Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Timothy Storer

47 An Investigation on Organisation Cyber Resilience

Authors: Arniyati Ahmad, Christopher Johnson, Timothy Storer

Abstract:

Cyber exercises used to assess the preparedness of a community against cyber crises, technology failures and critical information infrastructure (CII) incidents. The cyber exercises also called cyber crisis exercise or cyber drill, involved partnerships or collaboration of public and private agencies from several sectors. This study investigates organisation cyber resilience (OCR) of participation sectors in cyber exercise called X Maya in Malaysia. This study used a principal based cyber resilience survey called C-Suite Executive checklist developed by World Economic Forum in 2012. To ensure suitability of the survey to investigate the OCR, the reliability test was conducted on C-Suite Executive checklist items. The research further investigates the differences of OCR in ten Critical National Infrastructure Information (CNII) sectors participated in the cyber exercise. The One Way ANOVA test result showed a statistically significant difference of OCR among ten CNII sectors participated in the cyber exercise.

Keywords: critical information infrastructure, cyber resilience, organisation cyber resilience, reliability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
46 Graffiti as Intelligence: an Analysis of Encoded Messages in Gang Graffiti Renderings

Authors: Timothy Kephart

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Many law enforcement officials believe that gangs communicate messages to both the community and to rival gangs through graffiti. Some social scientists have documented this as well, however no recent research has examined gang graffiti for its underlying meaning. Empirical research on gang graffiti and gang communication through graffiti is limited. This research can be described as an exploratory effort to better understand how, and perhaps why, gangs employ this medium for communication. Furthermore this research showcases how law enforcement agencies can utilize this hidden form of communication to better direct resources and impact gang violence.

Keywords: gangs, graffiti, juvenile justice, policing

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
45 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

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The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
44 Producing Lutein Powder from Algae by Extraction and Drying

Authors: Zexin Lei, Timothy Langrish

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Lutein is a type of carotene believed to be beneficial to the eyes. This study aims to explore the possibility of using a closed cycle spray drying system to produce lutein. The system contains a spray dryer, a condenser, a heater, and a pressure seal. Hexane, ethanol, and isopropanol will be used as organic solvents to compare the extraction effects. Several physical and chemical methods of cell disruption will be compared. By continuously sweeping the system with nitrogen, the oxygen content will be controlled below 2%, reducing the concentration of organic solvent below the explosion limit and preventing lutein from being oxidized. Lutein powder will be recovered in the collection device. The volatile organic solvent will be cooled in the condenser and deposited in the bottom until it is discharged from the bottom of the condenser.

Keywords: closed cycle spray drying system, Chlorella vulgaris, organic solvent, solvent recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
43 A Theoretical and Corpus-Based Analysis of English and Spanish Syntax Derived from Método de Los Relojes Verb Types According to Systemic-Functional Grammar as a Foundation for Methodological Adaption

Authors: Timothy William Lawrence

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The goal of this paper is to research and categorize the four basic verb types found in the Spanish descriptive grammar book Método de los Relojes using verb clauses as representation as found in M.A.K. Halliday's Systemic-Functional Grammar with the purpose of establishing theoretical along with syntactical parallels and deviations between English and Spanish. Results confirm theoretical correlations exist therefore leading to an analysis of English grammar syntax resulting in delineating commonalities and differences from Spanish. Corpora searches were carried out on different patterns of syntactical structures confirming divergences in verb syntax, making it possible to establish parameters to adapt English verbs to the criteria of the four basic Método de los Relojes verb types.

Keywords: corpus studies, Método de los Relojes, structural-functional grammar, verb syntax

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
42 Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria

Authors: Timothy A. Oloyede

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The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.

Keywords: sports’ injuries, predictors of sports’ injuries, intrinsic risk factors, extrinsic risk factors, injury mechanism, professional footballer

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
41 Assessment of the High-Speed Ice Friction of Bob Skeleton Runners

Authors: Agata Tomaszewska, Timothy Kamps, Stephan R. Turnock, Nicola Symonds

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Bob skeleton is a highly competitive sport in which an athlete reaches speeds up to 40 m/s sliding, head first, down an ice track. It is believed that the friction between the runners and ice significantly contributes to the amount of the total energy loss during a bob skeleton descent. There is only limited available experimental data regarding the friction of bob skeleton runners or indeed steel on the ice at high sliding speeds ( > 20 m/s). Testing methods used to investigate the friction of steel on ice in winter sports have been outlined, and their accuracy and repeatability discussed. A system thinking approach was used to investigate the runner-ice interaction during sliding and create concept designs of three ice tribometers. The operational envelope of the bob skeleton system has been defined through mathematical modelling. Designs of a drum, linear and inertia pin-on-disk tribometers were developed specifically for bob skeleton runner testing with the requirement of reaching up to 40 m/s speed and facilitate fresh ice sliding. The design constraints have been outline and the proposed solutions compared based on the ease of operation, accuracy and the development cost.

