Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: tour

87 Visitor Expectation on a Tour Guide Business as Part of Promoting the Sustainability Tourism in Thailand

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpontmanee

Abstract:

The tourism industry in Thailand is regarded as an energizer of the domestic economy for several years. With this reason, researchers aim to study Visitor Expectation on a Tour Guide Business as part of promoting the Sustainability Tourism in Thailand. The study collected data via questionnaires from the population of 400 samples who have experienced the tour guide and traveling business. The research was studied by divided samples into two main groups, male samples and female sample. There are differences on their average salary per month and expectation on the tour company as part of promoting the Sustainability Tourism of the country. The majority of samples expect that the tour guide company will present the awareness of operating their business without any impact to the environment, offering an appropriated quality trips and offering a valuable price. The tour guide companies were expected to be expanded and operated in regional level in order to strengthen the community economy.

Keywords: expectation, tour guide business, sustainability tourism, sightseeing business

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
86 Data-Driven Dynamic Overbooking Model for Tour Operators

Authors: Kannapha Amaruchkul

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We formulate a dynamic overbooking model for a tour operator, in which most reservations contain at least two people. The cancellation rate and the timing of the cancellation may depend on the group size. We propose two overbooking policies, namely economic- and service-based. In an economic-based policy, we want to minimize the expected oversold and underused cost, whereas, in a service-based policy, we ensure that the probability of an oversold situation does not exceed the pre-specified threshold. To illustrate the applicability of our approach, we use tour package data in 2016-2018 from a tour operator in Thailand to build a data-driven robust optimization model, and we tested the proposed overbooking policy in 2019. We also compare the data-driven approach to the conventional approach of fitting data into a probability distribution.

Keywords: applied stochastic model, data-driven robust optimization, overbooking, revenue management, tour operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
85 Designing Space through Narratives: The Role of the Tour Description in the Architectural Design Process

Authors: A. Papadopoulou

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When people are asked to provide an oral description of a space they usually provide a Tour description, which is a dynamic type of spatial narrative centered on the narrator’s body, rather than a Map description, which is a static type of spatial narrative focused on the organization of the space as seen from above. Also, subjects with training in the architecture discipline tend to adopt a Tour perspective of space when the narrative refers to a space they have actually experienced but tend to adopt a Map perspective when the narrative refers to a space they have merely imagined. This pilot study aims to investigate whether the Tour description, which is the most common mode in the oral descriptions of experienced space, is a cognitive perspective taken in the process of designing a space. The study investigates whether a spatial description provided by a subject with architecture training in the type of a Tour description would be accurately translated into a spatial layout by other subjects with architecture training. The subjects were given the Tour description in written form and were asked to make a plan drawing of the described space. The results demonstrate that when we conceive and design space we do not adopt the same rules and cognitive patterns that we adopt when we reconstruct space from our memory. As shown by the results of this pilot study, the rules that underlie the Tour description were not detected in the translation from narratives to drawings. In a different phase, the study also investigates how would subjects with architecture training describe space when forced to take a Tour perspective in their oral description of a space. The results of this second phase demonstrate that if intentionally taken, the Tour perspective leads to descriptions of space that are more detailed and focused on experiential aspects.

Keywords: architecture, design process, embodied cognition, map description, oral narratives, tour description

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
84 The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being among Tour Guides

Authors: Jennifer Chen-Hua Min

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The concept of self-efficacy refers to people’s beliefs in their ability to perform certain behaviors and cope with environmental demands. As such, self-efficacy plays a key role in linking ability to performance. Therefore, this study examines the relationships of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence (EI), and well-being among tour guides, who act as intermediaries between tourists and an unfamiliar environment and significantly influence tourists’ impressions of a destination. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to identify the relationships between these factors. The results found that self-efficacy is positively associated with EI and well-being, and a positive link was seen between EI and well-being. This study has practical implications, as the results can facilitate the development of interventions for enhancing tour guides’ EI and self-efficacy competencies, which will benefit them in terms of both enhanced achievements and improved psychological happiness and well-being.

Keywords: self-efficacy, tour guides, tourism, emotional intelligence (EI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
83 Students as Global Citizens: Lessons from the International Study Tour

Authors: Ana Hol

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Study and work operations are being transformed with the uses of technologies and are consequently becoming global. This paper outlines lessons learned based on the international study tour that Australian Bachelor of Information Systems students undertook. This research identifies that for the study tour to be successful, students need to gain skills that global citizens require. For example, students will need to gain an understanding of local cultures, local customs and habits. Furthermore, students would also need to gain an understanding of how a field of their future career expertise operates in the host country, how study and business are conducted internationally, which tools and technologies are currently being utilized on a global scale, what trends drive future developments world-wide and how business negotiations and collaborations are being undertaken across borders. Furthermore, this research provides a guide to educators who are planning, guiding and running study tours as it outlines the requirements of having a pre-tour preparatory session, carefully planned and executed tour itineraries and post-tour sessions during which students can reflect on their experiences and lessons learned so that they can apply them to future international business visits and ventures.

