Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 217

Search results for: relapsing fever

217 Better Defined WHO International Classification of Disease Codes for Relapsing Fever Borreliosis, and Lyme Disease Education Aiding Diagnosis, Treatment Improving Human Right to Health

Authors: Mualla McManus, Jenna Luche Thaye

Abstract:

World Health Organisation International Classification of Disease codes were created to define disease including infections in order to guide and educate diagnosticians. Most infectious diseases such as syphilis are clearly defined by their ICD 10 codes and aid/help to educate the clinicians in syphilis diagnosis and treatment globally. However, current ICD 10 codes for relapsing fever Borreliosis and Lyme disease are less clearly defined and can impede appropriate diagnosis especially if the clinician is not familiar with the symptoms of these infectious diseases. This is despite substantial number of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals about relapsing fever and Lyme disease. In the USA there are estimated 380,000 people annually contacting Lyme disease, more cases than breast cancer and 6x HIV/AIDS cases. This represents estimated 0.09% of the USA population. If extrapolated to the global population (7billion), 0.09% equates to 63 million people contracting relapsing fever or Lyme disease. In many regions, the rate of contracting some form of infection from tick bite may be even higher. Without accurate and appropriate diagnostic codes, physicians are impeded in their ability to properly care for their patients, leaving those patients invisible and marginalized within the medical system and to those guiding public policy. This results in great personal hardship, pain, disability, and expense. This unnecessarily burdens health care systems, governments, families, and society as a whole. With accurate diagnostic codes in place, robust data can guide medical and public health research, health policy, track mortality and save health care dollars. Better defined ICD codes are the way forward in educating the diagnosticians about relapsing fever and Lyme diseases.

Keywords: WHO ICD codes, relapsing fever, Lyme diseases, World Health Organisation

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216 Obstruction to Treatments Meeting International Standards for Lyme and Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Patients

Authors: J. Luché-Thayer, C. Perronne, C. Meseko

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We reviewed how certain institutional policies and practices, as well as questionable research, are creating obstacles to care and informed consent for Lyme and relapsing fever Borreliosis patients. The interference is denying access to treatments that meet the internationally accepted standards as set by the Institute of Medicine. This obstruction to care contributes to significant human suffering, disability and negative economic effect across many nations and in many regions of the world. We note how evidence based medicine emphasizes the importance of clinical experience and patient-centered care and how these patients benefit significantly when their rights to choose among treatment options are upheld.  

Keywords: conflicts of interest, obstacles to healthcare accessibility, patient-centered care, the right to informed consent

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
215 Immune Complex Components Act as Agents in Relapsing Fever Borrelia Mediated Rosette Formation

Authors: Mukunda Upreti, Jill Storry, Rafael Björk, Emilie Louvet, Johan Normark, Sven Bergström

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Borrelia duttonii and most other relapsing fever species are Gram-negative bacteria which cause a blood borne infection characterized by the binding of bacterium to erythrocytes. The bacteria associate with two or more erythrocytes to form clusters of cells into rosettes. Rosetting is a major virulence factor and the mechanism is believed to facilitate persistence of bacteria in the circulatory system and the avoidance of host immune cells through masking or steric hindrance effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of rosette formation are still poorly understood. This study aims at determining the molecules involved in the rosette formation phenomenon. Fractionated serum, using different affinity purification methods, was investigated as a rosetting agent and IgG and at least one other serum components were needed for rosettes to form. An IgG titration curve demonstrated that IgG alone is not enough to restore rosette formation level to the level whole serum gives. IgG hydrolysis by IdeS ( Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes) and deglycosylation using N-Glycanase proved that the whole IgG molecule regardless of saccharide moieties is critical for Borrelia induced rosetting. Complement components C3 and C4 were also important serum molecules necessary to maintain optimum rosetting rates. The deactivation of complement network and serum depletion with C3 and C4 significantly reduced the rosette formation rate. The dependency of IgG and complement components also implied involvement of the complement receptor (CR1). Rosette formation test with Knops null RBC and sCR1 confirmed that CR1 is also part of Borrelia induced rosette formation.

Keywords: complement components C3 and C4, complement receptor 1, Immunoglobulin G, Knops null, Rosetting

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214 Risk Factors for Postoperative Fever in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fusion

Authors: Bang Haeyong

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Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for postoperative fever after lumbar fusion. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 291 patients who underwent lumbar fusion between March 2015 and February 2016 at the Asan Medical Center. Information was extracted from electronic medical records. Postoperative fever was measured at Tmax > 37.7 ℃ and Tmax > 38.3 ℃. The presence of postoperative fever, blood culture, urinary excretion, and/or chest x-ray were evaluated. Patients were evaluated for infection after lumbar fusion. Results: We found 222 patients (76.3%) had a postoperative temperature of 37.7 ℃, and 162 patients (55.7%) had a postoperative temperature of 38.3 ℃ or higher. The percentage of febrile patients trended down following the mean 1.8days (from the first postoperative day to seventh postoperative day). Infection rate was 9 patients (3.1%), respiratory virus (1.7%), urinary tract infection (0.3%), phlebitis (0.3%), and surgical site infection (1.4%). There was no correlation between Tmax > 37.7℃ or Tmax > 38.3℃, and timing of fever, positive blood or urine cultures, pneumonia, or surgical site infection. Risk factors for increased postoperative fever following surgery were confirmed to be delay of defecation (OR=1.37, p=.046), and shorten of remove drainage (OR=0.66, p=.037). Conclusions: The incidence of fever was 76.3% after lumbar fusion and the drainage time was faster in the case of fever. It was thought that the bleeding was absorbed at the operation site and fever occurred. The prevalence of febrile septicemia was higher in patients with long bowel movements before surgery than after surgery. Clinical symptoms should be considered because postoperative fever cannot be determined by fever alone because fever and infection are not significant.