Keywords: bob skeleton, ice friction, high-speed tribometers, sliding friction

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40 Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System: System Overview and Sizing Principles

Authors: Najiya Omar, Hamed Aly, Timothy Little

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The optimal size of a photovoltaic (PV) array is considered a critical factor in designing an efficient PV system due to the dependence of the PV cell performance on temperature. A high temperature can lead to voltage losses of solar panels, whereas a low temperature can cause voltage overproduction. There are two possible scenarios of the inverter’s operation in which they are associated with the erroneous calculations of the number of PV panels: 1) If the number of the panels is scant and the temperature is high, the minimum voltage required to operate the inverter will not be reached. As a result, the inverter will shut down. 2) Comparably, if the number of panels is excessive and the temperature is low, the produced voltage will be more than the maximum limit of the inverter which can cause the inverter to get disconnected or even damaged. This article aims to assess theoretical and practical methodologies to calculate size and determine the topology of a PV array. The results are validated by applying an experimental evaluation for a 100 kW Grid-connected PV system for a location in Halifax, Nova Scotia and achieving a satisfactory system performance compared to the previous work done.

Keywords: sizing PV panels, theoretical and practical methodologies, topology of PV array, grid-connected PV

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
39 Doing Cause-and-Effect Analysis Using an Innovative Chat-Based Focus Group Method

Authors: Timothy Whitehill

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This paper presents an innovative chat-based focus group method for collecting qualitative data to construct a cause-and-effect analysis in business research. This method was developed in response to the research and data collection challenges faced by the Covid-19 outbreak in the United Kingdom during 2020-21. This paper discusses the methodological approaches and builds a contemporary argument for its effectiveness in exploring cause-and-effect relationships in the context of focus group research, systems thinking and problem structuring methods. The pilot for this method was conducted between October 2020 and March 2021 and collected more than 7,000 words of chat-based data which was used to construct a consensus drawn cause-and-effect analysis. This method was developed in support of an ongoing Doctorate in Business Administration (DBA) thesis, which is using Design Science Research methodology to operationalize organisational resilience in UK construction sector firms.

Keywords: cause-and-effect analysis, focus group research, problem structuring methods, qualitative research, systems thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
38 Corporate Governance and Firms` Performance: Evidence from Quoted Firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange

Authors: Ogunwole Cecilia Oluwakemi, Wahid Damilola Olanipekun, Omoyele Olufemi Samuel, Timothy Ayomitunde Aderemi

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The issues relating to corporate governance in both locally and internationally managed firms cannot be overemphasized because the lack of efficient corporate governance could orchestrate serious problems in any organization. Against this backdrop, this study examines the nexus between corporate governance and performance of firms from 2012 to 2020, using the case study of the Nigerian stock exchange. Consequently, data was collected from forty (40) listed firms on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study employed a fixed effect technique of estimation to address the objective of the study. It was discovered from the study that the influence of corporate governance components such as gender diversity, board independence and managerial ownership led to a significant positive impact on the performance of the firms under the investigation. In view of the above finding, this study makes the following recommendations for the policymakers in Nigeria that anytime the goal of the policymakers is the improvement of performance of the listed firms in the Nigerian stock exchange, board independence and a balance in the inclusion of male and female among the board of directors should be encouraged in these firms.

Keywords: corporate, governance, firms, performance, Nigeria, stock, exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
37 The Cost of Solar-Centric Renewable Portfolio

Authors: Timothy J. Considine, Edward J. M. Manderson

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This paper develops an econometric forecasting system of energy demand coupled with engineering-economic models of energy supply. The framework is used to quantify the impact of state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) achieved predominately with solar generation on electricity rates, electricity consumption, and environmental quality. We perform the analysis using Arizona’s RPS as a case study. We forecast energy demand in Arizona out to 2035, and find by this time the state will require an additional 35 million MWh of electricity generation. If Arizona implements its RPS when supplying this electricity demand, we find there will be a substantial increase in electricity rates (relative to a business-as-usual scenario of reliance on gas-fired generation). Extending the current regime of tax credits can greatly reduce this increase, at the taxpayers’ expense. We find that by 2025 Arizona’s RPS will implicitly abate carbon dioxide emissions at a cost between $101 and $135 per metric ton, and by 2035 abatement costs are between $64 and $112 per metric ton (depending on the future evolution of nature gas prices).

