acquisition of western civilisation are major challenges faced by Islam and Muslims today. The problem of sectarianism, decline in the socio-economic power of Muslim communities and the archaic nature of the Islamic creed were recorded as major actors to the evolving global Islamic issues. It was therefore concluded that Islam is not the reason for these challenges, rather the action of some Muslims and non-Muslims were the contributing factors to the pandemics faced by Islam and Muslims. Some relevant recommendations were made to the Islamic world that could serve as effectual solutions to these lingering problems.

Keywords: Islam, challenges, representation, knowledge, century, global, twenty-first

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