Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 837

Search results for: quantum mechanics

837 Meditation, Mental States, Quantum Mechanics and Enlightenment

Authors: Ven. Bhikkhu Ananda


Mind emerged from the quantum field. The practice of mediation can take one to the state of enlightenment. During meditation, the change in the very behaviour of electrons, protons, and photons and their fields, known to be quantum fields, create mental states. This could well be expressed in the mathematical language of quantum mechanics. This paper qualifies and quantifies mental states created during meditation and is explained by quantum mechanics. In meditation, phenomenology can be seen as the process of enlightenment. In this process, the emptiness shown in Buddhist philosophy and the emptiness of quantum fields is compared. The methodologies used here are mindfulness meditation and metta mediation (compassion meditation ). The research findings suggest not only quantumness and change are consciousness, but well-founded behaviour of an individual in the society, which can amplify the positive behaviour caused by mental states, and that emptiness and impermanence of phenomenon are based on dependent arisings. The presence of quantum coherence indicates that quantum mechanics has a role in the evolution of the pure mind and the phenomenology created thereof in mediation.

Keywords: meditation, mental states, quantum mechanics, enlightenment

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836 Using Wavelet Uncertainty Relations in Quantum Mechanics: From Trajectories Foam to Newtonian Determinism

Authors: Paulo Castro, J. R. Croca, M. Gatta, R. Moreira


Owing to the development of quantum mechanics, we will contextualize the foundations of the theory on the Fourier analysis framework, thus stating the unavoidable philosophical conclusions drawn by Niels Bohr. We will then introduce an alternative way of describing the undulatory aspects of quantum entities by using gaussian Morlet wavelets. The description has its roots in de Broglie's realistic program for quantum physics. It so happens that using wavelets it is possible to formulate a more general set of uncertainty relations. A set from which it is possible to theoretically describe both ends of the behavioral spectrum in reality: the indeterministic quantum trajectorial foam and the perfectly drawn Newtonian trajectories.

Keywords: philosophy of quantum mechanics, quantum realism, morlet wavelets, uncertainty relations, determinism

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835 Quantum Algebra from Generalized Q-Algebra

Authors: Muna Tabuni


The paper contains an investigation of the notion of Q algebras. A brief introduction to quantum mechanics is given, in that systems the state defined by a vector in a complex vector space H which have Hermitian inner product property. H may be finite or infinite-dimensional. In quantum mechanics, operators must be hermitian. These facts are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A Hilbert space H consists of a set of vectors and a set of scalars. Lie group is a differentiable topological space with group laws given by differentiable maps. A Lie algebra has been introduced. Q-algebra has been defined. A brief introduction to BCI-algebra is given. A BCI sub algebra is introduced. A brief introduction to BCK=BCH-algebra is given. Every BCI-algebra is a BCH-algebra. Homomorphism maps meanings are introduced. Homomorphism maps between two BCK algebras are defined. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics can be expressed using the theory of unitary group representations. A generalization of Q algebras has been introduced, and their properties have been considered. The Q- quantum algebra has been studied, and various examples have been given.

Keywords: Q-algebras, BCI, BCK, BCH-algebra, quantum mechanics

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834 Quantum Mechanics Approach for Ruin Probability

Authors: Ahmet Kaya


Incoming cash flows and outgoing claims play an important role to determine how is companies’ profit or loss. In this matter, ruin probability provides to describe vulnerability of the companies against ruin. Quantum mechanism is one of the significant approaches to model ruin probability as stochastically. Using the Hamiltonian method, we have performed formalisation of quantum mechanics < x|e-ᵗᴴ|x' > and obtained the transition probability of 2x2 and 3x3 matrix as traditional and eigenvector basis where A is a ruin operator and H|x' > is a Schroedinger equation. This operator A and Schroedinger equation are defined by a Hamiltonian matrix H. As a result, probability of not to be in ruin can be simulated and calculated as stochastically.