Keywords: electricity demand, renewable portfolio standard, solar, carbon dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
36 Evaluating the Factors Influencing the Efficiency and Usage of Public Sports Services in a Chinese Province

Authors: Zhankun Wang, Timothy Makubuya

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The efficiency of public sports service of prefecture-level cities in Zhejiang from 2008 to 2012 was evaluated by applying the DEA method, then its influencing factors were also analyzed through Tobit model. Upon analysis, the results revealed the following; (i) the change in average efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang present a smooth uptrend and at a relatively high level from 2008 to 2012 (ii) generally, the productivity of public sports service in Zhejiang improved from 2008 to 2012, the productivity efficiency varied greatly in different years, and the regional difference of production efficiency increased. (iii) The correlations for urbanization rate, aging rate, per capita GDP and the population density were significantly positive with the public sports service efficiency in Zhejiang, of which the most significant was the aging rate. However, the population density and per capita GDP had less impact on the efficiency of public sports service in Zhejiang. In addition, whether the efficiency of public sports services in different areas in Zhejiang reciprocates to overall benefits in public wellbeing in both rural and urban settings is still arguable.

Keywords: DEA model, public sports service, efficiency, Tobit model, Malmquist productivity index, Zhejiang

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
35 Accidental Compartment Fire Dynamics: Experiment, Computational Fluid Dynamics Weakness and Expert Interview Analysis

Authors: Timothy Onyenobi

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Accidental fires and its dynamic as it relates to building compartmentation and the impact of the compartment morphology, is still an on-going area of study; especially with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling methods. With better knowledge on this subject come better solution recommendations by fire engineers. Interviews were carried out for this study where it was identified that the response perspectives to accidental fire were different with the fire engineer providing qualitative data which is based on “what is expected in real fires” and the fire fighters provided information on “what actually obtains in real fires”. This further led to a study and analysis of two real and comprehensively instrumented fire experiments: the Open Plan Office Project by National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) USA (to study time to flashover) and the TF2000 project by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) UK (to test for conformity with Building Regulation requirements). The findings from the analysis of the experiments revealed the relative yet critical weakness of fire prediction using a CFD model (usually used by fire engineers) as well as explained the differences in response perspectives of the fire engineers and firefighters from the interview analysis.

Keywords: CFD, compartment fire, experiment, fire fighters, fire engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
34 Physically Informed Kernels for Wave Loading Prediction

Authors: Daniel James Pitchforth, Timothy James Rogers, Ulf Tyge Tygesen, Elizabeth Jane Cross

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Wave loading is a primary cause of fatigue within offshore structures and its quantification presents a challenging and important subtask within the SHM framework. The accurate representation of physics in such environments is difficult, however, driving the development of data-driven techniques in recent years. Within many industrial applications, empirical laws remain the preferred method of wave loading prediction due to their low computational cost and ease of implementation. This paper aims to develop an approach that combines data-driven Gaussian process models with physical empirical solutions for wave loading, including Morison’s Equation. The aim here is to incorporate physics directly into the covariance function (kernel) of the Gaussian process, enforcing derived behaviors whilst still allowing enough flexibility to account for phenomena such as vortex shedding, which may not be represented within the empirical laws. The combined approach has a number of advantages, including improved performance over either component used independently and interpretable hyperparameters.

Keywords: offshore structures, Gaussian processes, Physics informed machine learning, Kernel design

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
33 Identifying Physical and Psycho-Social Issues Facing Breast Cancer Survivors after Definitive Treatment for Early Breast Cancer: A Nurse-Led Clinic Model

