Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Vijayarangan Natarajan

28 Easily Memorable Strong Password Generation and Retrieval

Authors: Shatadru Das, Natarajan Vijayarangan


In this paper, a system and method for generating and recovering an authorization code has been designed and analyzed. The system creates an authorization code by accepting a base-sentence from a user. Based on the characters present in this base-sentence, the system computes a base-sentence matrix. The system also generates a plurality of patterns. The user can either select the pattern from the multiple patterns suggested by the system or can create his/her own pattern. The system then performs multiplications between the base-sentence matrix and the selected pattern matrix at different stages in the path forward, for obtaining a strong authorization code. In case the user forgets the base sentence, the system has a provision to manage and retrieve 'forgotten authorization code'. This is done by fragmenting the base sentence into different matrices and storing the fragmented matrices into a repository after computing matrix multiplication with a security question-answer approach and with a secret key provided by the user.

Keywords: easy authentication, key retrieval, memorable passwords, strong password generation

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27 Efficient Storage and Intelligent Retrieval of Multimedia Streams Using H. 265

Authors: S. Sarumathi, C. Deepadharani, Garimella Archana, S. Dakshayani, D. Logeshwaran, D. Jayakumar, Vijayarangan Natarajan


The need of the hour for the customers who use a dial-up or a low broadband connection for their internet services is to access HD video data. This can be achieved by developing a new video format using H. 265. This is the latest video codec standard developed by ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) on April 2013. This new standard for video compression has the potential to deliver higher performance than the earlier standards such as H. 264/AVC. In comparison with H. 264, HEVC offers a clearer, higher quality image at half the original bitrate. At this lower bitrate, it is possible to transmit high definition videos using low bandwidth. It doubles the data compression ratio supporting 8K Ultra HD and resolutions up to 8192×4320. In the proposed model, we design a new video format which supports this H. 265 standard. The major areas of applications in the coming future would lead to enhancements in the performance level of digital television like Tata Sky and Sun Direct, BluRay Discs, Mobile Video, Video Conferencing and Internet and Live Video streaming.

Keywords: access HD video, H. 265 video standard, high performance, high quality image, low bandwidth, new video format, video streaming applications

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26 Solving One of the Variants of Necktie Paradox for Business Proposals

Authors: Natarajan Vijayarangan, Viswanath Kumar Ganesan, G. Kumudhavalli


This abstract figures out an uncertainty problem pertaining to evaluating business proposals or concept notes in an organisation. Let us consider business proposal evaluation process (BPEP) for execution of corporate research cum business projects in the organisation. Assume that two concept notes X and Y of BPEP are approved: one of them is a full-fledged type (100% financial approval given by the organisation) - X and other one is a conditional type (a partial financial approval given by the organisation) - Y. Then a penalty criteria has been introduced during the process. At the end of annual appraisal, if both of them complete as per the goals and objectives committed or figured out at the time of concept note submission, then both will get an incentive of $N from the organisation. If one of them doesn't fulfill the goals and objectives at the year-end appraisal, then d% reduction or cut will be levied on the project budget for the next year. If X fulfills the goals and objectives and Y doesn't , then X gets a gain of d% on Y's previous year budget and Y gets a loss of d% from the previous year budget for the next year. And vice-versa. Further, an incentive of $N will be given to those who gains. This process is a part of Necktie paradox and inherits an uncertainty principle on X or Y getting more than $N even if X or Y performs well.Solving the above problem and generalizing on finitely many concept notes will be a challenging task.

Keywords: concept notes, necktie paradox, annual appraisal, project budget and gain or loss

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25 Linearization and Process Standardization of Construction Design Engineering Workflows

Authors: T.R. Sreeram, S.Natarajan, C Jena


Civil engineering construction is a network of tasks involving varying degree of complexity and streamlining, and standardization is the only way to establish a systemic approach to design. While there are off the shelf tools such as AutoCAD that play a role in the realization of design, the repeatable process in which these tools are deployed often is ignored. The present paper addresses this challenge through a sustainable design process and effective standardizations at all stages in the design workflow. The same is demonstrated through a case study in the context of construction, and further improvement points are highlighted.

Keywords: syste, lean, value stream, process improvement

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24 Care: A Cluster Based Approach for Reliable and Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Prasanth, S. Hafeezullah Khan, B. Haribalakrishnan, D. Arun, S. Jayapriya, S. Dhivya, N. Vijayarangan


The main goal of our approach is to find the optimum positions for the sensor nodes, reinforcing the communications in points where certain lack of connectivity is found. Routing is the major problem in sensor network’s data transfer between nodes. We are going to provide an efficient routing technique to make data signal transfer to reach the base station soon without any interruption. Clustering and routing are the two important key factors to be considered in case of WSN. To carry out the communication from the nodes to their cluster head, we propose a parameterizable protocol so that the developer can indicate if the routing has to be sensitive to either the link quality of the nodes or the their battery levels.