Keywords: ruin probability, quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian technique, operator approach

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833 Quantum Mechanics as A Limiting Case of Relativistic Mechanics

Authors: Ahmad Almajid


The idea of unifying quantum mechanics with general relativity is still a dream for many researchers, as physics has only two paths, no more. Einstein's path, which is mainly based on particle mechanics, and the path of Paul Dirac and others, which is based on wave mechanics, the incompatibility of the two approaches is due to the radical difference in the initial assumptions and the mathematical nature of each approach. Logical thinking in modern physics leads us to two problems: - In quantum mechanics, despite its success, the problem of measurement and the problem of wave function interpretation is still obscure. - In special relativity, despite the success of the equivalence of rest-mass and energy, but at the speed of light, the fact that the energy becomes infinite is contrary to logic because the speed of light is not infinite, and the mass of the particle is not infinite too. These contradictions arise from the overlap of relativistic and quantum mechanics in the neighborhood of the speed of light, and in order to solve these problems, one must understand well how to move from relativistic mechanics to quantum mechanics, or rather, to unify them in a way different from Dirac's method, in order to go along with God or Nature, since, as Einstein said, "God doesn't play dice." From De Broglie's hypothesis about wave-particle duality, Léon Brillouin's definition of the new proper time was deduced, and thus the quantum Lorentz factor was obtained. Finally, using the Euler-Lagrange equation, we come up with new equations in quantum mechanics. In this paper, the two problems in modern physics mentioned above are solved; it can be said that this new approach to quantum mechanics will enable us to unify it with general relativity quite simply. If the experiments prove the validity of the results of this research, we will be able in the future to transport the matter at speed close to the speed of light. Finally, this research yielded three important results: 1- Lorentz quantum factor. 2- Planck energy is a limited case of Einstein energy. 3- Real quantum mechanics, in which new equations for quantum mechanics match and exceed Dirac's equations, these equations have been reached in a completely different way from Dirac's method. These equations show that quantum mechanics is a limited case of relativistic mechanics. At the Solvay Conference in 1927, the debate about quantum mechanics between Bohr, Einstein, and others reached its climax, while Bohr suggested that if particles are not observed, they are in a probabilistic state, then Einstein said his famous claim ("God does not play dice"). Thus, Einstein was right, especially when he didn't accept the principle of indeterminacy in quantum theory, although experiments support quantum mechanics. However, the results of our research indicate that God really does not play dice; when the electron disappears, it turns into amicable particles or an elastic medium, according to the above obvious equations. Likewise, Bohr was right also, when he indicated that there must be a science like quantum mechanics to monitor and study the motion of subatomic particles, but the picture in front of him was blurry and not clear, so he resorted to the probabilistic interpretation.

Keywords: lorentz quantum factor, new, planck’s energy as a limiting case of einstein’s energy, real quantum mechanics, new equations for quantum mechanics

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832 Nonlocal Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Kazim G. Atman, Hüseyin Sirin


In theoretical physics, nonlocal phenomena has always been subject of debate. However, in the conventional mathematical approach where the developments of the physical systems are investigated by using the standard mathematical tools, nonlocal effects are not taken into account. In order to investigate the nonlocality in quantum mechanics and fractal property of space, fractional derivative operators are employed in this study. In this manner, fractional creation and annihilation operators are introduced and Einstein coefficients are taken into account as an application of concomitant formalism in quantum field theory. Therefore, each energy mode of photons are considered as fractional quantized harmonic oscillator hereby Einstein coefficients are obtained. Nevertheless, wave function and energy eigenvalues of fractional quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator are obtained via the fractional derivative order α which is a measure of the influence of nonlocal effects. In the case α = 1, where space becomes homogeneous and continuous, standard physical conclusions are recovered.

Keywords: Einstein’s Coefficients, Fractional Calculus, Fractional Quantum Mechanics, Nonlocal Theories

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831 Covariance and Quantum Cosmology: A Comparison of Two Matter Clocks

Authors: Theodore Halnon, Martin Bojowald


In relativity, time is relative between reference frames. However, quantum mechanics requires a specific time coordinate in order to write an evolution equation for wave functions. This difference between the two theories leads to the problem of time in quantum gravity. One method to study quantum relativity is to interpret the dynamics of a matter field as a clock. In order to test the relationship between different reference frames, an isotropic cosmological model with two matter ingredients is introduced. One is given by a scalar field and one by vacuum energy or a cosmological constant. There are two matter fields, and thus two different Hamiltonians are derived from the respective clock rates. Semi-classical solutions are found for these equations and a comparison is made of the physical predictions that they imply.