Keywords: lumbar surgery, fever, postoperative, risk factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
213 Haemoperitoneum in a Case of Dengue Fever

Authors: Sagarjyoti Roy

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Dengue is an arboviral infection, belonging to family flaviviridae, comprising of four serotypes; DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. All four serotypes are capable of causing full-spectrum of clinical features, ranging from self-limiting fever to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Complications may affect any organ system, including those involving gastrointestinal system and serositis. We report a case, of a 28 years, non-alcoholic male, presenting with a 7 day history of fever and malaise followed by abdominal pain and distension, from 4th day of fever. He was admitted in medicine department of RG KAR medical college hospital. Dengue fever was confirmed by NS1 and dengue IgM positivity. Platelet count was 30,000/cc (1.5- 4 lac/cc) and haematocrit was 52% (38- 50% for men). Clinicoradiological findings revealed bilateral pleural effusion, ascites and splenomegaly. Ascitic fluid was hemorrhagic in nature, with a high protein and RBC content. Liver function tests revealed mild transaminitis with normal coagulation profile. Patient was managed conservatively. A diagnosis of dengue fever complicated by serositis and spontaneous haemoperitoneum was made. The symptoms subsided after a hospital stay of 10 days. The case highlights haemorrhage into peritoneal cavity as a possible complication of dengue fever. Although a definite explanation requires more detailed studies, platelet or endothelial cell dysfunction might be contributory.

Keywords: ascites, dengue, haemoperitoneum, serositis

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
212 Soft Computing Approach for Diagnosis of Lassa Fever

Authors: Roseline Oghogho Osaseri, Osaseri E. I.

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Lassa fever is an epidemic hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus, an extremely virulent arena virus. This highly fatal disorder kills 10% to 50% of its victims, but those who survive its early stages usually recover and acquire immunity to secondary attacks. One of the major challenges in giving proper treatment is lack of fast and accurate diagnosis of the disease due to multiplicity of symptoms associated with the disease which could be similar to other clinical conditions and makes it difficult to diagnose early. This paper proposed an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the prediction of Lass Fever. In the design of the diagnostic system, four main attributes were considered as the input parameters and one output parameter for the system. The input parameters are Temperature on admission (TA), White Blood Count (WBC), Proteinuria (P) and Abdominal Pain (AP). Sixty-one percent of the datasets were used in training the system while fifty-nine used in testing. Experimental results from this study gave a reliable and accurate prediction of Lassa fever when compared with clinically confirmed cases. In this study, we have proposed Lassa fever diagnostic system to aid surgeons and medical healthcare practictionals in health care facilities who do not have ready access to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnosis to predict possible Lassa fever infection.

Keywords: anfis, lassa fever, medical diagnosis, soft computing

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211 A Convolutional Neural Network-Based Model for Lassa fever Virus Prediction Using Patient Blood Smear Image

Authors: A. M. John-Otumu, M. M. Rahman, M. C. Onuoha, E. P. Ojonugwa

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A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model for predicting Lassa fever was built using Python 3.8.0 programming language, alongside Keras 2.2.4 and TensorFlow 2.6.1 libraries as the development environment in order to reduce the current high risk of Lassa fever in West Africa, particularly in Nigeria. The study was prompted by some major flaws in existing conventional laboratory equipment for diagnosing Lassa fever (RT-PCR), as well as flaws in AI-based techniques that have been used for probing and prognosis of Lassa fever based on literature. There were 15,679 blood smear microscopic image datasets collected in total. The proposed model was trained on 70% of the dataset and tested on 30% of the microscopic images in avoid overfitting. A 3x3x3 convolution filter was also used in the proposed system to extract features from microscopic images. The proposed CNN-based model had a recall value of 96%, a precision value of 93%, an F1 score of 95%, and an accuracy of 94% in predicting and accurately classifying the images into clean or infected samples. Based on empirical evidence from the results of the literature consulted, the proposed model outperformed other existing AI-based techniques evaluated. If properly deployed, the model will assist physicians, medical laboratory scientists, and patients in making accurate diagnoses for Lassa fever cases, allowing the mortality rate due to the Lassa fever virus to be reduced through sound decision-making.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ANN, blood smear, CNN, deep learning, Lassa fever

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210 The Frequency of Q Fever Among Hospitalized Patients with Pyrexia

Authors: Hassan Ali Abood Nassrullah, Jabbar Fadeel Mahdi, Mohammed Salih Mahdi Alkurdi, Ali Al Mousawi, Saad Ibrahim Al-Ghabban, Abdul Amir H. Kadhum, Ahmed Al-Amiery