Keywords: clusters, routing, wireless sensor networks, three phases, sensor networks

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23 Technology Computer Aided Design Simulation of Space Charge Limited Conduction in Polycrystalline Thin Films

Authors: Kunj Parikh, S. Bhattacharya, V. Natarajan


TCAD numerical simulation is one of the most tried and tested powerful tools for designing devices in semiconductor foundries worldwide. It has also been used to explain conduction in organic thin films where the processing temperature is often enough to make homogeneous samples (often imperfect, but homogeneously imperfect). In this report, we have presented the results of TCAD simulation in multi-grain thin films. The work has addressed the inhomogeneity in one dimension, but can easily be extended to two and three dimensions. The effect of grain boundaries has mainly been approximated as barriers located at the junction between two adjacent grains. The effect of the value of grain boundary barrier, the bulk traps, and the measurement temperature have been investigated.

Keywords: polycrystalline thin films, space charge limited conduction, Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulation, traps

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22 Sewage Induced Behavioural Responses in an Air-Breathing Fish, Pangasius pangasius

Authors: Sasikala Govindaraj, P. Palanisamy, G. M. Natarajan


Domestic sewage poses major threats to the aquatic environment in third world countries due to lack of technical and economic sources which can have significant impacts on fish. The tolerance limits to toxicants found in domestic effluents vary among species and their integrative effects may lead to reproductive failure and reduction of survival and growth of the more sensitive fish species. The mechanism of action of toxic substances upon various concentrations of sewage was taken aiming to evaluate locomotory, physiological, neurological and morbidity response of fish. The rapid biomonitoring assessment technique for qualitative evaluation of various industrial pollutants, behavioral responses of an air-breathing fish Pangasius pangasius were used as biomarkers for water quality assessment. The present investigation concluded that sewage is highly toxic to the fish and severely affects their physiology and behavior.

Keywords: air-breathing organs, behavioral, locomotory, morbidity, neurological, physiological, sewage

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21 Learning for the Future: Flipping English Language Learning Classrooms for Future

Authors: Natarajan Hema, Tamilarasan Karunakaran


Technology is remodeling the process of teaching and learning. An inflection point is faced where technological interventions are rewiring learning process in formal classrooms. Employment depends on dynamic learning capability. Transforming the functionalities of teaching-learning-assessment through innovation is needed to modify the roles of teacher to enabler and learner to the dynamic learner. This makeover is vital for English language teaching where English is acquired as a skill, exercised as ability and get stabilized as a competence. This reshaping could be achieved through providing autonomy to participants of learning. This paper explores parameters and components aiding such a transformation. The differentiated responsibilities and other critical learning support systems are projected as viable options. New age teaching practices are studied for feasibilities to aid transformation and being put forth an inter-operable teaching-learning system for a learner-centric ELT classrooms. LOTUS model developed by the authors is also studied for its inclusiveness to promote skill acquisition.

Keywords: ELT methodology, communicative competence, skill acquisition , new age teaching

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20 An Authentication Protocol for Quantum Enabled Mobile Devices

Authors: Natarajan Venkatachalam, Subrahmanya V. R. K. Rao, Vijay Karthikeyan Dhandapani, Swaminathan Saravanavel


The quantum communication technology is an evolving design which connects multiple quantum enabled devices to internet for secret communication or sensitive information exchange. In future, the number of these compact quantum enabled devices will increase immensely making them an integral part of present communication systems. Therefore, safety and security of such devices is also a major concern for us. To ensure the customer sensitive information will not be eavesdropped or deciphered, we need a strong authentications and encryption mechanism. In this paper, we propose a mutual authentication scheme between these smart quantum devices and server based on the secure exchange of information through quantum channel which gives better solutions for symmetric key exchange issues. An important part of this work is to propose a secure mutual authentication protocol over the quantum channel. We show that our approach offers robust authentication protocol and further our solution is lightweight, scalable, cost-effective with optimized computational processing overheads.

Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, wireless quantum communication, authentication protocol, quantum enabled device, trusted third party

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
19 System of Quality Automation for Documents (SQAD)

Authors: R. Babi Saraswathi, K. Divya, A. Habeebur Rahman, D. B. Hari Prakash, S. Jayanth, T. Kumar, N. Vijayarangan


Document automation is the design of systems and workflows, assembling repetitive documents to meet the specific business needs. In any organization or institution, documenting employee’s information is very important for both employees as well as management. It shows an individual’s progress to the management. Many documents of the employee are in the form of papers, so it is very difficult to arrange and for future reference we need to spend more time in getting the exact document. Also, it is very tedious to generate reports according to our needs. The process gets even more difficult on getting approvals and hence lacks its security aspects. This project overcomes the above-stated issues. By storing the details in the database and maintaining the e-documents, the automation system reduces the manual work to a large extent. Then the approval process of some important documents can be done in a much-secured manner by using Digital Signature and encryption techniques. Details are maintained in the database and e-documents are stored in specific folders and generation of various kinds of reports is possible. Moreover, an efficient search method is implemented is used in the database. Automation supporting document maintenance in many aspects is useful for minimize data entry, reduce the time spent on proof-reading, avoids duplication, and reduce the risks associated with the manual error, etc.