Keywords: global education, international experiences, international study tours, students as global citizens, student centered education,

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
82 The Role of Continuing Professional Education in Interpretive Guiding in South Africa

Authors: Duduzile Dlamini-Boemah, Haretsebe Manwa, Lisebo Tseane-Gumbi

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The demands and expectations of twenty-first century tourists have changed, and they continue to have an impact on tour guiding in cultural and natural tourist attractions. The traditional communicative role of the tour guide as a mere presenter is not sufficient anymore; instead, there are expectations from the tourists of guides who provide effective interpretive guiding. It is always questionable if tour guides in South Africa are equipped with the skills for effective interpretation, yet limited research has been conducted to investigate the continuing professional education of tour guides in South Africa. Instead, much attention has been given to aspects of registration and certification of tour guides in South Africa. Concerns have been raised about tour guiding and have led to the development of a strategy by the Department of Tourism to professionalise tourists guiding that includes training. However, the necessity for tourism training in tour guiding in South Africa was raised as early as in the 1980s, the paper argues that there is a further need to emphasise continuing professional education in interpretive guiding in South Africa. In this study, continuing education and training are considered to involve the upgrading of the skills and knowledge of interpretation of those who are already working as tour guides at the cultural and natural attractions. The study is guided by the empowerment theory. The aim of this paper is to present issues of effective interpretive guiding and continuing professional education in interpretive guiding in South Africa. This study is based on the literature survey of secondary sources such as academic journal articles, government documents, and reports and books. The conclusions indicate that there is a need for training in interpretive delivery techniques in South Africa. The need for interpretive training in interpretive delivery techniques is attributed by the call to allow people to use indigenous knowledge, rather than formal education as a basis for becoming a field guide as well as affording the previously disadvantaged individuals to access training opportunities as tourist guides.

Keywords: continuing education, interpretive delivery skills, interpretive guiding, tour guide

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
81 A Survey on E-Guide to Educational Tour Planning in Environmental Science among Standard Six Primary School Students the Ministry of Education Malaysia

Authors: A.Halim Sahelan, Mohd Halid Abu, Jamaluddin Hashim, Zulisman Maksom, Mohd Afif Md Nasir

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This study aims to assess the students' needs for the tour planning e-guide. The study is developing on the contribution and importance of the Educational Tour Planning Guide (ETP) is a multimedia courseware as one of the effective methods in teaching and learning of environmental science among the students in primary schools of the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. It is to provide the student with knowledge and experience about tourism, environmental science activities and process. E-guide to ETP also hopes to strengthen the student understanding toward the subject learns in the tourism environmental science. In order to assess the student's needs on the e-Guide to Educational Tour Planning in Environmental Science, the study has produced a similar e-Guide to ETP in the form as a courseware to be tested during the study. The study has involved several steps in order to be completed. It is such as the formulation of the problem, the review of the literature, the formulation of the study methodology, the production of the e-Guide to ETP, field survey and finally the analyses and discussion made on the data gathered during the study. The survey has involved 100 respondents among the students in standard six primary schools in Kluang Johor. Through the findings, the study indicates that the currently tested product is acceptable among the students in learning environmental science as a guide to plan for the tour. The findings also show a slight difference between the respondents who are using the e-Guide to ETP, and those who are not on the basis of the e-Guide to ETP results. Due the important for the study, the researcher hopes to be having a fair discussion and excellence, recommendation for the development of the product of the current study. This report is written also important to provide a written reference for the future related study.

Keywords: the tour planning e-guide, the Educational Tour Planning Guide, environmental science, multimedia course ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
80 A Hybrid Heuristic for the Team Orienteering Problem

Authors: Adel Bouchakhchoukha, Hakim Akeb

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In this work, we propose a hybrid heuristic in order to solve the Team Orienteering Problem (TOP). Given a set of points (or customers), each with associated score (profit or benefit), and a team that has a fixed number of members, the problem to solve is to visit a subset of points in order to maximize the total collected score. Each member performs a tour starting at the start point, visiting distinct customers and the tour terminates at the arrival point. In addition, each point is visited at most once, and the total time in each tour cannot be greater than a given value. The proposed heuristic combines beam search and a local optimization strategy. The algorithm was tested on several sets of instances and encouraging results were obtained.