Keywords: cosmology, deparameterization, general relativity, quantum mechanics

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830 Guided Energy Theory of a Particle: Answered Questions Arise from Quantum Foundation

Authors: Desmond Agbolade Ademola


This work aimed to introduce a theory, called Guided Energy Theory of a particle that answered questions that arise from quantum foundation, quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation such as: what is nature of wavefunction? Is mathematical formalism of wavefunction correct? Does wavefunction collapse during measurement? Do quantum physical entanglement and many world interpretations really exist? In addition, is there uncertainty in the physical reality of our nature as being concluded in the Quantum theory? We have been able to show by the fundamental analysis presented in this work that the way quantum mechanics theory, and interpretation describes nature is not correlated with physical reality. Because, we discovered amongst others that, (1) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally provides complete physical observable series of quantized measurement of a particle momentum, force, energy e.t.c. in a given distance and time.In contrast, quantum mechanics wavefunction describes that nature has inherited probabilistic and indeterministic physical quantities, resulting in unobservable physical quantities that lead to many worldinterpretation.(2) Guided energy theory of a particle fundamentally predicts that it is mathematically possible to determine precise quantized measurementof position and momentum of a particle simultaneously. Because, there is no uncertainty in nature; nature however naturally guides itself against uncertainty. Contrary to the conclusion in quantum mechanics theory that, it is mathematically impossible to determine the position and the momentum of a particle simultaneously. Furthermore, we have been able to show by this theory that, it is mathematically possible to determine quantized measurement of force acting on a particle simultaneously, which is not possible on the premise of quantum mechanics theory. (3) It is evidently shown by our theory that, guided energy does not collapse, only describes the lopsided nature of a particle behavior in motion. This pretty offers us insight on gradual process of engagement - convergence and disengagement – divergence of guided energy holders which further highlight the picture how wave – like behavior return to particle-like behavior and how particle – like behavior return to wave – like behavior respectively. This further proves that the particles’ behavior in motion is oscillatory in nature. The mathematical formalism of Guided energy theory shows that nature is certainty whereas the mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory shows that nature is absolutely probabilistics. In addition, the nature of wavefunction is the guided energy of the wave. In conclusion, the fundamental mathematical formalism of Quantum mechanics theory is wrong.

Keywords: momentum, physical entanglement, wavefunction, uncertainty

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829 Quantum Technologies, the Practical Challenges to It, and Ideas to Build an Inclusive Quantum Platform, Shoonya Ecosystem (Zero-Point Energy)

Authors: Partha Pratim Kalita


As sound can be converted to light, light can also be deduced to sound. There are technologies to convert light to sound, but there are not many technologies related to the field where sound can be converted to a distinct vibrational sequence of light. Like the laws under which the principles of sound work, there are principles for the light to become quantum in nature. Thus, as we move from sound to the subtler aspects of light, we are moving from 3D to 5D. Either we will be making technologies of 3D in today’s world, or we will be really interested in making technologies of the 5D, depends on our understanding of how quantum 5D works. Right now, the entire world is talking about quantum, which is about the nature and behavior of subatomic particles, which is 5D. In practice, they are using metals and machines based on atomic structures. If we talk of quantum without taking note of the technologies of 5D and beyond, we will only be reinterpreting relative theories in the name of quantum. This paper, therefore, will explore the possibilities of moving towards quantum in its real essence with the Shoonya ecosystem (zero-point energy). In this context, the author shall highlight certain working models developed by him, which are currently in discussion with the Indian government.

Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum technologies, healthcare, shoonya ecosystem, energy, human consciousness

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828 Agegraphic Dark Energy with GUP

Authors: H. R. Fazlollahi


Dark Energy origin is unknown and so describing this mysterious component in large scale structure needs to manipulate our theories in general relativity. Although in most models, dark energy arises from extra terms through modifying Einstein-Hilbert action, maybe its origin traces back to fundamental aspects of ground energy of space-time given in quantum mechanics. Hence, diluting space-time in general relativity with quantum mechanics properties leads to the Karolyhazy relation corresponding energy density of quantum fluctuations of space-time. Through generalized uncertainty principle and an eye to Karolyhazy approach in this study we extend energy density of quantum fluctuations of space-time. Also, the application of this idea is considered in late time evolution and we have shown how extra term in generalized uncertainty principle plays as a plausible interaction term role in suggested model.

Keywords: generalized uncertainty principle, karolyhazy approach, agegraphic dark energy, cosmology

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827 A Quantum Leap: Developing Quantum Semi-Structured Complex Numbers to Solve the “Division by Zero” Problem

Authors: Peter Jean-Paul, Shanaz Wahid


The problem of division by zero can be stated as: “what is the value of 0 x 1/0?” This expression has been considered undefined by mathematicians because it can have two equally valid solutions either 0 or 1. Recently semi-structured complex number set was invented to solve “division by zero”. However, whilst the number set had some merits it was considered to have a poor theoretical foundation and did not provide a quality solution to “division by zero”. Moreover, the set lacked consistency in simple algebraic calculations producing contradictory results when dividing by zero. To overcome these issues this research starts by treating the expression " 0 x 1/0" as a quantum mechanical system that produces two tangled results 0 and 1. Dirac Notation (a tool from quantum mechanics) was then used to redefine the unstructured unit p in semi-structured complex numbers so that p represents the superposition of two results (0 and 1) and collapses into a single value when used in algebraic expressions. In the process, this paper describes a new number set called Quantum Semi-structured Complex Numbers that provides a valid solution to the problem of “division by zero”. This research shows that this new set (1) forms a “Field”, (2) can produce consistent results when solving division by zero problems, (3) can be used to accurately describe systems whose mathematical descriptions involve division by zero. This research served to provide a firm foundation for Quantum Semi-structured Complex Numbers and support their practical use.

Keywords: division by zero, semi-structured complex numbers, quantum mechanics, Hilbert space, Euclidean space

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826 Use of EPR in Experimental Mechanics

Authors: M. Sikoń, E. Bidzińska


An attempt to apply EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectroscopy to experimental analysis of the mechanical state of the loaded material is considered in this work. Theory concerns the participation of electrons in transfer of mechanical action. The model of measurement is shown by applying classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Theoretical analysis is verified using EPR spectroscopy twice, once for the free spacemen and once for the mechanical loaded spacemen. Positive results in the form of different spectra for free and loaded materials are used to describe the mechanical state in continuum based on statistical mechanics. Perturbation of the optical electrons in the field of the mechanical interactions inspires us to propose new optical properties of the materials with mechanical stresses.

Keywords: Cosserat medium, EPR spectroscopy, optical active electrons, optical activity

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825 Quantum Mechanics as a Branch of Black Hole Cosmology

Authors: U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana


In a unified approach observed cosmic red shift can be re-interpreted as an index of cosmological galactic atomic light emission phenomenon. By increasing the applications of Hubble volume in cosmology as well as in quantum physics, concepts of ‘Black Hole Cosmology’ can be well-confirmed. Clearly speaking ‘quantum mechanics’ can be shown to be a branch of ‘black hole cosmology’. In Big Bang Model, confirmation of all the observations directly depend on the large scale galactic distances that are beyond human reach and raise ambiguity in all respects. The subject of modern black hole physics is absolutely theoretical. Advantage of Black hole cosmology lies in confirming its validity through the ground based atomic and nuclear experimental results.

Keywords: Hubble volume, black hole cosmology, CMBR energy density, Planck’s constant, fine structure ratio, cosmic time, nuclear charge radius, unification

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824 A Physical Theory of Information vs. a Mathematical Theory of Communication

Authors: Manouchehr Amiri


This article introduces a general notion of physical bit information that is compatible with the basics of quantum mechanics and incorporates the Shannon entropy as a special case. This notion of physical information leads to the Binary data matrix model (BDM), which predicts the basic results of quantum mechanics, general relativity, and black hole thermodynamics. The compatibility of the model with holographic, information conservation, and Landauer’s principles are investigated. After deriving the “Bit Information principle” as a consequence of BDM, the fundamental equations of Planck, De Broglie, Beckenstein, and mass-energy equivalence are derived.