Authors: A. Dean, M. Pitcher, L. Storer, K. Shanahan, I. Rio, B. Mann

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Purpose: Breast cancer survivors are at risk of specific physical and psycho-social issues, such as arm swelling, fatigue, and depression. Firstly, we investigate symptoms reported by Australia breast cancer survivors upon completion of definitive treatment. Secondly, we evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of a multi-centre pilot program nurse-led clinic to identify these issues and make timely referrals to available services. Methods: Patients post-definitive treatment (excluding ongoing hormonal therapy) for early breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were invited to participate. An hour long appointment with a breast care nurse (BCN) was scheduled. In preparation, patients completed validated quality-of-life surveys (FACT-B, Menopause Rating Scale, Distress Thermometer). During the appointment, issues identified in the surveys were addressed and referrals to appropriate services arranged. Results: 183 of 274 (67%) eligible patients attended a nurse-led clinic. Mean age 56.8 years (range 29-87 years), 181/183 women, 105/183 post-menopausal. 96 (55%) participants reported significant level of distress; 31 (18%) participants reported extreme distress or depression. Distress stemmed from a lack of energy (56/175); poor quality of sleep (50/176); inability to work or participate in household activities (35/172) and problems with sex life (28/89). 166 referrals were offered; 94% of patients accepted the referrals. 65% responded to a follow-up survey: the majority of women either strongly agreed or agreed that the BCN was overwhelmingly supportive, helpful in making referrals, and compassionate towards them. 39% reported making lifestyle changes as a result of the BCN. Conclusion: Breast cancer survivors experience a unique set of challenges, including low mood, difficulty sleeping, problems with sex life and fear of disease recurrence. The nurse-led clinic model is an appropriate and effective method to ensure physical and psycho-social issues are identified and managed in a timely manner. This model empowers breast cancer survivors with information about their diagnosis and available services.

Keywords: early breast cancer, survivorship, breast care nursing, oncology nursing and cancer care

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
32 Examining the Influence of Question Phrasing in Police Interviews on Suspects’ Inferences Regarding Interviewer’s Prior Knowledge

Authors: Meghana Srivatsav, Timothy J. Luke, Par Anders Granhag, Aldert Vrij

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The aim of this study was to understand how the phrasing of questions influences guilty suspects’ inferences regarding prior information held by the interviewer about the suspect’s crime-related activities. Three phrasing factors were explored namely specificity (crime-related details within questions), stressor (emphasis on the importance of the information in the question) and phase presentation (whether a specific activity was questioned about). 370 participants were recruited and randomly assigned into 6 different question-phrasing groups. Participants assumed the role of a suspect, read a crime narrative and an interview transcript based on the suspect’s activities. Participants responded to scales that measured their perception of interviewer’s knowledge (PIK) based on the questions posed by the interviewer in the interview transcripts. The researchers found that there is an effect of specific details revealed in the questions on the suspect’s perception of interviewer knowledge. Questioning about a specific activity also increased their perception of interviewer’s prior knowledge. However, the individual hypotheses were only partially supported. The study allowed the researchers to explore a psycholinguistic approach to investigate the underlying mechanisms of inferences drawn by suspects from the phrasing of investigative questions.

Keywords: police interviewing, question framing effects on suspects, suspect inferences from questions, suspect interviews

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31 Sustainable Development of Medium Strength Concrete Using Polypropylene as Aggregate Replacement

Authors: Reza Keihani, Ali Bahadori-Jahromi, Timothy James Clacy

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Plastic as an environmental burden is a well-rehearsed topic in the research area. This is due to its global demand and destructive impacts on the environment, which has been a significant concern to the governments. Typically, the use of plastic in the construction industry is seen across low-density, non-structural applications due to its diverse range of benefits including high strength-to-weight ratios, manipulability and durability. It can be said that with the level of plastic consumption experienced in the construction industry, an ongoing responsibility is shown for this sector to continually innovate alternatives for application of recycled plastic waste such as using plastic made replacement from polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl and polypropylene in the concrete mix design. In this study, the impact of partially replaced fine aggregate with polypropylene in the concrete mix design was investigated to evaluate the concrete’s compressive strength by conducting an experimental work which comprises of six concrete mix batches with polypropylene replacements ranging from 0.5 to 3.0%. The results demonstrated a typical decline in the compressive strength with the addition of plastic aggregate, despite this reduction generally mitigated as the level of plastic in the concrete mix increased. Furthermore, two of the six plastic-containing concrete mixes tested in the current study exceeded the ST5 standardised prescribed concrete mix compressive strength requirement at 28-days containing 1.50% and 2.50% plastic aggregates, which demonstrated the potential for use of recycled polypropylene in structural applications, as a partial by mass, fine aggregate replacement in the concrete mix.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, polypropylene, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
30 Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: Cointegration and Granger Causality Approach