Keywords: team orienteering problem, vehicle routing, beam search, local search

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
79 Designing for Experience-Based Tourism: A Virtual Tour in Tehran

Authors: Maryam Khalili, Fateme Ghanei

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As one of the most significant phenomena of industrialized societies, tourism plays a key role in encouraging regional developments and enhancing higher standards of living for local communities in particular. Traveling is a formative experience endowed with lessons on various aspects of life. It allows us learning how to enhance the social position as well as the social relationships. However, people forget the need to travel and gain first-hand experiences as they have to cope with the ever-increasing rate of stress created by the disorders and routines of the urban dwelling style. In this paper, various spaces of such experiences were explored through a virtual tour with two underlying aims: 1) encouraging, informing, and educating the community in terms of tourism development, and 2) introducing a temporary release from the routines. This study enjoyed a practical-qualitative research methodology, and the required data were collected through observation and using a multiple-response questionnaire. The participants (19-48 years old) included 41 citizens of both genders (63.4% male and 36.6% female) from two regions in Tehran, selected by cluster-probability sampling. The results led to development of a spatial design for a virtual tour experience in Tehran where different areas are explored to both raise people’s awareness and educate them on their cultural heritage.

Keywords: ecotourism, education, gamification, social interaction, urban design, virtual tour

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
78 The Antecedents That Effect to the Adventure Tourism in Krabi, Thailand

Authors: Autjira Songjan, Vimolsri Sansuk

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The research aim to study the possible negative environmental impact by adventure tourism in Krabi, Thailand, which is a popular destination for adventure tourism. The research is carried out through quantitative and qualitative methods. Questionnaires are distributed to 400 adventure tourists: 160 Thai and 240 international tourists. Questions involved experiences and opinions towards the environment and certain practices which influence a protection or degradation of environment from tour guides, tour operators and tourists. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were carried out with 21 adventure tour operators operating 5 main adventure tours. The finding shows the various types of adventure activities in Krabi involve different kinds of nature, therefore the characteristics of the different adventure activities are likely to affect the physical environment in different level. Kayaking tours are managed inside the mangrove forests, and may lead to negative impact on the ecosystem of mangroves, through loud noise, pulling out the mangrove population.

Keywords: adventure activities, Krabi province in Thailand, physical environment, adventure tourism

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77 The Approach to Develop Value Chain to Enhance the Management Efficiency of Thai Tour Operators in Order to Support Free Trade within the Framework of ASEAN Cooperation

Authors: Yalisa Tonsorn

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The objectives of this study are 1) to study the readiness of Thai tour operators in order to prepare for being ASEAN members, 2) to study opportunity and obstacles of the management of Thai tour operators, and 3) to find approach for developing value chain in order to enhance the management efficiency of Thai tour operators in order to support free trade within the framework of ASEAN cooperation. The research methodology is mixed between qualitative method and quantitative method. In-depth interview was done with key informants, including management supervisors, medium managers, and officers of the travel agencies. The questionnaire was conducted with 300 sampling. According to the study, it was found that the approach for developing value chain to enhance the management efficiency of Thai travel agencies in order to support free trade within the framework of ASEAN cooperation, the tour operators must give priority to the customer and deliver the service exceeding the customer’s expectation. There are 2 groups of customers: 1) external customers referring to tourist, and 2) internal customers referring to staff who deliver the service to the customers, including supervisors, colleagues, or subordinates. There are 2 issues which need to be developed: 1) human resource development in order to cultivate the working concept by focusing on importance of customers, and excellent service providing, and 2) working system development by building value and innovation in operational process including services to the company in order to deliver the highest impressive service to both internal and external customers. Moreover, the tour operators could support the increased number of tourists significantly. This could enhance the capacity of the business and affect the increase of competition capability in the economic dimension of the country.

Keywords: AEC (ASEAN Economic Eommunity), core activities, support activities, values chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
76 Implementing Contextual Approach to Improve EFL Learners’ English Speaking Skill

Authors: Samanik

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This writing is correlated with English teaching material development, Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL). CTL is believed to facilitate students with real world challenge. Contextual Teaching and Learning is identified as a promising strategy that actively engages students and promotes skills development. It is based on the notion that learning can only occur when students are able to connect between content and context. It also helps teachers link between the materials taught with real-world situations and encourage students to make connection between the knowledge possessed by its application. Besides, it directs students to be critical and analytical. In accordance, this paper looks for the opportunity to improve EFL learners’ English speaking skill through tour guide presentation. A single case study will be conducted to highlight EFL learners’ experience of doing tour guide presentation in the English class room setting. The writer assumes that CLT will contribute positively to EFL learners’ English speaking skill.