Keywords: e-documents, automation, digital signature, encryption

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18 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko


A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: activated carbon, pseudo second order, chromium, lead, Elovich model

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17 Near Infrared Spectrometry to Determine the Quality of Milk, Experimental Design Setup and Chemometrics: Review

Authors: Meghana Shankara, Priyadarshini Natarajan


Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has revolutionized the way we look at materials around us. Unraveling the pattern in the molecular spectra of materials to analyze the composition and properties of it has been one of the most interesting challenges in modern science. Applications of the IR spectrometry are numerous in the field’s pharmaceuticals, health, food and nutrition, oils, agriculture, construction, polymers, beverage, fabrics and much more limited only by the curiosity of the people. Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometry is applied robustly in analyzing the solids and liquid substances because of its non-destructive analysis method. In this paper, we have reviewed the application of NIR spectrometry in milk quality analysis and have presented the modes of measurement applied in NIRS measurement setup, Design of Experiment (DoE), classification/quantification algorithms used in the case of milk composition prediction like Fat%, Protein%, Lactose%, Solids Not Fat (SNF%) along with different approaches for adulterant identification. We have also discussed the important NIR ranges for the chosen milk parameters. The performance metrics used in the comparison of the various Chemometric approaches include Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), R^2, slope, offset, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy

Keywords: chemometrics, design of experiment, milk quality analysis, NIRS measurement modes

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16 Simulation of Particle Damping in Boring Tool Using Combined Particles

Authors: S. Chockalingam, U. Natarajan, D. M. Santhoshsarang


Particle damping is a promising vibration attenuating technique in boring tool than other type of damping with minimal effect on the strength, rigidity and stiffness ratio of the machine tool structure. Due to the cantilever nature of boring tool holder in operations, it suffers chatter when the slenderness ratio of the tool gets increased. In this study, Copper-Stainless steel (SS) particles were packed inside the boring tool which acts as a damper. Damper suppresses chatter generated during machining and also improves the machining efficiency of the tool with better slenderness ratio. In the first approach of particle damping, combined Cu-SS particles were packed inside the vibrating tool, whereas Copper and Stainless steel particles were selected separately and packed inside another tool and their effectiveness was analysed in this simulation. This study reveals that the efficiency of finite element simulation of the boring tools when equipped with particles such as copper, stainless steel and a combination of both. In this study, the newly modified boring tool holder with particle damping was simulated using ANSYS12.0 with and without particles. The aim of this study is to enhance the structural rigidity through particle damping thus avoiding the occurrence of resonance in the boring tool during machining.

Keywords: boring bar, copper-stainless steel, chatter, particle damping

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15 Application of GPRS in Water Quality Monitoring System

Authors: V. Ayishwarya Bharathi, S. M. Hasker, J. Indhu, M. Mohamed Azarudeen, G. Gowthami, R. Vinoth Rajan, N. Vijayarangan


Identification of water quality conditions in a river system based on limited observations is an essential task for meeting the goals of environmental management. The traditional method of water quality testing is to collect samples manually and then send to laboratory for analysis. However, it has been unable to meet the demands of water quality monitoring today. So a set of automatic measurement and reporting system of water quality has been developed. In this project specifies Water quality parameters collected by multi-parameter water quality probe are transmitted to data processing and monitoring center through GPRS wireless communication network of mobile. The multi parameter sensor is directly placed above the water level. The monitoring center consists of GPRS and micro-controller which monitor the data. The collected data can be monitor at any instant of time. In the pollution control board they will monitor the water quality sensor data in computer using Visual Basic Software. The system collects, transmits and processes water quality parameters automatically, so production efficiency and economy benefit are improved greatly. GPRS technology can achieve well within the complex environment of poor water quality non-monitored, and more specifically applicable to the collection point, data transmission automatically generate the field of water analysis equipment data transmission and monitoring.

Keywords: multiparameter sensor, GPRS, visual basic software, RS232

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14 Arithmetic Operations Based on Double Base Number Systems

Authors: K. Sanjayani, C. Saraswathy, S. Sreenivasan, S. Sudhahar, D. Suganya, K. S. Neelukumari, N. Vijayarangan


Double Base Number System (DBNS) is an imminent system of representing a number using two bases namely 2 and 3, which has its application in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) and Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA).The previous binary method representation included only base 2. DBNS uses an approximation algorithm namely, Greedy Algorithm. By using this algorithm, the number of digits required to represent a larger number is less when compared to the standard binary method that uses base 2 algorithms. Hence, the computational speed is increased and time being reduced. The standard binary method uses binary digits 0 and 1 to represent a number whereas the DBNS method uses binary digit 1 alone to represent any number (canonical form). The greedy algorithm uses two ways to represent the number, one is by using only the positive summands and the other is by using both positive and negative summands. In this paper, arithmetic operations are used for elliptic curve cryptography. Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem is the foundation for most of the day to day elliptic curve cryptography. This appears to be a momentous hard slog compared to digital logarithm problem. In elliptic curve digital signature algorithm, the key generation requires 160 bit of data by usage of standard binary representation. Whereas, the number of bits required generating the key can be reduced with the help of double base number representation. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to generate key during encryption and extraction of key in decryption.