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Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease characterized by its clinical polymorphism and can present acutely as fever, pneumonia, hepatitis, and chronically as infective endocarditis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, or hepatitis. Objective: The aim of this study is To estimate the prevalence of cases of Q fever in hospitalized febrile patients in Imam Al Hussain Teaching Medical City in Karbala. Methods: One hundred patients with pyrexia were admitted to the medical ward from 1st August to 31st December 2019. Serological procedures fortified by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay test. Patients were considered to have acute Q fever when the specific antibodies (IgM and IgG) of phase II of Coxiella burnetii were positive. Results: The mean age of the patients was 35.05±12.93 years; females constituted 60% of them. Eighteen patients (18%) showed positive results for IgM, a lower proportion (13% n=13) had positive IgG levels, and 9% showed equivocal results. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between positive IgM levels of the female gender and in patients consuming unpasteurized milk. One patient (female aged 60 years) died in the hospital, while all other patients were discharged well. Two female patients were pregnant, and one of them had an abortion. Conclusions: Q fever is more common in febrile patients. The study indicates that this disease should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of acute fever. Serological testing should be performed in all patients with acute febrile illness with an unsettling diagnosis.

Keywords: antibodies, frequency, immunoglobulin IgM, Q fever

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209 Eosinopenia: Marker for Early Diagnosis of Enteric Fever

Authors: Swati Kapoor, Rajeev Upreti, Monica Mahajan, Abhaya Indrayan, Dinesh Srivastava

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Enteric Fever is caused by gram negative bacilli Salmonella typhi and paratyphi. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely initiation of treatment is a crucial step for prevention of any complications. Cultures of body fluids are diagnostic, but not always conclusive or practically feasible in most centers. Moreover, the results of cultures delay the treatment initiation. Serological tests lack diagnostic value. The blood counts can offer a promising option in diagnosis. A retrospective study to find out the relevance of leucopenia and eosinopenia was conducted on 203 culture proven enteric fever patients and 159 culture proven non-enteric fever patients in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. The patient details were retrieved from the electronic medical records section of the hospital. Absolute eosinopenia was considered as absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of less than 40/mm³ (normal level: 40-400/mm³) using LH-750 Beckman Coulter Automated machine. Leucopoenia was defined as total leucocyte count (TLC) of less than 4 X 10⁹/l. Blood cultures were done using BacT/ALERT FA plus automated blood culture system before first antibiotic dose was given. Case and control groups were compared using Pearson Chi square test. It was observed that absolute eosinophil count (AEC) of 0-19/mm³ was a significant finding (p < 0.001) in enteric fever patients, whereas leucopenia was not a significant finding (p=0.096). Using Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, it was observed that patients with both AEC < 14/mm³ and TCL < 8 x 10⁹/l had 95.6% chance of being diagnosed as enteric fever and only 4.4% chance of being diagnosed as non-enteric fever. This result was highly significant with p < 0.001. This is a very useful association of AEC and TLC found in enteric fever patients of this study which can be used for the early initiation of treatment in clinically suspected enteric fever patients.

Keywords: absolute eosinopenia, absolute eosinophil count, enteric fever, leucopenia, total leucocyte count

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208 Spatial Point Process Analysis of Dengue Fever in Tainan, Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Mei Chang

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This research is intended to apply spatio-temporal point process methods to the dengue fever data in Tainan. The spatio-temporal intensity function of the dataset is assumed to be separable. The kernel estimation is a widely used approach to estimate intensity functions. The intensity function is very helpful to study the relation of the spatio-temporal point process and some covariates. The covariate effects might be nonlinear. An nonparametric smoothing estimator is used to detect the nonlinearity of the covariate effects. A fitted parametric model could describe the influence of the covariates to the dengue fever. The correlation between the data points is detected by the K-function. The result of this research could provide useful information to help the government or the stakeholders making decisions.

Keywords: dengue fever, spatial point process, kernel estimation, covariate effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
207 The Study of Dengue Fever Outbreak in Thailand Using Geospatial Techniques, Satellite Remote Sensing Data and Big Data

Authors: Tanapat Chongkamunkong

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The objective of this paper is to present a practical use of Geographic Information System (GIS) to the public health from spatial correlation between multiple factors and dengue fever outbreak. Meteorological factors, demographic factors and environmental factors are compiled using GIS techniques along with the Global Satellite Mapping Remote Sensing (RS) data. We use monthly dengue fever cases, population density, precipitation, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. The scope cover study area under climate change of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicated by sea surface temperature (SST) and study area in 12 provinces of Thailand as remote sensing (RS) data from January 2007 to December 2014.