Authors: Ogunwole Cecilia Oluwakemi, Timothy Ayomitunde Aderemi

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Provision of sufficient food and elimination of abject poverty have usually been the conventional benefits of agriculture in any society. Meanwhile, despite the fact that Nigeria is an agrarian society, food insecurity and poverty have become the issues of concern among both scholars and policymakers in the recent times. Against this backdrop, this study examined the nexus among agriculture, food security, and poverty reduction in Nigeria from 1990 to 2019 within the framework of the Cointegration and Granger Causality approach. Data was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and the World Development Indicators, respectively. The following are the major results that emanated from the study. A long run equilibrium relationship exists among agricultural value added, food production index, and GDP per capita in Nigeria. Similarly, there is a unidirectional causality which flows from food production index to poverty reduction in Nigeria. In the same vein, one way causality flows from poverty reduction to agricultural value added in Nigeria. Consequently, this study makes the following recommendation for the policymakers in Nigeria, and other African countries by extension, that agricultural value added and food production are the important variables that cannot be undermined when poverty reduction occupies the central focus of the policymakers. Therefore, any time these policymakers want to reduce poverty, policies that drive agricultural value added and food production should be embarked upon. Therefore, this study will contribute to the literature by establishing the type of linkage that exists between agriculture, food security, and poverty reduction in Nigeria.

Keywords: agriculture, value added, food production, GDP per capita, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
29 A Review of Food Reformulation of Sweetened Baked Goods to Reduce Added Sugar Intake

Authors: Xiao Luo, Jayashree Arcot, Timothy P. Gill, Jimmy C. Louie, Anna M. Rangan

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Excessive consumption of added sugar is negatively associated with many health outcomes such as lower diet quality, dental diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Sugar-sweetened baked goods are popular discretionary foods that contribute significant amounts of added sugar to people’s diets worldwide. Food reformulation is of the most effective methods to reduce consumption of added sugar without significantly altering individual's diet pattern. However, sucrose, as the major sugar in baked goods, plays several vital functional roles such as providing sweetness and bulking, and suitable substitutes must be able to address these. The review examines the literature on sugar-reduced baked goods to summarise the feasible reformulations of low/no added sugar baked goods, and indicates the future directions for healthier baked goods reformulation. Based on this review, polyols and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are suitable for alternative sweeteners to partially or fully replace sucrose in baked goods. Low-calorie carbohydrates such as oligofructose, polydextrose, maltodextrins are the mostly used bulking agents to compensate the loss of bulk due to the removal of sucrose. This review found that maltitol seems the most suitable sole sucrose substitution at present, while diverse mixtures of NNS( stevia, sucralose, acesulfame-K), other polyols and inulins can also deliver the functionalities of sucrose in baked products.

Keywords: alternative sweeteners, baked goods, reformulation, sugar reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
28 Bayesian Inference for High Dimensional Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Models

Authors: Sofia M. Karadimitriou, Kostas Triantafyllopoulos, Timothy Heaton

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Reduced dimension Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Models (DSTMs) jointly describe the spatial and temporal evolution of a function observed subject to noise. A basic state space model is adopted for the discrete temporal variation, while a continuous autoregressive structure describes the continuous spatial evolution. Application of such a DSTM relies upon the pre-selection of a suitable reduced set of basic functions and this can present a challenge in practice. In this talk, we propose an online estimation method for high dimensional spatio-temporal data based upon DSTM and we attempt to resolve this issue by allowing the basis to adapt to the observed data. Specifically, we present a wavelet decomposition in order to obtain a parsimonious approximation of the spatial continuous process. This parsimony can be achieved by placing a Laplace prior distribution on the wavelet coefficients. The aim of using the Laplace prior, is to filter wavelet coefficients with low contribution, and thus achieve the dimension reduction with significant computation savings. We then propose a Hierarchical Bayesian State Space model, for the estimation of which we offer an appropriate particle filter algorithm. The proposed methodology is illustrated using real environmental data.

Keywords: multidimensional Laplace prior, particle filtering, spatio-temporal modelling, wavelets

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27 Economic Community of West African States Court of Justice and the Development of Human Rights Jurisprudence in Africa: A Difficult Take-off with a Bright and Visionary Landing

Authors: Timothy Fwa Yerima

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This paper evaluates the development of human rights jurisprudence in Africa by the ECOWAS Court of Justice. It traces that though ECOWAS was not established with the aim of promoting and protecting human rights as the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights, no doubt, the 1991 ECOWAS Court Protocol and the 1993 ECOWAS Revised Treaty give the ECOWAS Court its human rights mandate. The paper, however, points out that despite the availability of these two Laws, the ECOWAS Court had difficulty in its human rights mandate, in view of the twin problems of lack of access to the Court by private parties and personal jurisdiction of the Court to entertain cases filed by private parties. The paper considers the 2005 Supplementary Protocol, not only as an effective legal framework in West African Sub-Region that tackles these problems in human rights cases but also a strong foundation upon which the Court has been developing human rights jurisprudence in Africa through the interpretation and application of this Law and other sources of Law of the Court. After a thorough analysis of some principles laid down by the ECOWAS Court so far, the paper observes that human rights jurisprudence in Africa is growing rapidly; depicting that though the ECOWAS Court initially had difficulty in its human rights mandate, today it has a bright and visionary landing. The paper concludes that West African Sub-Region will witness a more effective performance of the ECOWAS Court if some of its challenges are tackled.