Keywords: cryptography, double base number system, elliptic curve cryptography, elliptic curve digital signature algorithm

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13 Detection of Fuel Theft and Vehicle Position Using Third Party Monitoring Software

Authors: P. Senthilraja, C. Rukumani Khandhan, M. Palaniappan, S. L. Rama, P. Sai Sushimitha, R. Madhan, J. Vinumathi, N. Vijayarangan


Nowadays, the logistics achieve a vast improvement in efficient delivery of goods. The technology improvement also helps to improve its development, but still the owners of transport vehicles face problems, i.e., fuel theft in vehicles by the drivers or by an unknown person. There is no proper solution to overcome the problems. This scheme is to determine the amount of fuel that has been stolen and also to determine the position of the vehicle at a particular time using the technologies like GPS, GSM, ultrasonic fuel level sensor and numeric lock system. The ultrasonic sensor uses the ultrasonic waves to calculate the height of the tank up to which the fuel is available. Based on height it is possible to calculate the amount of fuel. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system. The scientific community uses GPS for its precision timing capability and position information. The GSM provides the periodic information about the fuel level. A numeric lock system has been provided for fuel tank opening lever. A password is provided to access the fuel tank lever and this is authenticated only by the driver and the owner. Once the fuel tank is opened an alert is sent to owner through a SMS including the timing details. Third party monitoring software is a user interface that updates the information automatically into the database which helps to retrieve the data as and when required. Third party monitoring software provides vehicle’s information to the owner and also shows the status of the vehicle. The techniques that are to be proposed will provide an efficient output. This project helps to overcome the theft and hence to put forth fuel economy.

Keywords: fuel theft, third party monitoring software, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
12 An Overview of Electronic Waste as Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: S. R. Shamili, C. Natarajan, J. Karthikeyan


Rapid growth of world population and widespread urbanization has remarkably increased the development of the construction industry which caused a huge demand for sand and gravels. Environmental problems occur when the rate of extraction of sand, gravels, and other materials exceeds the rate of generation of natural resources; therefore, an alternative source is essential to replace the materials used in concrete. Now-a-days, electronic products have become an integral part of daily life which provides more comfort, security, and ease of exchange of information. These electronic waste (E-Waste) materials have serious human health concerns and require extreme care in its disposal to avoid any adverse impacts. Disposal or dumping of these E-Wastes also causes major issues because it is highly complex to handle and often contains highly toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, brominates flame retardants (BFRs), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and phosphorus compounds. Hence, E-Waste can be incorporated in concrete to make a sustainable environment. This paper deals with the composition, preparation, properties, classification of E-Waste. All these processes avoid dumping to landfills whilst conserving natural aggregate resources, and providing a better environmental option. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on the behaviour of concrete with incorporation of E-Wastes. Many research shows the strong possibility of using E-Waste as a substitute of aggregates eventually it reduces the use of natural aggregates in concrete.

Keywords: dumping, electronic waste, landfill, toxic chemicals

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11 COVID-19: The Cause or the Confounder

Authors: Praveenkumar Natarajan


A 59-year-old male with no known co-morbidities was admitted to a private hospital for complaints of fever and cough and was diagnosed to haveCOVID-19. CT of the thorax revealed the involvement of 50% of the lungs. Screening ECG and ECHO were normal. The patient was treated with oxygen therapy and drugs and was discharged after 12 days of admission. Post-discharge, the patient remained symptom-free and continued his work. After one month, the patient developed a fever for three days, for which he took antipyretics. Subsequently, the patient developed sudden onset breathlessness, which rapidly progressed to grade 4 NYHA, and developed a cough as well. Suspecting COVID-19 reinfection, the patient visited a nearby hospital, where COVID–19 rt-PCR swabs turned out to be positive, and was referred to our hospital. On receiving, the patient had diffuse lung crepitations and a diastolic murmur in the neo-aortic area. CT thorax revealed pulmonary edema with areas of consolidation. ECHO revealed vegetation on the aortic valve with severe aortic regurgitation. Blood cultures were taken, which revealed the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made, and the patient was started on appropriate treatment. COVID–19 has effects on various systems, including the cardiovascular system. Even though infective endocarditis is common in the elderly with valvular heart disease, this patient had developed infective endocarditis in an apparently normal aortic valve. Infective endocarditis and COVID–19 can have similar presentations leading to diagnostic difficulties. COVID–19, affecting the heart valves causing valvulitis and predisposing them to the development of infective endocarditis, is also an area to be explored.

Keywords: aortic regurgitation, COVID-19, infective endocarditis, valvulitis

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10 Mobi Navi Tour for Rescue Operations

Authors: V. R. Sadasivam, M. Vipin, P. Vineeth, M. Sajith, G. Sathiskumar, R. Manikandan, N. Vijayarangan