Keywords: dengue fever, sea surface temperature, Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
206 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla

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Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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205 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Younus, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Sanan Raza, Amar Nasir

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Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: dengue fever, blood, serum, malaria, ELISA

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204 A Comparative Study of Dengue Fever in Taiwan and Singapore Based on Open Data

Authors: Wei Wen Yang, Emily Chia Yu Su

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Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical infectious disease caused by the dengue virus. After infection, symptoms usually start from three to fourteen days. Dengue virus may cause a high fever and at least two of the following symptoms, severe headache, severe eye pain, joint pains, muscle or bone pain, vomiting, feature skin rash, and mild bleeding manifestation. In addition, recovery will take at least two to seven days. Dengue fever has rapidly spread in tropical and subtropical areas in recent years. Several phenomena around the world such as global warming, urbanization, and international travel are the main reasons in boosting the spread of dengue. In Taiwan, epidemics occur annually, especially during summer and fall seasons. On the other side, Singapore government also has announced the amounts number of dengue cases spreading in Singapore. As the serious epidemic of dengue fever outbreaks in Taiwan and Singapore, countries around the Asia-Pacific region are becoming high risks of susceptible to the outbreaks and local hub of spreading the virus. To improve public safety and public health issues, firstly, we are going to use Microsoft Excel and SAS EG to do data preprocessing. Secondly, using support vector machines and decision trees builds predict model, and analyzes the infectious cases between Taiwan and Singapore. By comparing different factors causing vector mosquito from model classification and regression, we can find similar spreading patterns where the disease occurred most frequently. The result can provide sufficient information to predict the future dengue infection outbreaks and control the diffusion of dengue fever among countries.

Keywords: dengue fever, Taiwan, Singapore, Aedes aegypti

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203 Impact of Television on the Coverage of Lassa Fever Disease in Nigeria

Authors: H. Shola Adeosun, F. Ajoke Adebiyi

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This study appraises the impact of television on the coverage of Lassa Fever disease. The objectives of the study are to find out whether television is an effective tool for raising awareness about Lassa fever shapes the perception of members of the public. The research work was based on the theoretical foundation of Agenda – setting and reinforcement theory. Survey research method was adopted in the study to elicit data from the residents of Obafemi Owode Local Government, area of Ogun state. Questionnaire and oral interview were adopted as a tool for data gathering. Simple random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample for this study. Out of filled 400 questionnaires distributed to the respondents. 37 of them were incorrectly filled and returned at the stipulated time. This is about (92.5% Tables, percentages, and figures were used to analyse and interpret the data and hypothesis formulation for this study revealed that Lassa fever diseases with higher media coverage were considered more serious and more representative of a disease and estimated to have lower incidents, than diseases less frequently found in the media. Thus, 92% of the respondents agree that they have access to television coverage of Lassa fever disease led to exaggerated perceptions of personal vulnerability. It, therefore, concludes that there is a need for relevant stakeholders to ensure better community health education and improved housing conditions in southwestern Nigeria, with an emphasis on slum areas and that Nigeria need to focus on the immediate response, while preparing for the future because a society or community is all about the people who inhabit. Therefore every effort must be geared towards their society and survival.

Keywords: impact, television, coverage, Lassa fever disease

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202 Seroepidemiology of Q Fever among Companion Dogs in Fars Province, South of Iran

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Mohammad Abbaszadeh Hasiri

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Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes Q fever, a significant zoonotic disease. Sheep, cattle, and goats are the most commonly reported reservoirs for the bacteria, but infected cats and dogs have also been implicated in the transmission of the disease to human. The aim of present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii among companion dogs in Fars province, South of Iran. A total of 181 blood samples were collected from asymptomatic dogs, mostly referred to Veterinary Hospital of Shiraz University for regular vaccination. The IgG antibody detection against Coxiella burnetii was made by indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing phase I and II Coxiella burnetii antigens. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze multiple risk factors associated with seropositivity. An overall seropositivity of 7.7% (n=14) was observed. Prevalence was significantly higher in adult dogs above five years (18.18 %) compared with dogs between 1 and five years (7.86 %) and less than one year (6.17%) (P=0.043). Prevalence was also higher in male dogs (11.21 %) than in female (2.7 %) (P=0.035). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of positive cases and breed, type of housing, type of food and exposure to other farm animals (P>0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii infection among the companion dogs population in Fars province. To our knowledge, this is the first study regarding Q fever in dogs carried out in Iran. In areas like Iran, where human cases of Q fever are not common or remain unreported, the public health implications of Q fever seroprevalence in dogs are quite significant.

Keywords: Coxiella burnetii, dog, Iran, Q fever

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201 Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe, A. K. B. Sackey, L. B. Tekdek

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A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. 416 pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, seven (1.7%) and six (13.6%), respectively, tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8%) and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations; hence, the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.

Keywords: African swine fever, classical swine fever, piggery, slaughter slab, surveillance

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200 Revisiting Classic Triad of Japanese Spotted Fever: A Case Series of Forty-Three Patients

Authors: Y. Kunitani, Y. Nakashima, S. Yamauchi, Y. Ishigami, K. Naito, K. Numata, M. Mizobe, Y. Homma, J. Takahashi, T. Inoue, T. Shiga, H. Funakoshi

Abstract:

Background: Japanese Spotted Fever (JSF) is one of the Rickettsial infections, caused by Rickettsia japonica, which is transmitted by ticks. JSF is seen in limited area, such as Japan and South Korea. Its clinical triad is rash, eschar and fever. It often shows leukocytopenia, thrombopenia, elevated transaminase and high C-reactive protein (CRP). Sometimes it can be life-threatening due to disseminated intravascular coagulation or multiple organ failure. Study Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the features of JSF, as this unique infection is rapidly growing in Japan. Methods: This is a case series of JSF from 2009 to 2016, in Mie Prefectural Hospital in Japan. We collected JSF cases, which were diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the skin or blood serum, or the elevation of the antibody titer of paired blood samples. Results: There were 43 JSF patients (19 male, 24 female) with a median age of 71 years [IQR:65-80]. The median body temperature was 38.1°C[IQR: 37.5-39.0]. 95% had a rash, 67% had eschar and 50% had fever. The median WBC count was 6,700 [IQR: 5,750-8,200] and leukocytopenia was observed in only 7%. The median platelet count was 14x104 [IQR10x104-17x104], thrombopenia was observed in 65%. The median aspartate transaminase (AST) was 53 IU/L [IQR: 41-93]; the median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 34 IU/L [IQR: 24-54]; the median CRP was 10.4 mg/dL [IQR:7.2-13.9]; the median lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was 352IU/L [IQR:282-451]. CRP and LDH were elevated in almost all of the patients. Median length of stay in hospital was 8 days [IQR: 6-11]. All patients were treated with tetracycline and quinolone on the day of the presentation. There was no fatality from JSF. Conclusion: The patients with JSF classically presents with eschar, rash and fever. However, in this study, the half of the patients were afebrile. Although JSF is not a common infectious disease worldwide, if the patient had previously visited Japan or South Korea and presented with rash and eschar with or without fever, we should consider JSF as a potential diagnosis.

Keywords: infectious disease, Japanese spotted fever, Rickettsial disease, Rickettsia japonica

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199 A Comparative Study of Cognitive Functions in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients, Secondary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Normal People

Authors: Alireza Pirkhaefi

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Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Given the importance of cognitive disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis, the present study was in order to compare cognitive functions (Working memory, Attention and Centralization, and Visual-spatial perception) in patients with relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Method: Present study was performed as a retrospective study. This research was conducted with Ex-Post Facto method. The samples of research consisted of 60 patients with multiple sclerosis (30 patients relapsing-retrograde and 30 patients secondary progressive), who were selected from Tehran Community of MS Patients Supported as convenience sampling. 30 normal persons were also selected as a comparison group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) was used to assess cognitive functions. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences among cognitive functioning in patients with RRMS, SPMS, and normal individuals. There were not significant differences in working memory between two groups of patients with RRMS and SPMS; while significant differences in these variables were seen between the two groups and normal individuals. Also, results showed significant differences in attention and centralization and visual-spatial perception among three groups. Conclusions: Results showed that there are differences between cognitive functions of RRMS and SPMS patients so that the functions of RRMS patients are better than SPMS patients. These results have a critical role in improvement of cognitive functions; reduce the factors causing disability due to cognitive impairment, and especially overall health of society.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, secondary-progressive, normal subjects

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198 The First Import of Yellow Fever Cases in China and Its Revealing Suggestions for the Control and Prevention of Imported Emerging Diseases

Authors: Chao Li, Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Dan Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li

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Background: In 2016, yellow fever had been first ever discovered in China, soon after the yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola. After the discovery, China had promptly made the national protocol of control and prevention and strengthened the surveillance on passenger and vector. In this study, a descriptive analysis was conducted to summarize China’s experiences of response towards this import epidemic, in the hope of providing experiences on prevention and control of yellow fever and other similar imported infectious diseases in the future. Methods: The imported cases were discovered and reported by General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and several hospitals. Each clinically diagnosed yellow fever case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). The data of the imported yellow fever cases were collected by local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through field investigations soon after they received the reports. Results: A total of 11 imported cases from Angola were reported in China, during Angola’s yellow fever outbreak. Six cases were discovered by the AQSIQ, among which two with mild symptom were initiative declarations at the time of entry. Except for one death, the remaining 10 cases all had recovered after timely and proper treatment. All cases are Chinese, and lived in Luanda, the capital of Angola. 73% were retailers (8/11) from Fuqing city in Fujian province, and the other three were labors send by companies. 10 cases had experiences of medical treatment in Luanda after onset, among which 8 cases visited the same local Chinese medicine hospital (China Railway four Bureau Hospital). Among the 11 cases, only one case had an effective vaccination. The result of emergency surveillance for mosquito density showed that only 14 containers of water were found positive around places of three cases, and the Breteau Index is 15. Conclusions: Effective response was taken to control and prevent the outbreak of yellow fever in China after discovering the imported cases. However, though the similar origin of Chinese in Angola has provided an easy access for disease detection, information sharing, health education and vaccination on yellow fever; these conveniences were overlooked during previous disease prevention methods. Besides, only one case having effective vaccination revealed the inadequate capacity of immunization service in China. These findings will provide suggestions to improve China’s capacity to deal with not only yellow fever but also other similar imported diseases in China.

Keywords: yellow fever, first import, China, suggestion

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197 An Unusual Occurrence: Typhoid Retinitis with Kyrieleis' Vasculitis

Authors: Aditya Sethi, Vaibhav Sethi, Shenouda Girgis

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We present a case of a 31-year-old female who presented with a three week history of left eye blurry vision following a fever. She was diagnosed with Typhoid fever, confirmed by a positive Widal test report. On examination, her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/20 and in the left eye was 20/60. Fundus examination of the right eye showed a focal area of retinitis with retinal haemorrhages along the superior arcade within the macula. There was also focal area of retinitis with superficial retinal haemorrhages along the superior arcade vessels. There was also presence of multiple yellowish white exudates within the adjacent retinal artery arranged in a beaded pattern, suggestive of Kyrieleis' vasculitis. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the left eye demonstrated cystoid macula edema with serous foveal detachment.