Keywords: access, African human rights, ECOWAS court of justice, jurisprudence, personal jurisdiction

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
26 Colour Formation and Maillard Reactions in Spray-Dried Milk Powders

Authors: Zelin Zhou, Timothy Langrish

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Spray drying is the final stage of milk powder production. Traditionally, the quality of spray-dried milk powders has mainly been assessed using their physical properties, such as their moisture contents, while chemical changes occurring during the spray drying process have often been ignored. With growing concerns about food quality, it is necessary to establish a better understanding of heat-induced degradation due to the spray-drying process of skim milk. In this study, the extent of thermal degradation for skim milk in a pilot-scale spray dryer has been investigated using different inlet gas temperatures. The extent of heat-induced damage has been measured by the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products and the loss of soluble proteins at pH 4.6 as assessed by a fluorometric method. A significant increase in the extent of thermal degradation has been found when the inlet gas temperature increased from 170°C to 190°C, suggesting protein unfolding may play an important role in the kinetics of heat-induced degradation for milk in spray dryers. Colour changes of the spray-dried skim milk powders have also been analysed using a standard lighting box. Colourimetric analysis results were expressed in CIELAB colour space with the use of the E index (E) and the Chroma (C) for measuring the difference between colours and the intensity of the colours. A strong linear correlation between the colour intensity of the spray-dried skim milk powders and the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products has been observed.

Keywords: colour formation, Maillard reactions, spray drying, skim milk powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
25 Aquatic Environmental Effects of Black Shale in Eastern Kentucky through the Measurement of Chemical and Physical Properties

Authors: Mitchell T. Grothaus, Cory Grigsby, Timothy S. Hare

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This study aims to determine if there is a relationship between elevated cancer risks in eastern Kentucky and the environmental effects of black shale. Previous research shows that black shale formations, such as those in eastern Kentucky contain high levels of toxic elements including arsenic and radon compared to average rocks and sediment. Similarly, the population of eastern Kentucky has higher rates of many health conditions, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, than surrounding regions. These poor health outcomes are typically explained in relation to social, economic, behavioral, and healthcare factors. The rates of many conditions, however, have not decreased as these factors improve with regional development. Black shale is known to affect environmental conditions such as by increasing radiation levels and heavy metal toxicity. We are mapping the effects of black shale through monitoring radiation, microbes, and chemical standards of water sources. In this presentation, we report on our measuring pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, conductivity, temperature, and discharge and comparison with water quality standards from the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection. The conditions of water sources combined with an environmental survey of the surrounding areas provide a greater understanding of why the people in eastern Kentucky face the current health issues.

Keywords: black shale, eastern Kentucky, environmental impact, water quality

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24 Investigating the Determinants and Growth of Financial Technology Depth of Penetration among the Heterogeneous Africa Economies

Authors: Tochukwu Timothy Okoli, Devi Datt Tewari

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The high rate of Fintech adoption has not transmitted to greater financial inclusion and development in Africa. This problem is attributed to poor Fintech diversification and usefulness in the continent. This concept is referred to as the Fintech depth of penetration in this study. The study, therefore, assessed its determinants and growth process in a panel of three emergings, twenty-four frontiers and five fragile African economies disaggregated with dummies over the period 2004-2018 to allow for heterogeneity between groups. The System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique reveals that the average depth of Mobile banking and automated teller machine (ATM) is a dynamic heterogeneity process. Moreover, users' previous experiences/compatibility, trial-ability/income, and financial development were the major factors that raise its usefulness, whereas perceived risk, financial openness, and inflation rate significantly limit its usefulness. The growth rate of Mobile banking, ATM, and Internet banking in 2018 is, on average 41.82, 0.4, and 20.8 per cent respectively greater than its average rates in 2004. These greater averages after the 2009 financial crisis suggest that countries resort to Fintech as a risk-mitigating tool. This study, therefore, recommends greater Fintech diversification through improved literacy, institutional development, financial liberalization, and continuous innovation.