Keywords: English speaking skill, contextual teaching learning, tour guide presentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
75 Berry Phase and Quantum Skyrmions: A Loop Tour in Physics

Authors: Sinuhé Perea Puente

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In several physics systems the whole can be obtained as an exact copy of each of its parts, which facilitates the study of a complex system by looking carefully at its elements, separately. Reducionism offers simplified models which makes the problems easier, but “there’s plenty of room...at the mesoscopic scale”. Here we present a tour for two of its representants: Berry phase and skyrmions, studying some of its basic definitions and properties, and two cases in which both arise together, to finish constraining the scale for our mesoscopic system in the quest of quantum skyrmions, discovering which properties are conserved and which others may be destroyed.

Keywords: condensed mattter, quantum physics, skyrmions, topological defects

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74 The Effects of Distribution Channels on the Selling Prices of Hotels in Time of Crisis

Authors: Y. Yılmaz, C. Ünal, A. Dursun

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Distribution channels play significant role for hotels. Direct and indirect selling options of hotel rooms have been increased especially with the help of new technologies, i.e. hotel’s own web sites and online booking sites. Although these options emerged as tools for diversifying the distribution channels, vast number of hotels -mostly resort hotels- is still heavily dependent upon international tour operators when selling their products. On the other hand, hotel sector is so vulnerable against crises. Economic, political or any other crisis can affect hotels very badly and so it is critical to have the right balance of distribution channel to avoid the adverse impacts of a crisis. In this study, it is aimed to search the impacts of a general crisis on the selling prices of hotels which have different weights of distribution channels. The study was done in Turkey where various crises occurred in 2015 and 2016 which had great negative impacts on Turkish tourism and led enormous occupancy rate and selling price reductions. 112 upscale resort hotel in Antalya, which is the most popular tourism destination of Turkey, joined to the research. According to the results, hotels with high dependency to international tour operators are more forced to reduce their room prices in crisis time compared to the ones which use their own web sites more. It was also found that the decline in room prices is limited for hotels which are working with national tour operators and travel agencies in crisis time.

Keywords: marketing channels, crisis, hotel, international tour operators, online travel agencies

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
73 The Guide Presentation: The Grand Palace

Authors: Nuchanat Handumrongkul Danaya Darnsawasdi, Anantachai Aeka

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To be a model for performing oral presentations by the tour guides, this research has been conducted. In order to develop French language teaching and studying for tourism, its purpose is to analyze the content used by tour guides. The study employed audio recordings of these presentations as an interview method in authentic situations, having four guides as respondents and information providers. The data was analyzed through content analysis. The results found that the tour guides described eight important items by giving more importance to details at Wat Phra Kaew or the Temple of the Emerald Buddha than at the palaces. They preferred the buildings upon the upper terrace, Buddhist cosmology, the decoration techniques, the royal chapel, the mural paintings, Thai offerings to Buddha images, palaces with architectural features and functions including royal ceremonies and others. This information represents the Thai characteristics of each building and other related content. The findings were used as a manual for guides for how to describe a tourist attraction, especially the temple and other related cultural topics of interest.

Keywords: guide, guide presentation, Grand Palace, Buddhist cosmology

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72 Parallel 2-Opt Local Search on GPU

Authors: Wen-Bao Qiao, Jean-Charles Créput

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To accelerate the solution for large scale traveling salesman problems (TSP), a parallel 2-opt local search algorithm with simple implementation based on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is presented and tested in this paper. The parallel scheme is based on technique of data decomposition by dynamically assigning multiple K processors on the integral tour to treat K edges’ 2-opt local optimization simultaneously on independent sub-tours, where K can be user-defined or have a function relationship with input size N. We implement this algorithm with doubly linked list on GPU. The implementation only requires O(N) memory. We compare this parallel 2-opt local optimization against sequential exhaustive 2-opt search along integral tour on TSP instances from TSPLIB with more than 10000 cities.

Keywords: parallel 2-opt, double links, large scale TSP, GPU

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
71 Mobi Navi Tour for Rescue Operations

Authors: V. R. Sadasivam, M. Vipin, P. Vineeth, M. Sajith, G. Sathiskumar, R. Manikandan, N. Vijayarangan

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Global positioning system technology is what leads to such things as navigation systems, GPS tracking devices, GPS surveying and GPS mapping. All that GPS does is provide a set of coordinates which represent the location of GPS units with respect to its latitude, longitude and elevation on planet Earth. It also provides time, which is accurate. The tracking devices themselves come in different flavors. They will contain a GPS receiver, and GPS software, along with some way of transmitting the resulting coordinates. GPS in mobile tend to use radio waves to transmit their location to another GPS device. The purpose of this prototype “Mobi Navi Tour for Rescue Operation” timely communication, and lightning fast decision-making with a group of people located in different places with a common goal. Timely communication and tracking the people are a critical issue in many situations, environments. Expedited can find missing person by sending the location and other related information to them through mobile. Information must be drawn from the caller and entered into the system by the administrator or a group leader and transferred to the group leader. This system will locate the closest available person, a group of people working in an organization/company or vehicle to determine availability and their position to track them. Misinformation cannot lead to the wrong decision in the rapidly paced environment in a normal and an abnormal situation. In “Mobi Navi Tour for Rescue Operation” we use Google Cloud Messaging for android (GCM) which is a service that helps developers send data from servers to their android applications on android devices. The service provides a simple, lightweight mechanism that servers can use to tell mobile applications to contact the server directly, to fetch updated application or user data.