Global positioning system technology is what leads to such things as navigation systems, GPS tracking devices, GPS surveying and GPS mapping. All that GPS does is provide a set of coordinates which represent the location of GPS units with respect to its latitude, longitude and elevation on planet Earth. It also provides time, which is accurate. The tracking devices themselves come in different flavors. They will contain a GPS receiver, and GPS software, along with some way of transmitting the resulting coordinates. GPS in mobile tend to use radio waves to transmit their location to another GPS device. The purpose of this prototype “Mobi Navi Tour for Rescue Operation” timely communication, and lightning fast decision-making with a group of people located in different places with a common goal. Timely communication and tracking the people are a critical issue in many situations, environments. Expedited can find missing person by sending the location and other related information to them through mobile. Information must be drawn from the caller and entered into the system by the administrator or a group leader and transferred to the group leader. This system will locate the closest available person, a group of people working in an organization/company or vehicle to determine availability and their position to track them. Misinformation cannot lead to the wrong decision in the rapidly paced environment in a normal and an abnormal situation. In “Mobi Navi Tour for Rescue Operation” we use Google Cloud Messaging for android (GCM) which is a service that helps developers send data from servers to their android applications on android devices. The service provides a simple, lightweight mechanism that servers can use to tell mobile applications to contact the server directly, to fetch updated application or user data.

Keywords: android, gps, tour, communication, service

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9 A Policy Strategy for Building Energy Data Management in India

Authors: Shravani Itkelwar, Deepak Tewari, Bhaskar Natarajan


The energy consumption data plays a vital role in energy efficiency policy design, implementation, and impact assessment. Any demand-side energy management intervention's success relies on the availability of accurate, comprehensive, granular, and up-to-date data on energy consumption. The Building sector, including residential and commercial, is one of the largest consumers of energy in India after the Industrial sector. With economic growth and increasing urbanization, the building sector is projected to grow at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a 5.6 times escalation in energy consumption till 2047 compared to 2017. Therefore, energy efficiency interventions will play a vital role in decoupling the floor area growth and associated energy demand, thereby increasing the need for robust data. In India, multiple institutions are involved in the collection and dissemination of data. This paper focuses on energy consumption data management in the building sector in India for both residential and commercial segments. It evaluates the robustness of data available through administrative and survey routes to estimate the key performance indicators and identify critical data gaps for making informed decisions. The paper explores several issues in the data, such as lack of comprehensiveness, non-availability of disaggregated data, the discrepancy in different data sources, inconsistent building categorization, and others. The identified data gaps are justified with appropriate examples. Moreover, the paper prioritizes required data in order of relevance to policymaking and groups it into "available," "easy to get," and "hard to get" categories. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the data gaps by leveraging digital initiatives, strengthening institutional capacity, institutionalizing exclusive building energy surveys, and standardization of building categorization, among others, to strengthen the management of building sector energy consumption data.

Keywords: energy data, energy policy, energy efficiency, buildings

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8 Manganese Imidazole Complexes: Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production

Authors: Vishakha Kaim, Mookan Natarajan, Sandeep Kaur-Ghumaan


Hydrogen is one of the most abundant elements present on earth’s crust and considered to be the simplest element in existence. It is not found naturally as a gas on earth and thus has to be manufactured. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of sources, i.e., water, fossil fuels, or biomass and it is a byproduct of many chemical processes. It is also considered as a secondary source of energy commonly referred to as an energy carrier. Though hydrogen is not widely used as a fuel, it still has the potential for greater use in the future as a clean and renewable source of energy. Electrocatalysis is one of the important source for the production of hydrogen which could contribute to this prominent challenge. Metals such as platinum and palladium are considered efficient for hydrogen production but with limited applications. As a result, a wide variety of metal complexes with earth abundant elements and varied ligand environments have been explored for the electrochemical production of hydrogen. In nature, [FeFe] hydrogenase enzyme present in DesulfoVibrio desulfuricans and Clostridium pasteurianum catalyses the reversible interconversion of protons and electrons into dihydrogen. Since the first structure for the enzyme was reported in 1990s, a range of iron complexes has been synthesized as structural and functional mimics of the enzyme active site. Mn is one of the most desirable element for sustainable catalytic transformations, immediately behind Fe and Ti. Only limited number manganese complexes have been reported in the last two decades as catalysts for proton reduction. Furthermore, redox reactions could be carried out in a facile manner, due to the capability of manganese complexes to be stable at different oxidation states. Herein are reported, four µ2-thiolate bridged manganese complexes [Mn₂(CO)₆(μ-S₂N₄C₁₄H₁₀)] 1, [Mn₂(CO)7(μ- S₂N₄C₁₄H₁₀)] 2, Mn₂(CO)₆(μ-S₄N₂C₁₄H₁₀)] 3 and [Mn₂(CO)(μ- S₄N₂C₁₄H₁₀)] 4 have been synthesized and characterized. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes displayed irreversible reduction peaks in the range - 0.9 to -1.3 V (vs. Fc⁺/Fc in acetonitrile at 0.1 Vs⁻¹). The complexes were catalytically active towards proton reduction in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid as seen from electrochemical investigations.