Keywords: physical theory of information, binary data matrix model, Shannon information theory, bit information principle

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823 Isolated Iterating Fractal Independently Corresponds with Light and Foundational Quantum Problems

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald


After nearly one hundred years of its origin, foundational quantum mechanics remains one of the greatest unexplained mysteries in physicists today. Within this time, chaos theory and its geometry, the fractal, has developed. In this paper, the propagation behaviour with an iteration of a simple fractal, the Koch Snowflake, was described and analysed. From an arbitrary observation point within the fractal set, the fractal propagates forward by oscillation—the focus of this study and retrospectively behind by exponential growth from a point beginning. It propagates a potentially infinite exponential oscillating sinusoidal wave of discrete triangle bits sharing many characteristics of light and quantum entities. The model's wave speed is potentially constant, offering insights into the perception and a direction of time where, to an observer, when travelling at the frontier of propagation, time may slow to a stop. In isolation, the fractal is a superposition of component bits where position and scale present a problem of location. In reality, this problem is experienced within fractal landscapes or fields where 'position' is only 'known' by the addition of information or markers. The quantum' measurement problem', 'uncertainty principle,' 'entanglement,' and the classical-quantum interface are addressed; these are a problem of scale invariance associated with isolated fractality. Dual forward and retrospective perspectives of the fractal model offer the opportunity for unification between quantum mechanics and cosmological mathematics, observations, and conjectures. Quantum and cosmological problems may be different aspects of the one fractal geometry.

Keywords: measurement problem, observer, entanglement, unification

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822 Analysis of Network Performance Using Aspect of Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Nisarg A. Patel, Hiren B. Patel


Quantum cryptography is described as a point-to-point secure key generation technology that has emerged in recent times in providing absolute security. Researchers have started studying new innovative approaches to exploit the security of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for a large-scale communication system. A number of approaches and models for utilization of QKD for secure communication have been developed. The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics created a new paradigm for QKD. One of the approaches for use of QKD involved network fashioned security. The main goal was point-to-point Quantum network that exploited QKD technology for end-to-end network security via high speed QKD. Other approaches and models equipped with QKD in network fashion are introduced in the literature as. A different approach that this paper deals with is using QKD in existing protocols, which are widely used on the Internet to enhance security with main objective of unconditional security. Our work is towards the analysis of the QKD in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).

Keywords: cryptography, networking, quantum, encryption and decryption

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821 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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820 Quantum Statistical Mechanical Formulations of Three-Body Problems via Non-Local Potentials

Authors: A. Maghari, V. M. Maleki


In this paper, we present a quantum statistical mechanical formulation from our recently analytical expressions for partial-wave transition matrix of a three-particle system. We report the quantum reactive cross sections for three-body scattering processes 1 + (2,3)-> 1 + (2,3) as well as recombination 1 + (2,3) -> 2 + (3,1) between one atom and a weakly-bound dimer. The analytical expressions of three-particle transition matrices and their corresponding cross-sections were obtained from the three-dimensional Faddeev equations subjected to the rank-two non-local separable potentials of the generalized Yamaguchi form. The equilibrium quantum statistical mechanical properties such partition function and equation of state as well as non-equilibrium quantum statistical properties such as transport cross-sections and their corresponding transport collision integrals were formulated analytically. This leads to obtain the transport properties, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient of a moderate dense gas.

Keywords: statistical mechanics, nonlocal separable potential, three-body interaction, faddeev equations

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819 Quantum Kernel Based Regressor for Prediction of Non-Markovianity of Open Quantum Systems

Authors: Diego Tancara, Raul Coto, Ariel Norambuena, Hoseein T. Dinani, Felipe Fanchini


Quantum machine learning is a growing research field that aims to perform machine learning tasks assisted by a quantum computer. Kernel-based quantum machine learning models are paradigmatic examples where the kernel involves quantum states, and the Gram matrix is calculated from the overlapping between these states. With the kernel at hand, a regular machine learning model is used for the learning process. In this paper we investigate the quantum support vector machine and quantum kernel ridge models to predict the degree of non-Markovianity of a quantum system. We perform digital quantum simulation of amplitude damping and phase damping channels to create our quantum dataset. We elaborate on different kernel functions to map the data and kernel circuits to compute the overlapping between quantum states. We observe a good performance of the models.