Keywords: android, gps, tour, communication, service

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
70 Marketing Strategy and Marketing Mix for Rural Tour Package in Bali: Case Study of Munduk

Authors: Made Darmiati, Ni Putu Evi Wijayanti, Ni Ketut Wiwiek Agustina, Putu Gde Arie Yudhistira, Marcel Hardono

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The establishment of tourist village has been the main concern for pro-poor tourism in Indonesia especially in Bali in order to create alternative tourist destination. The case study of this research was Munduk, a tourist village located in Buleleng Regency, Bali Province. Munduk has been unstable in terms of tourist visit in 2012 until 2016. The concept of marketing strategy and its marketing mix are concepts that suitable for application in Munduk as the prime owner of trekking and other rural tour packages to increase the number of visitor in particularly during low season. The research study aims to determine the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) impacting the number of tourist visit so that they could formulate appropriate marketing strategy for Munduk Tourist Village. Data has been obtained by observation, interviews with stakeholders, questionnaire to 100 participants and documentation. In addition, this research study uses descriptive qualitative methods and techniques known as SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis by internal factors and external factors impacting the level of tourist visit to Munduk Tourist Village in Buleleng Regency, Bali. The sampling was done by ‘accidental sampling technique’ to obtain the participants to analyse the results of the SWOT analysis. Further assessment of internal and external weights has resulted respectively (1.84 , 1.84) which are in the first quadrant of the diagram in which S-O (Strengths-Opportunities) Strategy. As the prime owner of the trekking and other rural tour packages in the village, Munduk should maximise its strengths and take other opportunities as possible to wrap and design trekking and other rural tour packages and then offer the package to travel agents in Bali.

Keywords: marketing mix, marketing strategy, rural tourism, SWOT matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
69 A User Study on the Adoption of Context-Aware Destination Mobile Applications

Authors: Shu-Lu Hsu, Fang-Yi Chu

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With the advances in information and communications technology, mobile context-aware applications have become powerful marketing tools. In Apple online store, there are numerous mobile applications (APPs) developed for destination tour. This study investigated the determinants of adoption of context-aware APPs for destination tour services. A model is proposed based on Technology Acceptance Model and privacy concern theory. The model was empirically tested based on a sample of 259 users of a tourism APP published by Kaohsiung Tourism Bureau, Taiwan. The results showed that the fitness of the model is well and, among all the factors, the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have the most significant influences on the intention to adopt context-aware destination APPs. Finally, contrary to the findings of previous literature, the effect of privacy concern on the adoption intention of context-aware APP is insignificant.

Keywords: mobile application, context-aware, privacy concern, TAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
68 “Moves” for Guiding Presentations in French

Authors: Nuchanat Handumrongkul, Suwaree Yordchim, Anantachai Aeka

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Despite four years of study in the tourism industry, the Bachelor’s graduates cannot perform their jobs as experienced tour guides. This research aimed to develop French teaching and studying for Tourism with two main purposes: to analyze ‘Moves’ used in oral presentations at tourist attractions; and to study content in guiding presentations or 'Guide Speak'. The study employed audio recording of these presentations as an interview method in authentic situations, having four tour guides as respondents and information providers. The data was analyzed via moves and content analysis. The results found that there were eight moves used; namely: welcoming, introducing oneself, drawing someone’s attention, giving information, explaining, highlighting, persuading, and saying goodbye. In terms of content, the information being presented covered the outstanding characteristics of the places and well-integrated with other related content. The findings were used as guidelines for curriculum development; in particular, the core content and the presentation forming the basis for students to meet the standard requirements of the labor-market and professional schemes.

Keywords: moves, guiding presentation, french, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
67 Comparison of Heuristic Methods for Solving Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Regita P. Permata, Ulfa S. Nuraini

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Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is the most studied problem in combinatorial optimization. In simple language, TSP can be described as a problem of finding a minimum distance tour to a city, starting and ending in the same city, and exactly visiting another city. In product distribution, companies often get problems in determining the minimum distance that affects the time allocation. In this research, we aim to apply TSP heuristic methods to simulate nodes as city coordinates in product distribution. The heuristics used are sub tour reversal, nearest neighbor, farthest insertion, cheapest insertion, nearest insertion, and arbitrary insertion. We have done simulation nodes using Euclidean distances to compare the number of cities and processing time, thus we get optimum heuristic method. The results show that the optimum heuristic methods are farthest insertion and nearest insertion. These two methods can be recommended to solve product distribution problems in certain companies.