Keywords: earth abundant, electrocatalytic, hydrogen, manganese

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7 Effect of Simulation on Anxiety and Knowledge among Novice Nursing Students

Authors: Suja Karkada, Jayanthi Radhakrishnan, Jansi Natarajan, Gerald, Amandu Matua, Sujatha Shanmugasundaram


Simulation-based learning is an educational strategy designed to simulate actual clinical situations in a safe environment. Globally, simulation is recognized by several landmark studies as an effective teaching-learning method. A systematic review of the literature on simulation revealed simulation as a useful strategy in creating a learning environment which contributes to knowledge, skills, safety, and confidence. However, to the best of the author's knowledge, there are no studies on assessing the anxiety of the students undergoing simulation. Hence the researchers undertook a study with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of simulation on anxiety and knowledge among novice nursing students. This quasi-experimental study had a total sample of 69 students (35- Intervention group with simulation and 34- Control group with case scenario) consisting of all the students enrolled in the Fundamentals of Nursing Laboratory course during Spring 2016 and Fall 2016 semesters at a college of nursing in Oman. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the college of nursing. Informed consent was obtained from every participant. Study received the Dean’s fund for research. The data were collected regarding the demographic information, knowledge and anxiety levels before and after the use of simulation and case scenario for the procedure nasogastric tube feeding in intervention and control group respectively. The intervention was performed by four faculties who were the core team members of the course. Results were analyzed in SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of the students’ in intervention (82.9%) and control (89.9%) groups were equal to or below the age of 20 years, were females (71%), 76.8% of them were from rural areas and 65.2% had a GPA of more than 2.5. The selection of the samples to either the experimental or the control group was from a homogenous population (p > 0.05). There was a significant reduction of anxiety among the students of control group (t (67) = 2.418, p = 0.018) comparing to the experimental group, indicating that simulation creates anxiety among Novice nursing students. However, there was no significant difference in the mean scores of knowledge. In conclusion, the study was useful in that it will help the investigators better understand the implications of using simulation in teaching skills to novice students. Since previous studies with students indicate better knowledge acquisition; this study revealed that simulation can increase anxiety among novice students possibly it is the first time they are introduced to this method of teaching.

Keywords: anxiety, knowledge, novice students, simulation

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6 Management of Third Stage Labour in a Rural Ugandan Hospital

Authors: Brid Dinnee, Jessica Taylor, Joseph Hartland, Michael Natarajan


Background:The third stage of labour (TSL) can be complicated by Post-Partum Haemorrhage (PPH), which can have a significant impact on maternal mortality and morbidity. In Africa, 33.9% of maternal deaths are attributable to PPH1. In order to minimise this figure, current recommendations for the developing world are that all women have active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL). The aim of this project was to examine TSL practice in a rural Ugandan Hospital, highlight any deviation from best practice and identify barriers to change in resource limited settings as part of a 4th year medical student External Student Selected Component field trip. Method: Five key elements from the current World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines on AMTSL were used to develop an audit tool. All daytime vaginal deliveries over a two week period in July 2016 were audited. In addition to this, a retrospective comparison of PPH rates, between 2006 (when ubiquitous use of intramuscular oxytocin for management of TSL was introduced) and 2015 was performed. Results: Eight vaginal deliveries were observed; at all of which intramuscular oxytocin was administered and controlled cord traction used. Against WHO recommendation, all umbilical cords were clamped within one minute, and no infants received early skin-to-skin contact. In only one case was uterine massage performed after placental delivery. A retrospective comparison of data rates identified a 40% reduction in total number of PPHs from November 2006 to November 2015. Maternal deaths per delivery reduced from 2% to 0.5%. Discussion: Maternal mortality and PPH are still major issues in developing countries. Maternal mortality due to PPH can be reduced by good practices regarding TSL, but not all of these are used in low-resource settings. There is a notable difference in outcomes between the developed and developing world. At Kitovu Hospital, there has been a reduction in maternal mortality and number of PPHs following introduction of IM Oxytocin administration. In order to further improve these rates, staff education and further government funding is key.

Keywords: post-partum haemorrhage, PPH, third stage labour, Uganda

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5 Effectiveness of the Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants to Predict Neuromotor Outcomes of Premature Babies at 12 Months Corrected Age

Authors: Thanooja Naushad, Meena Natarajan, Tushar Vasant Kulkarni


Background: The Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants (LAPI) is used in clinical practice to identify premature babies at risk of neuromotor impairments, especially cerebral palsy. This study attempted to find the validity of the Lacey assessment of preterm infants to predict neuromotor outcomes of premature babies at 12 months corrected age and to compare its predictive ability with the brain ultrasound. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 89 preterm infants (45 females and 44 males) born below 35 weeks gestation who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a government hospital in Dubai. Initial assessment was done using the Lacey assessment after the babies reached 33 weeks postmenstrual age. Follow up assessment on neuromotor outcomes was done at 12 months (± 1 week) corrected age using two standardized outcome measures, i.e., infant neurological international battery and Alberta infant motor scale. Brain ultrasound data were collected retrospectively. Data were statistically analyzed, and the diagnostic accuracy of the Lacey assessment of preterm infants (LAPI) was calculated -when used alone and in combination with the brain ultrasound. Results: On comparison with brain ultrasound, the Lacey assessment showed superior specificity (96% vs. 77%), higher positive predictive value (57% vs. 22%), and higher positive likelihood ratio (18 vs. 3) to predict neuromotor outcomes at one year of age. The sensitivity of Lacey assessment was lower than brain ultrasound (66% vs. 83%), whereas specificity was similar (97% vs. 98%). A combination of Lacey assessment and brain ultrasound results showed higher sensitivity (80%), positive (66%), and negative (98%) predictive values, positive likelihood ratio (24), and test accuracy (95%) than Lacey assessment alone in predicting neurological outcomes. The negative predictive value of the Lacey assessment was similar to that of its combination with brain ultrasound (96%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that the Lacey assessment of preterm infants can be used as a supplementary assessment tool for premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit. Due to its high specificity, Lacey assessment can be used to identify those babies at low risk of abnormal neuromotor outcomes at a later age. When used along with the findings of the brain ultrasound, Lacey assessment has better sensitivity to identify preterm babies at particular risk. These findings have applications in identifying premature babies who may benefit from early intervention services.