Keywords: depth of fintech, emerging Africa, financial technology, internet banking, mobile banking

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23 Using Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Design Sustainable Packaging

Authors: Timothy Francis Grant

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There are conflicting purposes at play with the design of sustainable packaging which include material reduction, recycling compatibility, use of secondary content and performance of the package in protecting and delivering the product. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is able to evaluate these different strategies against environmental metrics such as climate change, land and water use and marine litter pollution. However, LCA has traditionally been too time consuming and expensive to be used effectively in packaging design process. To make LCA practical for packaging technologist and designers a simplified tool is needed to make LCA possible for non-environmental specialists. The Packaging Quick Evaluation Tool (PIQET) is a web-based solution for undertaking LCA of new and existing packaging designs considering the global supply chain and impacts from cradle to grave. PIQET is based on a pre-calculated LCA database covering the materials and processes involved in the packaging lifecycle from cradle to grave. This includes both virgin materials and recycled content, conversion of materials into packaging, and the transportation of packaging to the product filling. In addition, PIQET assesses the impacts once the package is filled looking at storage, transport and product loss through the supply chain. When applied to consumer packaging light weight packages which are note recyclable have lower impacts than more recyclable packages which have a higher mass. Its also apparent that for many products the impacts of product failure and product loss are more important environmentally compared to packaging material efficiency.

Keywords: Climate change, Life Cycle Assessment, Marine litter, Packaging sustainability

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22 The Nexus between Manpower Training and Corporate Compliance

Authors: Timothy Wale Olaosebikan

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The most active resource in any organization is the manpower. Every other resource remains inactive unless there is competent manpower to handle them. Manpower training is needed to enhance productivity and overall performance of the organizations. This is due to the recognition of the important role of manpower training in attainment of organizational goals. Corporate Compliance conjures visions of an incomprehensible matrix of laws and regulations that defy logic and control by even the most seasoned manpower training professionals. Similarly, corporate compliance can be viewed as one of the most significant problems faced in manpower training process for any organization, therefore, commands relevant attention and comprehension. Consequently, this study investigated the nexus between manpower training and corporate compliance. Collection of data for the study was effected through the use of questionnaire with a sample size of 265 drawn by stratified random sampling. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study show that about 75% of the respondents agree that there is a strong relationship between manpower training and corporate compliance, which brings out the organizational attainment from any training process. The findings further show that most organisation do not totally comply with the rules guiding manpower training process thereby making the process less effective on organizational performance, which may affect overall profitability. The study concludes that formulation and compliance of adequate rules and guidelines for manpower trainings will produce effective results for both employees and the organization at large. The study recommends that leaders of organizations, industries, and institutions must ensure total compliance on the part of both the employees and the organization to manpower training rules. Organizations and stakeholders should also ensure that strict policies on corporate compliance to manpower trainings form the heart of their cardinal mission.

Keywords: corporate compliance, manpower training, nexus, rules and guidelines

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21 Processes of Identity Construction for Generation 1.5 Students in Canada

Authors: Timothy Mossman

Abstract:

The number of adolescent children accompanying their immigrant parents to Canada has steadily increased since the 1990s. Much of the applied linguistics literature on these so-called ‘Generation 1.5’ youth has focused on their deficiencies as academic writers in US Rhetoric and Composition and ESL contexts in higher education and the stigma of ESL in US K-12 contexts. However, the literature on Generation 1.5 students and identity in Canadian higher education is limited. This qualitative study investigates the processes of identity construction of three Generation 1.5 students studying at a university in Metro Vancouver to find out what types of identities and representations of self and other they make relevant, the meanings they attribute to their identities, and what motivates them to construct these identities. The study analyzes the accounts and experiences of the participants in interviews, focus groups, and texts and as ‘culture-in-action,’ positing that they constructed identities as social categories associated with the languages and social practices of their countries of birth, in liminal spaces among a continuum between Canada and their countries of birth, and a spectrum of related cultural representations. Ideas and beliefs associated with broader ‘macro’ social structures in Canadian society related to language, culture, legitimacy, immigration, power, distinction, and racism were shown to be transcended in and through their representations of themselves and others. Data suggest that moving to Canada caused participants to experience discontinuities between their cultures, languages, and social practices, and in some cases a conflicting sense of self. The study brings implications for finding ways to understand the complexity of immigrant students, avoid reifying and generalizing about them, and not see them as stuck-in-between or lacking.