Keywords: Euclidean, heuristics, simulation, TSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
66 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu

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In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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65 The Effect of Motivation of Chinese Tourists to Visit North Korea on Their Revisit Intention: Focused on the Tourists with the Experience of Visiting North Korea

Authors: Kim Jin-OK, Lee Jin-Eui, Han Seung-Hoon, Kim Nam-Jo

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This study aimed to analyze the effect of the motivation of Chinese tourists to visit North Korea on their decision making process. Chinese tourists account for a considerable portion of foreign tourists in the world, while North Korea is the favorite tourist attraction of Chinese tourists. The motivation to visit North Korea was divided into three factors: the redness, which is the modern cultural heritage of Communism based on the red tourism accounting for the significant portion of domestic tourism, the novelty of the special environment of North Korean society, and the convenience of tour to North Korea in terms of geographical distance and policy of China. Red tourism refers to visiting the places of revolutionary events, monuments, artifacts and the residences of previous communist leaders, and other places related to the past Chinese Communist Party. As a revolutionary tourism, red tourism has recently been taking place in the old communist countries to recall their memories on the revolutionary places in China, as well as in North Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Russia, Bulgaria, Cuba, etc. In order to examine the effect of the segmented motivations on the revisit intention of Chinese tourists who have experienced a tour to North Korea, this study employed the model of goal-directed behavior, a model developed by adding a variable of emotion to the theory of planned behavior, which has a strong explanatory power on the decision making process of people in social science. For achieving the aim of the study, the data was collected through the survey in Dandong, China against Chinese tourists who have visited North Korea. The results of this study found that not only the novelty of North Korea, but also the redness, which accounts for the largest proportion in the domestic tourism, are significantly affecting overseas tour of Chinese tourists at this time point where overseas tour of Chinese tourists continue to increase. The results, therefore, suggest that the old communist countries, including those in Asia, need an emotional promotion strategy that stimulates nostalgia by focusing on the redness of the modern cultural heritage of Communism to attract Chinese tourists.

Keywords: model of goal-directed behavior, modern cultural heritage, North Korea, red tourism

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64 The Studies of Client Requirements in Home Stay: A Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Kanamon Suwantada

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The purpose of this research is to understand customer’s expectations towards homestays and to establish the precise strategies to increase numbers of tourists for homestay business in Amphawa district, Samutsongkram, Thailand. The researcher aims to ensure that each host provides experiences to travelers who are looking for and determining new targets for homestay business in Amphawa as well as creating sustainable homestay using marketing strategies to increase customers. The methods allow interview and questionnaire to gain both overview data from the tourists and qualitative data from the homestay owner’s perspective to create a GAP analysis. The data was collected from 200 tourists, during 15th May - 30th July, 2011 from homestay in Amphawa Community. The questionnaires were divided into three sections: the demographic profile, customer information and influencing on purchasing position, and customer expectation towards homestay. The analysis, in fact, will be divided into two methods which are percentage and correlation analyses. The result of this research revealed that homestay had already provided customers with reasonable prices in good locations. Antithetically, activities that they offered still could not have met the customer’s requirements. Homestay providers should prepare additional activities such as village tour, local attraction tour, village daily life experiences, local ceremony participation, and interactive conversation with local people. Moreover, the results indicated that a price was the most important factor for choosing homestay.

Keywords: ecotourism, homestay, marketing, sufficiency economic philosophy

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
63 One-Stop Culture Workshop Concept as a Way to Raise the Potential of Indonesia Culture in AEC 2015: Case Study in Saung Angklung Udjo

Authors: Meiliana, Achmad Eko Prabowo, Muhammad Fathan Mubina

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AFTA agreement in 2015 will bring a significant impact on Indonesian society. Indonesia’s people will face competition both in the economic, political, and cultural regionally among ten countries in ASEAN. Indonesia is a rich country in culture and has a large enough demographic bonus when compared to other ASEAN countries. Indonesia also has a lot of cultural enrichment in every its region. It’s mean, the role of society and culture of Indonesia's abundant if combined properly it will help Indonesia in the face of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) in 2015. This paper will discuss the role of one-stop culture workshop (OSCW) concept at Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU), a cultural tourist area of Angklung which is located in Bandung. OSCW is a concept that implemented a cultural tour in SAU that invites the visitor to engage in the cultural empowerment. In this research, we will answer how the concepts are applied by SAU can be an alternative to re-discover the potential of Indonesia in the face of the AEC 2015. Units of analysis that we used is among the programs, outcomes, and community empowerment. This study used a qualitative approach with in-depth interviews and observation. The finding of this study prove that OSCW concept is an opportunity for Indonesia to encourage a culture to go international. The concept of OSCW can really be used other communities to develop cultures of Indonesia so that later institutionalized culture that not only can be used as a tourist attraction but also as an educational laboratory for the community.