Keywords: typhoid retinitis, Kyrieleis’ vasculitis, immune-mediated retinitis, post-fever retinitis, typhoid retinopathy, retinitis

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196 The Ebola Virus Disease and Its Outbreak in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Efosa Kelvin

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The Ebola virus disease (EVD); also Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus as a fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. Then, vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The first death in Nigeria was reported on 25 July 2014: a Liberian-American with Ebola flew from Liberia to Nigeria and died in Lagos soon after arrival. As part of the effort to contain the disease, possible contacts were monitored –353 in Lagos and 451 in Port Harcourt On 22 September, the World Health Organisation reported a total of 20 cases, including eight deaths. The WHO's representative in Nigeria officially declared Nigeria Ebola-free on 20 October after no new active cases were reported in the follow-up contact. This paper looks at the Ebola Virus in general and the measures taken by Nigeria to combat its spread.

Keywords: Ebola virus, hemorrhagic fever, Nigeria, outbreak

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195 Evaluation of the Surveillance System for Rift Valley Fever in Ruminants in Mauritania, 2019

Authors: Mohamed El Kory Yacoub, Ahmed Bezeid El Mamy Beyatt, Djibril Barry, Yanogo Pauline, Nicolas Meda

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Introduction: Rift Valley Fever is a zoonotic arbovirosis that severely affects ruminants, as well as humans. It causes abortions in pregnant females and deaths in young animals. The disease occurs during heavy rains followed by large numbers of mosquito vectors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever. Methods: We conducted an evaluation of the Rift Valley Fiver surveillance system. Data were collected from the analysis of the national database of the Mauritanian Network of Animal Disease Epidemiological Surveillance at the Ministry of Rural Development, of RVF cases notified from the whole national territory, of questionnaires and interviews with all persons involved in RVF surveillance at the central level. The quality of the system was assessed by analyzing the quantitative attributes defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: In 2019, 443 cases of RVF were notified by the surveillance system, of which 36 were positive. Among the notified cases of Rift Valley Fever, the 0- to the 3-year-old age group of small ruminants was the most represented with 49.21% of cases, followed by 33.33%, which was recorded in large ruminants in the 0 to 7-year-old age group, 11.11% of cases were older than seven years. The completeness of the data varied between 14.2% (age) and 100% (species). Most positive cases were recorded between October and November 2019 in seven different regions. Attribute analysis showed that 87% of the respondents were able to use the case definition well, and 78.8% said they were familiar with the reporting and feedback loop of the Rift Valley Fever data. 90.3% of the respondents found it easy, while 95% of them responded that it was easy for them to transmit their data to the next level. Conclusions: The epidemiological surveillance system for Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania is simple and representative. However, data quality, stability, and responsiveness are average, as the diagnosis of the disease requires laboratory confirmation and the average delay for this confirmation is long (13 days). Consequently, the lack of completeness of the recorded data and of description of cases in terms of time-place-animal, associated with the delay between the stages of the surveillance system can make prevention, early detection of epidemics, and the initiation of measures for an adequate response difficult.

Keywords: evaluation, epidemiological surveillance system, rift valley fever, mauritania, ruminants

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194 Modeling Karachi Dengue Outbreak and Exploration of Climate Structure

Authors: Syed Afrozuddin Ahmed, Junaid Saghir Siddiqi, Sabah Quaiser

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Various studies have reported that global warming causes unstable climate and many serious impact to physical environment and public health. The increasing incidence of dengue incidence is now a priority health issue and become a health burden of Pakistan. In this study it has been investigated that spatial pattern of environment causes the emergence or increasing rate of dengue fever incidence that effects the population and its health. The climatic or environmental structure data and the Dengue Fever (DF) data was processed by coding, editing, tabulating, recoding, restructuring in terms of re-tabulating was carried out, and finally applying different statistical methods, techniques, and procedures for the evaluation. Five climatic variables which we have studied are precipitation (P), Maximum temperature (Mx), Minimum temperature (Mn), Humidity (H) and Wind speed (W) collected from 1980-2012. The dengue cases in Karachi from 2010 to 2012 are reported on weekly basis. Principal component analysis is applied to explore the climatic variables and/or the climatic (structure) which may influence in the increase or decrease in the number of dengue fever cases in Karachi. PC1 for all the period is General atmospheric condition. PC2 for dengue period is contrast between precipitation and wind speed. PC3 is the weighted difference between maximum temperature and wind speed. PC4 for dengue period contrast between maximum and wind speed. Negative binomial and Poisson regression model are used to correlate the dengue fever incidence to climatic variable and principal component score. Relative humidity is estimated to positively influence on the chances of dengue occurrence by 1.71% times. Maximum temperature positively influence on the chances dengue occurrence by 19.48% times. Minimum temperature affects positively on the chances of dengue occurrence by 11.51% times. Wind speed is effecting negatively on the weekly occurrence of dengue fever by 7.41% times.