Keywords: quantum, machine learning, kernel, non-markovianity

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818 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat

Authors: Mandip Singh


Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.

Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physics

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817 Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie


The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

Keywords: general relativity theory, particles, photons, Quantum Gravity Model, gravitational frequency shift

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816 Science behind Quantum Teleportation

Authors: Ananya G., B. Varshitha, Shwetha S., Kavitha S. N., Praveen Kumar Gupta


Teleportation is the ability to travel by just reappearing at some other spot. Though teleportation has never been achieved, quantum teleportation is possible. Quantum teleportation is a process of transferring the quantum state of a particle onto another particle, under the circumstance that one does not get to know any information about the state in the process of transformation. This paper presents a brief overview of quantum teleportation, discussing the topics like Entanglement, EPR Paradox, Bell's Theorem, Qubits, elements for a successful teleport, some examples of advanced teleportation systems (also covers few ongoing experiments), applications (that includes quantum cryptography), and the current hurdles for future scientists interested in this field. Finally, major advantages and limitations to the existing teleportation theory are discussed.

Keywords: teleportation, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement, qubits, EPR paradox, bell states, quantum particles, spooky action at a distance

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815 Aperiodic and Asymmetric Fibonacci Quasicrystals: Next Big Future in Quantum Computation

Authors: Jatindranath Gain, Madhumita DasSarkar, Sudakshina Kundu


Quantum information is stored in states with multiple quasiparticles, which have a topological degeneracy. Topological quantum computation is concerned with two-dimensional many body systems that support excitations. Anyons are elementary building block of quantum computations. When anyons tunneling in a double-layer system can transition to an exotic non-Abelian state and produce Fibonacci anyons, which are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation (TQC).Here the exotic behavior of Fibonacci Superlattice is studied by using analytical transfer matrix methods and hence Fibonacci anyons. This Fibonacci anyons can build a quantum computer which is very emerging and exciting field today’s in Nanophotonics and quantum computation.

Keywords: quantum computing, quasicrystals, Multiple Quantum wells (MQWs), transfer matrix method, fibonacci anyons, quantum hall effect, nanophotonics

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814 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian


A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: the linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure

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813 Quantum Entanglement and Thermalization in Superconducting Two-Qubit Systems

Authors: E. Karami, M. Bohloul, P. Najmadi


The superconducting system is a suitable system for quantum computers. Quantum entanglement is a fundamental phenomenon that is key to the power of quantum computers. Quantum entanglement has been studied in different superconducting systems. In this paper, we are investigating a superconducting two-qubit system as a macroscopic system. These systems include two coupled Quantronium circuits. We calculate quantum entanglement and thermalization for system evolution and compare them. We observe, thermalization and entanglement have different behavior, and equilibrium thermal state has maximum entanglement.

Keywords: macroscopic system, quantum entanglement, thermalization, superconducting system

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812 A 7 Dimensional-Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach Combining Quantum Mechanics Based Grid and Solvation Models to Predict Hotspots and Kinetic Properties of Mutated Enzymes: An Enzyme Engineering Perspective

Authors: R. Pravin Kumar, L. Roopa


Enzymes are molecular machines used in various industries such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and animal feed, paper and leather processing, biofuel, and etc. Nevertheless, this has been possible only by the breath-taking efforts of the chemists and biologists to evolve/engineer these mysterious biomolecules to work the needful. Main agenda of this enzyme engineering project is to derive screening and selection tools to obtain focused libraries of enzyme variants with desired qualities. The methodologies for this research include the well-established directed evolution, rational redesign and relatively less established yet much faster and accurate insilico methods. This concept was initiated as a Receptor Rependent-4Dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (RD-4D-QSAR) to predict kinetic properties of enzymes and extended here to study transaminase by a 7D QSAR approach. Induced-fit scenarios were explored using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) simulations which were then placed in a grid that stores interactions energies derived from QM parameters (QMgrid). In this study, the mutated enzymes were immersed completely inside the QMgrid and this was combined with solvation models to predict descriptors. After statistical screening of descriptors, QSAR models showed > 90% specificity and > 85% sensitivity towards the experimental activity. Mapping descriptors on the enzyme structure revealed hotspots important to enhance the enantioselectivity of the enzyme.