Keywords: OSCW concept, citizen empowerment, cultural tour, AEC 2015

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62 Passing the Charity Walking Tours as a Poverty Reduction Establishment in Denpasar City, Bali

Authors: I. Wayan Wiwin

Abstract:

Poverty is one of the big problems faced by big cities in the world. Urbanization one cause, many rural communities trying to earn a living to the city in the hope that they can improve the level of economy, but not equipped with adequate skills so that it becomes an urban demographic problem. Denpasar as the capital of the province of Bali one of them, in the city area of Denpasar there are many slum dwellings inhabited by the poor, whereas Bali is known as one of the best tourist destinations in the world. This condition is very inversely proportional to the progress of tourism in Bali. For that it is necessary to attempt to overcome poverty in the city of Denpasar, one with the development of city tours in the form of charity walking tours, where tourists are invited to take a walk to see directly the state of the poor in the city of Denpasar and provide assistance to them in the form of home assistance, educational scholarships, health assistance, as well as skill and business capital assistance. This research is explorative-qualitative, that is exploring the potential of charity walking tour to overcome poverty in Denpasar City, which is written qualitatively. In the end based on potential data and information, then analyzed into a decision whether it is possible to develop. Therefore, this study only requires respondents or informants who are able to provide answers or qualitative information about matters related to the potential development of charity walking tour. Thus, informants in this study are tourism stakeholders, such as Municipal government officials, businessmen, community leaders and tourism actors, who are considered to be providing information relating to the development of urban tourism.

Keywords: tourism, city tours, charity walking tours, poverty

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61 Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race

Authors: Renato André S. Silva, Nana L. F. Sampaio, Carlos J. G. Cruz, Bruno Vianna, Flávio O. Pires

Abstract:

multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p <0.05) of data collection. The results show: Red cells ↓ 7.8% (5.1 ± 0.28 vs 4.7 ± 0.37 106 / mm 3, p = 0.01); Hemoglobin ↓ 7.9% (15.1 ± 0.31 vs 13.9 ± 0.27 g / dL, p = 0.01); Leukocytes ↑ 9.5% (4946 ± 553 versus 5416 ± 1075 / mm 3, p = 0.17); Platelets ↓ 7.0% (200.2 ± 51.5 vs 186.1 ± 39.5 / mm 3, p = 0.01); LDH ↑ 11% (164.4 ± 28.5 vs 182.5 ± 20.5 U / L, p = 0.17); CK ↑ 13.5% (290.7 ± 206.1 vs 330.1 ± 90.5 U / L, p = 0.39); CK-MB ↑ 2% (15.7 ± 3.9 vs. 20.1 ± 2.9 U / L, p = 0.06); Cortizol ↓ 13.5% (12.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.9 μg / dL, p = 0.01); Total testosterone ↓ 7% (453.6 ± 120.1 vs 421.7 ± 74.3 ng / dL, p = 0.12); IGF-1 ↓ 15.1% (213.8 ± 18.8 vs 181.5 ± 34.7 ng / mL, p = 0.04). This means that there was significant reductions in O2 allocation / transport capacities, vascular injury disruption, and a fortuitous reduction of muscle skeletal anabolism along with maintenance and / or slight elevation of immune function, glucose and lipid energy and myocardial damage. Therefore, the results suggest that no abnormal health effect was identified among the athletes after participating in the Tour de Goiás.

Keywords: cycling, health effects, cycling stages races, haematology

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60 Ethiopia as a Tourist Destination: An Exploration of Italian Tourists’ Market Demand

Authors: Frezer Okubay Weldegebriel

Abstract:

The tourism sector in Ethiopia plays a significant role in the national economy. The government is granting its pledge and readiness to develop this sector through various initiatives since to eradicate poverty and encourage economic development of the country is one of the Millennium Development plans. The tourism sector has been identified as one of the priority economic sectors by many countries, and the Government of Ethiopia has planned to make Ethiopia among the top five African destinations by 2020. Nevertheless, the international tourism demand for Ethiopia currently lags behind other African countries such as South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Tanzania, and Kenya. Meanwhile, the number of international tourists’ arrival in Ethiopia is recently increasing even if it cannot be competitive with other African countries. Therefore, to offer demand-driven tourism products, the Ethiopian government, Tourism planners, Tour & Travel operators need to understand the important factors, which affect international tourists’ decision to visit Ethiopian destinations. This study was intended to analyze Italian Tourists Demand towards Ethiopian destination. The researcher aimed to identify the demand for Italian tourists’ preference to Ethiopian destinations comparing to the top East African countries. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative research methodology, and the data is manipulating through primary data collection method using questionnaires, interviews, and secondary data by reviewing books, journals, magazines, past researches, and websites. An active and potential Italian tourist cohort, five well-functioning tour operators based in Ethiopia for Italian tourists and professionals from Ethiopian Ministry of Tourism and Culture participated. Based on the analysis of the data collected through the questionnaire, interviews, and reviews of different materials, the study disclosed that the majority of Italian tourists have a high demand on Ethiopian Tourist destination. Historical and cultural interest, safety and security, the hospitality of the people and affordable accommodation coast are the main reason for them. However, some Italian tourists prefer to visit Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda due to the fact that they are fascinated by adventure, safari and beaches, while Ethiopia cannot provide these attractions. Most Italian tourists have little information and practical experiences on Ethiopian tourism possibilities via a tour and travel companies. Moreover, the insufficient marketing campaign and promotion by Ethiopian Government and Ministry of Tourism could also contribute to the failure of Ethiopian tourism.

Keywords: The demand of Italian tourists, Ethiopia economy, Ethiopia tourism destination, promoting Ethiopia tourism

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59 Analyzing the Sensation of Jogja Kembali Monument (Monjali): Case Study of Yogyakarta as the Implementation of Attraction Tour

Authors: Hutomo Abdurrohman, Muhammad Latief, Waridatun Nida, Ranta Dwi Irawati

Abstract:

Yogyakarta Kembali Monument (Monjali) is one of the most popular tourist attraction in Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is known as ‘Student City’, and Monjali is a right place to learn and explore more about Yogyakarta, especially for students in elementary and junior high school to do the study tour. Monjali is located in North Ringroad, Jongkang, Sariharjo village, Ngaglik Subdistrict, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. Monjali offers many historical replicas, and also the story behind them. That is about the war between Indonesia's fighter, called TNI (Indonesian national army) and the colonizer of Netherlands in Yogyakarta, on March, 1st 1949. That event could open the eyes of the whole of Indonesia, because at that time the TNI was placed by the invaders. This research is an effort to evaluate the visitor's interest in Monjali as a special tourist attraction. The substance that we use in this research is the Monjali's visitors whom up to 17 years old by taking a respondent in every 15 persons who visit Monjali, and we need 200 respondents to know the condition and facilities of Monjali. This research has been collected since January 2017 until October 2017. We do the interview and spread the questionnaire which has been tested all of its validity and reliability. This data analysis is descriptive statistic analysis by using the qualitative data, which is converted into the quantitative data, use the Linkert Scale. The result of this research shows that the interest of Monjali's visitors is higher 75,6%. Based on the result, we know that Monjali is being an attractiveness for people which always experience its improvements and the development. Monjali is the success to be a place which combines the entertainment with its education as a vision of Yogyakarta as a Student City.

Keywords: descriptive statistical analysis, Jogja Kembali monument, Linkert scale, sensation

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58 The Quality of Business Relationships in the Tourism System: An Imaginary Organisation Approach

Authors: Armando Luis Vieira, Carlos Costa, Arthur Araújo

Abstract:

The tourism system is viewable as a network of relationships amongst business partners where the success of each actor will ultimately be determined by the success of the whole network. Especially since the publication of Gümmesson’s (1996) ‘theory of imaginary organisations’, which suggests that organisational effectiveness largely depends on managing relationships and sharing resources and activities, relationship quality (RQ) has been increasingly recognised as a main source of value creation and competitive advantage. However, there is still ambiguity around this topic, and managers and researchers have been recurrently reporting the need to better understand and capitalise on the quality of interactions with business partners. This research aims at testing an RQ model from a relational, imaginary organisation’s approach. Two mail surveys provide the perceptions of 725 hotel representatives about their business relationships with tour operators, and 1,224 corporate client representatives about their business relationships with hotels (21.9 % and 38.8 % response rate, respectively). The analysis contributes to enhance our understanding on the linkages between RQ and its determinants, and identifies the role of their dimensions. Structural equation modelling results highlight trust as the dominant dimension, the crucial role of commitment and satisfaction, and suggest customer orientation as complementary building block. Findings also emphasise problem solving behaviour and selling orientation as the most relevant dimensions of customer orientation. The comparison of the two ‘dyads’ deepens the discussion and enriches the suggested theoretical and managerial guidelines concerning the contribution of quality relationships to business performance.

Keywords: corporate clients, destination competitiveness, hotels, relationship quality, structural equations modelling, tour operators

Procedia PDF Downloads 318