Keywords: principal component analysis, dengue fever, negative binomial regression model, poisson regression model

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193 Risk Factors for Severe Typhoid Fever in Children: A French Retrospective Study about 78 Cases from 2000-2017 in Six Parisian Hospitals

Authors: Jonathan Soliman, Thomas Cavasino, Virginie Pommelet, Lahouari Amor, Pierre Mornand, Simon Escoda, Nina Droz, Soraya Matczak, Julie Toubiana, François Angoulvant, Etienne Carbonnelle, Albert Faye, Loic de Pontual, Luu-Ly Pham

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Background: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are systemic infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or paratyphi (A, B, C). Children traveling to tropical areas are at risk to contract these diseases which can be complicated. Methods: Clinical, biological and bacteriological data were collected from 78 pediatric cases reported between 2000 and 2017 in six Parisian hospitals. Children aged 0 to 18 years old, with a diagnosis of typhoid or paratyphoid fever confirmed by bacteriological exams, were included. Epidemiologic, clinical, biological features and presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria or intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (nalidixic acid resistant) were examined by univariate analysis and by logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of severe typhoid in children. Results: 84,6% of the children were imported cases of typhoid fever (n=66/78) and 15,4% were autochthonous cases (n=12/78). 89,7% were caused by S.typhi (n=70/78) and 12,8% by S.paratyphi (n=10/78) including 2 co-infections. 19,2% were intrafamilial cases (n=15/78). Median age at diagnosis was 6,4 years-old [6 months-17,9 years]. 28,2% of the cases were complicated forms (n=22/78): digestive (n=8; 10,3%), neurological (n=7; 9%), pulmonary complications (n=4; 5,1%) and hemophagocytic syndrome (n=4; 5,1%). Only 5% of the children had prior immunization with typhoid non-conjugated vaccine (n=4/78). 28% of the cases (n=22/78) were caused by resistant bacteria. Thrombocytopenia and diagnosis delay was significantly associated with severe infection (p= 0.029 and p=0,01). Complicated forms were more common with MDR (p=0,1) and not statistically associated with a young age or sex in this study. Conclusions: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are not rare in children back from tropical areas. This multicentric pediatric study seems to show that thrombocytopenia, diagnosis delay, and multidrug resistant bacteria are associated with severe typhoid fever and complicated forms in children.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, children, Salmonella enterica typhi and paratyphi, severe typhoid

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192 A Rare Case of Atypical Guillian-Barre Syndrome Following Antecedent Dengue Infection

Authors: Amlan Datta

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Dengue is an arboviral, vector borne infection, quite prevalent in tropical countries such as India. Approximately, 1 to 25% of cases may give rise to neurological complication, such as, seizure, delirium, Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS), multiple cranial nerve palsies, intracranial thrombosis, stroke-like presentations, to name a few. Dengue fever, as an antecedent to GBS is uncommon, especially in adults.Here, we report a case about a middle aged lady who presented with an acute onset areflexic ascending type of polyradiculoneuropathy along with bilateral lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy, as well as abducens and motor component of trigeminal (V3) weakness. Her respiratory and neck muscles were spared. She had an established episode of dengue fever (NS1 and dengue IgM positive) 7 days prior to the weakness. Nerve conduction study revealed a demyelinating polyradiculopathy of both lower limbs and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytological dissociation. She was treated with 5 days of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), following which her limb weakness improved considerably. This case highlights GBS as a potential complication following dengue fever.

Keywords: areflexic, demyelinating, dengue, polyradiculoneuropathy

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191 Sanitary Measures in Piggeries, Awareness and Risk Factors of African Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe

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A study was conducted to determine the level of compliance with sanitary measures in piggeries, and awareness and risk factors of African swine fever in Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to 74 respondents consisting of piggery owners and attendants in different piggeries across 12 LGAs to collect data for this study. Sanitary measures in piggeries were observed to be generally very poor, though respondents admitted being aware of ASF. Piggeries located within a 1 km radius of a slaughter slab (OR=9.2, 95% CI - 3.0-28.8), piggeries near refuse dump sites (OR=3.0, 95% CI - 1.0-9.5) and piggeries where farm workers wear their work clothes outside of the piggery premises (OR=0.2, 95% CI - 0.1-0.7) showed higher chances of ASFV infection and were significantly associated (p < 0.0001), (p < 0.05) and (p < 0.01), and were identified as potential risk factors. The study concluded that pigs in Benue State are still at risk of an ASF outbreak. Proper sanitary and hygienic practices is advocated and emphasized in piggeries, while routine surveillance for ASFV antibodies in pigs in Benue State is strongly recommended to provide a reliable reference data base to plan for the prevention of any devastating ASF outbreak.