Keywords: brain ultrasound, lacey assessment of preterm infants, neuromotor outcomes, preterm

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4 Systematic Study of Structure Property Relationship in Highly Crosslinked Elastomers

Authors: Natarajan Ramasamy, Gurulingamurthy Haralur, Ramesh Nivarthu, Nikhil Kumar Singha


Elastomers are polymeric materials with varied backbone architectures ranging from linear to dendrimeric structures and wide varieties of monomeric repeat units. These elastomers show strongly viscous and weakly elastic when it is not cross-linked. But when crosslinked, based on the extent the properties of these elastomers can range from highly flexible to highly stiff nature. Lightly cross-linked systems are well studied and reported. Understanding the nature of highly cross-linked rubber based upon chemical structure and architecture is critical for varieties of applications. One of the critical parameters is cross-link density. In the current work, we have studied the highly cross-linked state of linear, lightly branched to star-shaped branched elastomers and determined the cross-linked density by using different models. Change in hardness, shift in Tg, change in modulus and swelling behavior were measured experimentally as a function of the extent of curing. These properties were analyzed using varied models to determine cross-link density. We used hardness measurements to examine cure time. Hardness to the extent of curing relationship is determined. It is well known that micromechanical transitions like Tg and storage modulus are related to the extent of crosslinking. The Tg of the elastomer in different crosslinked state was determined by DMA, and based on plateau modulus the crosslink density is estimated by using Nielsen’s model. Usually for lightly crosslinked systems, based on equilibrium swelling ratio in solvent the cross link density is estimated by using Flory–Rhener model. When it comes to highly crosslinked system, Flory-Rhener model is not valid because of smaller chain length. So models based on the assumption of polymer as a Non-Gaussian chain like 1) Helmis–Heinrich–Straube (HHS) model, 2) Gloria M.gusler and Yoram Cohen Model, 3) Barbara D. Barr-Howell and Nikolaos A. Peppas model is used for estimating crosslink density. In this work, correction factors are determined to the existing models and based upon it structure-property relationship of highly crosslinked elastomers was studied.

Keywords: dynamic mechanical analysis, glass transition temperature, parts per hundred grams of rubber, crosslink density, number of networks per unit volume of elastomer

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3 Teenage Pregnancy: The Unmet Needs of Female Adolescents in Uganda

Authors: M. Weller Jones, J. Moffat, J. Taylor, J. Hartland, M. Natarajan


Background: Uganda’s teenage pregnancy rate remains a significant problem for female and maternal health in the country. Teenage pregnancy is linked to higher rates of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, including preterm labour, obstructed labour, vesicovaginal fistulae, infections, and maternal mental health morbidity. In 2015, the National Strategy to End Child Marriage and Teenage Pregnancy was launched in Uganda. Research is needed so that the interventions in this Strategy can be effectively applied at a local level. This study at Kitovu and Villa Maria Hospitals, two local community hospitals near Masaka, Uganda, aimed to measure change in the local teenage pregnancy rate over the past 5 years; and to explore the awareness and attitudes of teenagers and healthcare professionals towards 1) teenage pregnancy and, 2) the challenges female adolescents still currently face. Method: Teenage delivery rate, type of delivery, incidence of complications in labour and neonatal and maternal outcomes were collected from the labour ward admission books, at both hospitals, for a six month time period in 2011 and 2016. At Kitovu Hospital, qualitative data regarding the experience of, and attitudes towards teenage pregnancy was collected from interviews conducted with 12 maternity staff members and with eight female teenagers, aged 16-19, who were pregnant or post-partum. Results: The proportion of total births to teenage mothers fell from 14% in 2011 to 7% in 2016 (Kitovu), but it remains higher in rural locations (19%, Villa Maria). Beliefs about exacerbating factors included: poor access to contraception; misconceptions that contraception is damaging to women’s health; failing sex education in schools; and poor awareness of national campaigns to reduce teenage pregnancy. Staff felt that the best way to tackle teenage pregnancy was to improve sex education in schools and to sensitise families to these issues. Six of the eight teenagers wanted more frequent sex education and easier, cheap access to contraception. Only one teenager saw positive consequences stating that teenage pregnancy would ‘avoid operations later in life.’ Discussion: Teenage pregnancy is a recognised problem and strategies in the Masaka region should focus on improving sex education in schools and initiating an organisation that educates and supplies free contraception to teenagers.