Keywords: QMgrid, QM/MM simulations, RD-4D-QSAR, transaminase

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811 Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid by 1O2

Authors: Rayenne Djemil


The mechanism of oxidation reaction of linoleic acid C18: 2 (9 cis12) by singlet oxygen 1O2 were theoretically investigated via using quantum chemical methods. We explored the four reaction pathways at PM3, Hartree-Fock HF and, B3LYP functional associated with the base 6-31G (d) level. The results are in favor of the first and the last reaction ways. The transition states were found by QST3 method. Thus the pathways between the transition state structures and their corresponding minima have been identified by the IRC calculations. The thermodynamic study showed that the four ways of oxidation of linoleic acid are spontaneous, exothermic and, the enthalpy values confirm that conjugate hydroperoxydes are the most favorable products.

Keywords: echanism, quantum mechanics, oxidation, linoleic acid H

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810 Dual Duality for Unifying Spacetime and Internal Symmetry

Authors: David C. Ni


The current efforts for Grand Unification Theory (GUT) can be classified into General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, String Theory and the related formalisms. In the geometric approaches for extending General Relativity, the efforts are establishing global and local invariance embedded into metric formalisms, thereby additional dimensions are constructed for unifying canonical formulations, such as Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations. The approaches of extending Quantum Mechanics adopt symmetry principle to formulate algebra-group theories, which evolved from Maxwell formulation to Yang-Mills non-abelian gauge formulation, and thereafter manifested the Standard model. This thread of efforts has been constructing super-symmetry for mapping fermion and boson as well as gluon and graviton. The efforts of String theory currently have been evolving to so-called gauge/gravity correspondence, particularly the equivalence between type IIB string theory compactified on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Other efforts are also adopting cross-breeding approaches of above three formalisms as well as competing formalisms, nevertheless, the related symmetries, dualities, and correspondences are outlined as principles and techniques even these terminologies are defined diversely and often generally coined as duality. In this paper, we firstly classify these dualities from the perspective of physics. Then examine the hierarchical structure of classes from mathematical perspective referring to Coleman-Mandula theorem, Hidden Local Symmetry, Groupoid-Categorization and others. Based on Fundamental Theorems of Algebra, we argue that rather imposing effective constraints on different algebras and the related extensions, which are mainly constructed by self-breeding or self-mapping methodologies for sustaining invariance, we propose a new addition, momentum-angular momentum duality at the level of electromagnetic duality, for rationalizing the duality algebras, and then characterize this duality numerically with attempt for addressing some unsolved problems in physics and astrophysics.

Keywords: general relativity, quantum mechanics, string theory, duality, symmetry, correspondence, algebra, momentum-angular-momentum

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809 Quantum Dots with Microwave Propagation in Future Quantum Internet Protocol for Mobile Telephony

Authors: A. B. R. Hazarika


In the present paper, Quantum dots of ZnS are used to study the faster microwave propagation in space and on earth which will be difficult to bypass as quantum key encryption-decryption is difficult to decode. The present study deals with Quantum internet protocol which is much faster, safer and secure in microwave propagation than the present Internet Protocol v6, which forms the aspect of our study. Assimilation of hardware, Quantum dots with Quantum protocol theory beautifies the aspect of the study. So far to author’s best knowledge, the study on mobile telephony with Quantum dots long-term evolution (QDLTE) has not been studied earlier, which forms the aspect of the study found that the Bitrate comes out to be 102.4 Gbps.

Keywords: encryption, decryption, internet protocol, microwave, mobile telephony, quantum key encryption, quantum dots

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808 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam


Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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