Keywords: African swine fever, awareness, piggery, risk factors, sanitary measures

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190 Clinical, Demographic and Molecular Characterization of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fever in North India

Authors: Suruchi Shukla, Shantanu Prakash, Amita Jain

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Introduction: Arboviral diseases are one of the most common causes of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). Of which, Dengue and Chikungunya pose a significant health problem in India. Arbovirus has a tendency to cross the territories and emerge in the new region. Considering the above issues, in the current study active surveillance was conducted among viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) cases reported from Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. We studied the arboviral etiology of VHF; mainly Dengue, Chikungunya, and ZIKA. Methods: Clinical samples of 465 suspected VHF cases referred to tertiary care referral center of UP, India were enrolled in the study during a period from 15th May 2016 to 9th March 2018. Serum specimens were collected and analyzed for the presence of Dengue, Chikungunya, and ZIKA either by serology and/or by molecular assays. Results: Of all tested, 165 (35.4%) cases were positive for either Dengue or Chikungunya. Dengue (21.2%) was found to be the most prevalent, followed by Chikungunya, (6.6%). None of the cases tested positive for ZIKA virus. Serum samples of 35 (7.5%) cases were positive for both Dengue and Chikungunya. DEN-2 serotype was the most predominant serotype. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of DEN-2 strains showed 100% clustering with the Cosmopolitan genotype strain. Bleeding from several sites, jaundice, abdominal pain, arthralgia, haemoconcentration, and thrombocytopenia were significantly higher in dengue hemorrhagic cases. However, the rash was significantly more common in Chikungunya patients. Most of the Dengue and Chikungunya positive cases (Age group 6-40 years) were seen in post monsoon season (September to November). Conclusion: Only one-third of total VHF cases are positive for either Dengue/Chikungunya or both. This necessitates the screening of other etiologies capable of causing hemorrhagic manifestations.

Keywords: viral hemorrhagic fever, dengue, chikungunya, zika, India

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189 Ultrasound as an Aid to Predict the Onset of Leaking in Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Experience of a Dengue Treatment Facility in South Asia

Authors: Hasn Perera, Is Almeida, Hnk Perera, Mzf Mohammed, Ade Silva, H. Wijesinghe, Ajal Fernando

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Introduction: Dengue is a major Public Health burden of two clinical entities, Dengue Fever & Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The vast majority of dengue deaths occur in DHF patients, where the diagnosis hinges on the presence of fluid leakage. Limited Ultrasound Scans (USS) of chest and abdomen are used widely at Centre for Clinical Management of Dengue & Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (CCMDDHF), as the primary method for detecting fluid leaking in DHF. This study analyses the relationship between haematological and USS findings at the onset of leaking and to further determine the usefulness of ultrasound in diagnosing DHF. Methods: A prospective analysis of 80 serologically confirmed dengue patients initially admitted to a General Medical and Paediatric wards who were subsequently transferred to the CCMDDHF from March to September 2017 were analysed. In addition to repeated blood counts and capillary haematocrits’, serial USS were done to detect the onset fluid leaking by three competent and experienced doctors at CCMDDHF. Results: 80 patients (male: female: 38:42) with a mean age of 20 years (SD ±16.8, range 3-74) were evaluated. Dropping of platelet counts below 100,000 and haematocrit rise towards 20% started 4±1.3 day of fever with a mean platelet value of 69x103(range17-98x103). Gallbladder wall thickening was the commonest (98.7%) USS finding followed by fluid in hepato-renal pouch (95%), pelvic fluid (58.7%), right-sided pleural effusion (35%), bilateral effusions (7.5%). USS evidence of plasma leakage was detected in 11.25 %( n=9) of DHF cases from 1 day before significant haematocrit rise was noted. 35 (43.7%) patients with lowering platelets and haematocrit rise showed no objective evidence of plasma leaking on ultrasound scan. Conclusion: This outbreak underscores the importance of USS as a useful, sensitive and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of suspected DHF cases, facilitating the tracking of progress of leaking and management of epidemics.

Keywords: dengue, ultrasound, plasma leaking, South Asia

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188 Horse Exposition to Coxiella burnetii in France: Antibody Dynamics in Serum, Environmental Risk Assessment and Potential Links with Symptomatology

Authors: Joulié Aurélien, Isabelle Desjardins, Elsa Jourdain, Sophie Pradier, Dufour Philippe, Elodie Rousset, Agnès Leblond

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Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It may infect a broad range of host species, including horses. Although the role of horses in C. burnetii infections remains unknown, their use as sentinel species may be interesting to better assess the human risk exposure. Thus, we aimed to assess the C. burnetii horse exposition in a French endemic area by describing the antibody dynamics detected in serum; investigating the pathogen circulation in the horse environment, and exploring potential links with unexplained syndromes. Blood samples were collected in 2015 and 2016 on 338 and 294 horses, respectively and analyzed by ELISA. Ticks collected on horses were identified, and C. burnetii DNA detection was performed by qPCR targeting the IS1111 gene. Blood sample analyses revealed a significant increase of the seroprevalence in horses between both years, from 11% [7.67; 14.43] to 25% [20.06; 29.94]. On 36 seropositive horses in 2015 and 73 in 2016, 5 and four respectively showed clinical signs compatible with a C. burnetii infection (i.e., chronic fever or respiratory disorders, unfitness and unexplained weight loss). DNA was detected in almost 40% of ticks (n=59/148 in 2015 and n=103/305 in 2016) and exceptionally in dust samples (n=2/46 in 2015 and n=1/14 in 2016) every year. The C. burnetti detection in both the serum and the environment of horses confirm their exposure to the bacterium. Therefore, consideration should be given to target a relevant sentinel species to better assess the Q fever surveillance depending on the epidemiological context.

Keywords: ELISA, Q fever, qPCR, syndromic surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 196