Keywords: adolescents, attitudes, teenage pregnancy, Uganda

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2 Television and Virtual Public Sphere: A Study on Malayali Tribes in Salem District, Tamil Nadu

Authors: P. Viduthalai, A. K. Divakar, V. Natarajan


Media is one of the powerful tools that manipulate the world in numerous aspects especially in the form of a communication process. For instance, the concept of the public sphere, which was earlier represented by landlords and elites has now transformed into a virtual public sphere, which is also represented by marginalized people. Unfortunately, this acquisition is still paradoxical. Though the media proliferation and its effects are humongous, still it has not been the same throughout the world. Inequality in access to media has created a technological divide among people. Finally, globalization and approach by the government towards using media for development communication has significantly changed the way in which the media reaches every nook and corner. Monarchy, oligarchy, republic and democracy together form the basis of most governments of the world. Of which, democracy is the one with the highest involvement and participation of the people. Ideally, the participation of the people is what, that keeps the democracy running. A healthy democracy is possible only when people are able to access information that makes citizens responsible and serves to check the functioning of their elected representatives. On one side the media consumption of people plays a crucial role in the formation of the public sphere, and on the other side, big media conglomerates are a serious threat to community participation, which is a goal that the media should strive for in a country like India. How different people consume these different media, differs greatly from length and breadth of the country. Another aspect of this media consumption is that it isn’t passive. People usage and consumption of media are related with the gratification that they derive from the particular media. This aspect varies from person to person and from society to society according to both internal and external factors. This article sets out from the most underlying belief that Malayali Tribes have adopted television and becomes a part of daily life and a day never passes without it especially after the introduction of Free Television Scheme by the past state government. Though they are living in hilly and socially isolated places, they too have started accessing media for understanding about the people of the plains and their culture, dictated by their interest. Many of these interests appear to have a social and psychological origin. The present research attempts to study how gratification of these needs lead Malayali Tribes to form such a virtual public sphere where they could communicate with people of the plains. Data was collected through survey method, from 300 respondents on “Exposure towards Television and their perception”. Conventional anthropological methods like unstructured interviews were also used to supplement the data collection efforts in the three taluks namely Yercaud, Pethanayankkanpalayam and Panamaraththuppatty in Salem district of TamilNadu. The results highlight the role of Television in gratifying needs of the Malayali Tribes.

Keywords: democracy, gratification, Malayali Tribes and television, virtual public sphere

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1 Transforming Ganges to be a Living River through Waste Water Management

Authors: P. M. Natarajan, Shambhu Kallolikar, S. Ganesh


By size and volume of water, Ganges River basin is the biggest among the fourteen major river basins in India. By Hindu’s faith, it is the main ‘holy river’ in this nation. But, of late, the pollution load, both domestic and industrial sources are deteriorating the surface and groundwater as well as land resources and hence the environment of the Ganges River basin is under threat. Seeing this scenario, the Indian government began to reclaim this river by two Ganges Action Plans I and II since 1986 by spending Rs. 2,747.52 crores ($457.92 million). But the result was no improvement in the water quality of the river and groundwater and environment even after almost three decades of reclamation, and hence now the New Indian Government is taking extra care to rejuvenate this river and allotted Rs. 2,037 cores ($339.50 million) in 2014 and Rs. 20,000 crores ($3,333.33 million) in 2015. The reasons for the poor water quality and stinking environment even after three decades of reclamation of the river are either no treatment/partial treatment of the sewage. Hence, now the authors are suggesting a tertiary level treatment standard of sewages of all sources and origins of the Ganges River basin and recycling the entire treated water for nondomestic uses. At 20million litres per day (MLD) capacity of each sewage treatment plant (STP), this basin needs about 2020 plants to treat the entire sewage load. Cost of the STPs is Rs. 3,43,400 million ($5,723.33 million) and the annual maintenance cost is Rs. 15,352 million ($255.87 million). The advantages of the proposed exercise are: we can produce a volume of 1,769.52 million m3 of biogas. Since biogas is energy, can be used as a fuel, for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. It is possible to generate about 3,539.04 million kilowatt electricity per annum from the biogas generated in the process of wastewater treatment in Ganges basin. The income generation from electricity works out to Rs 10,617.12million ($176.95million). This power can be used to bridge the supply and demand gap of energy in the power hungry villages where 300million people are without electricity in India even today, and to run these STPs as well. The 664.18 million tonnes of sludge generated by the treatment plants per annum can be used in agriculture as manure with suitable amendments. By arresting the pollution load the 187.42 cubic kilometer (km3) of groundwater potential of the Ganges River basin could be protected from deterioration. Since we can recycle the sewage for non-domestic purposes, about 14.75km3 of fresh water per annum can be conserved for future use. The total value of the water saving per annum is Rs.22,11,916million ($36,865.27million) and each citizen of Ganges River basin can save Rs. 4,423.83/ ($73.73) per annum and Rs. 12.12 ($0.202) per day by recycling the treated water for nondomestic uses. Further the environment of this basin could be kept clean by arresting the foul smell as well as the 3% of greenhouse gages emission from the stinking waterways and land. These are the ways to reclaim the waterways of Ganges River basin from deterioration.

Keywords: Holy Ganges River, lifeline of India, wastewater treatment and management, making Ganges permanently holy

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