Keywords: culture-in-action, generation 1.5, identity, membership categorization analysis

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20 Forest Soil Greenhouse Gas Real-Time Analysis Using Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Timothy L. Porter, T. Randy Dillingham

Abstract:

Vegetation growth and decomposition, along with soil microbial activity play a complex role in the production of greenhouse gases originating in forest soils. The absorption or emission (respiration) of these gases is a function of many factors relating to the soils themselves, the plants, and the environment in which the plants are growing. For this study, we have constructed a battery-powered, portable field mass spectrometer for use in analyzing gases in the soils surrounding trees, plants, and other areas. We have used the instrument to sample in real-time the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane in soils where plant life may be contributing to the production of gases such as methane. Gases such as isoprene, which may help correlate gas respiration to microbial activity have also been measured. The instrument is composed of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with part per billion or better sensitivity, coupled to battery-powered turbo and diaphragm pumps. A unique ambient air pressure differentially pumped intake apparatus allows for the real-time sampling of gases in the soils from the surface to several inches below the surface. Results show that this instrument is capable of instant, part-per-billion sensitivity measurement of carbon dioxide and methane in the near surface region of various forest soils. We have measured differences in soil respiration resulting from forest thinning, forest burning, and forest logging as compared to pristine, untouched forests. Further studies will include measurements of greenhouse gas respiration as a function of temperature, microbial activity as measured by isoprene production, and forest restoration after fire.

Keywords: forest, soil, greenhouse, quadrupole

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19 Evidence Theory Enabled Quickest Change Detection Using Big Time-Series Data from Internet of Things

Authors: Hossein Jafari, Xiangfang Li, Lijun Qian, Alexander Aved, Timothy Kroecker

Abstract:

Traditionally in sensor networks and recently in the Internet of Things, numerous heterogeneous sensors are deployed in distributed manner to monitor a phenomenon that often can be model by an underlying stochastic process. The big time-series data collected by the sensors must be analyzed to detect change in the stochastic process as quickly as possible with tolerable false alarm rate. However, sensors may have different accuracy and sensitivity range, and they decay along time. As a result, the big time-series data collected by the sensors will contain uncertainties and sometimes they are conflicting. In this study, we present a framework to take advantage of Evidence Theory (a.k.a. Dempster-Shafer and Dezert-Smarandache Theories) capabilities of representing and managing uncertainty and conflict to fast change detection and effectively deal with complementary hypotheses. Specifically, Kullback-Leibler divergence is used as the similarity metric to calculate the distances between the estimated current distribution with the pre- and post-change distributions. Then mass functions are calculated and related combination rules are applied to combine the mass values among all sensors. Furthermore, we applied the method to estimate the minimum number of sensors needed to combine, so computational efficiency could be improved. Cumulative sum test is then applied on the ratio of pignistic probability to detect and declare the change for decision making purpose. Simulation results using both synthetic data and real data from experimental setup demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented schemes.

Keywords: CUSUM, evidence theory, kl divergence, quickest change detection, time series data

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18 The Prospect of Income Contingent Loan in Malaysia Higher Education Financing Using Deterministic and Stochastic Methods in Modelling Income

Authors: Syaza Isma, Timothy Higgins

Abstract:

In Malaysia, increased take-up rates of tertiary student borrowing, and reliance on retirement savings to fund children's education show the importance of public higher education financing schemes (PTPTN). PTPTN has been operating for 2 decades now; however, there are some critical issues and challenges that include low loan recovery and loan default that suggest a detailed consideration of student loan/financing scheme alternatives is crucial. In addition, the decline in funding level per student following introduction of the new PTPTN full and partial loan scheme has raised ongoing concerns over the sustainability of the scheme to provide continuous financial assistance to students in tertiary education. This research seeks to assess these issues that put greater efficiency in an effort to ensure equitable access to student funding for current and future generations. We explore the extent of repayment hardship under the current loan arrangements that presumably led to low recovery from the borrowers, particularly low-income graduates. The concept of manageable debt exists in the design of income-contingent repayment schemes, as practiced in Australia, New Zealand, UK, Hungary, USA (in limited form), the Netherlands, and South Korea. Can Income Contingent Loans (ICL) offer the best practice for an education financing scheme, and address the issue of repayment hardship and concurrently, can a properly designed ICL scheme provide a solution to the current issues and challenges facing Malaysia student financing? We examine the different potential ICL models using deterministic and stochastic approach to simulate income of graduates.

Keywords: deterministic, income contingent loan, repayment burden, simulation, stochastic

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