Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 613

Search results for: communicative competence

613 Communicative Competence versus Language Proficiency

Authors: Pouya Vakili

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The aim of present paper is to have a rough comparison between language proficiency and communicative competence, moreover, how different scholars in the field of second language acquisition/assessment have defined competence in different paradigms. Researchers differ, however, in how they view 'competence'. Those who are dealing with generative tradition associated with Chomsky have defined it as linguistic competence (knowledge of the grammar of L2). Other researchers have adopted a broader perspective that is examining how learners acquire communicative competence (knowledge of both the L2 grammar and of how this system is put to use in actual communication).

Keywords: communicative competence, competence, language proficiency, linguistic competence

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612 Developing University EFL Students’ Communicative Competence by Using Communicative Approach

Authors: Mutwakel Abdalla Ali Garalzain

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The aim of this study is to develop university EFL students’ communicative competence. The descriptive, analytical method was used in this study. To collect the data, the researcher designed two questionnaires, one for university EFL students and the other for English language teachers. The respondents of the study were eighty-eight; 76 university EFL students, and 12 English language teachers. The data obtained were analyzed by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). The findings of the study have revealed that most of the university EFL students are unable to express their ideas properly, although they have an abundance of vocabulary. The findings of the study have also shown that most of the university EFL students have positive attitudes towards communicative competence. The results of the study also identified the best strategies that can be used to enhance university EFL students’ communicative competence in English language teaching. The study recommends that English language textbooks should be compatible with the requirements of the student-centered approach. It also recommends that English language teachers should adopt the communicative approach’s strategies in the EFL classroom.

Keywords: applied linguistics, communicative competence , English language teaching, university EFL students

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611 Communication Competence or Language Proficiency for Employability: An Investigation on Malaysian Polytechnics ESL Engineering Students

Authors: Chong Ling Ling

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In the Malaysian polytechnic, there are concerns about language proficiency, communicative competence, and employability among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students. This study examined the relationships between communicative competence, language proficiency, and employability using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Next, Pearson’s Correlation determines the correlation between communication competence, language proficiency, and employability skills of Malaysian Polytechnic ESL engineering students. The total number of participants was 81 final-year engineering students. The findings revealed high positive correlations between the communicative competence -'I can talk with a friend in English.' and employability skill (r = 0.854, p = .031), also, language proficiency -'I can understand the English songs I listen to' and employability skill (r = 0.887, p = .038). The result is consistent with the theories. The result revealed that for the 81 students, communication competence and language proficiency, and employability skills are firmly and significantly correlated. Thus, it concluded that both communicative competence and language proficiency equally essential to ensure a higher employability rate among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students.

Keywords: communicative competence, employability, language proficiency, Malaysian polytechnic

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610 Potential Roles of Motivation and Teaching Strategies in Communicative Competencies among Palestinian University Students

Authors: Hazem Hasan Hushayish

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Motivation and teaching strategies are commonly believed to improve students’ communicative competence in English as a foreign language; still, there is not much empirical evidence to support this claim. The present study is intended to focus on the effects of motivational factors and teaching strategies on the communicative competence among the Palestinian undergraduates. In the first phase, one hundred and eighty participants, who are studying English language in three Palestinian universities, answered a questionnaire. The questionnaire included items derived from Gardner’s 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007 Attitude/Motivation Test Battery AMTB and items from Dörnyei 2007 and Guilloteaux and Dörnyei 2008 teaching strategies framework for foreign language classrooms. In the second phase, 6 participants, from the same universities, were interviewed. The quantitative results indicated that participants’ communicative competence is significantly affected by motivation and teaching strategies. Also, the qualitative results indicated that teaching strategies do not directly affect students’ communicative competence, but rather affect their motivation. Consequently, the current study will add substantively to the literature concerning the effects of motivation and teaching strategies in communicative competencies among EFL learners in the Palestinian context, and some suggested procedures and suggestions that help improve learners’ communicative competences.

Keywords: communicative competence, motivation, teaching strategies, Palestinian undergraduates

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609 English Learning Motivation in Communicative Competence

Authors: Sebastianus Menggo

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The aim of communicative language teaching is to enable learners to communicate in the target language. Each learner is required to perform the micro and macro components in each utterance produced. Utterances produced must be in line with the understanding of competence and performance of each speaker. These are inter-depended. Competence and performance are obliged to be appeared proportionally in creating the utterances. The representative of competence and performance reflects the linguistics identity of a speaker in providing sentences in each certain language community. Each lexicon spoken may lead that interlocutor in comprehending the intentions utterances given. However proportional performance of both components in an utterance needed to be further elaborated. Finding appropriate gap between competence and performance components in a communicative competence must be supported positive response given by the learners.The learners’ inability to keep communicative competence proportionally is caused by inside and outside factors. The inside factors are certain lacks such as lack of self-confidence and lack of motivation which could make students feel ashamed to produce utterances, scared to make mistakes, and have no enough confidence. Knowing learner’s English learning motivation is an urgent variable to be considered in creating conducive atmosphere classroom which will raise the learners to do more toward the achievement of communicative competence. Meanwhile, the outside factor is related with the teacher. The teacher should be able to recognize the students’ problem in creating conducive atmosphere in the classroom that will raise the students’ ability to be an English speaker qualified. Moreover, the aim of this research is to know and describe the English learning motivation affecting students’ communicative competence of 48 students of XI grade of science program at catholic senior of Saint Ignasius Loyola Labuan Bajo, West Flores, Indonesia. Correlation design with purposive procedure applied in this research. Data were collected through questionnaire, interview, and students’ speaking achievement document. Result shows the description of motivation significantly affecting students’ communicative competence.

Keywords: communicative, competence, English, learning, motivation

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608 An Error Analysis of English Communication of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University Students

Authors: Chantima Wangsomchok

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The main purposes of this study are (1) to test the students’ communicative competence within six main functions: greeting, parting, thanking, offering, requesting and suggesting, (2) to employ error analysis in the students’ communicative competence within those functions, and (3) to compare the characteristics of the error found from the investigation. The subjects of the study is 328 first-year undergraduates taking the Foundation English course in the first semester of the 2008 academic year at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This study found that while the subjects showed high communicative competence in the use of the following three functions: greeting, thanking, and offering, they seemed to show poor communicative competence in suggesting, requesting and parting instead. In addition, this study found that the grammatical errors were likely to be most frequently found in the parting function. In the same way, the type of errors which were less frequently found was in the functions of thanking and requesting respectively. Instead, the students tended to have high pragmatic failure in the use of greeting and suggesting functions.

Keywords: error analysis, functions of English language, communicative competence, cognitive science

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607 Empowering Business Students with Intercultural Communicative Competence through Multicultural Literature

Authors: Dorsaf Ben Malek

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The function of culture in language teaching changed because of globalization and the latest technologies. English became a lingua franca which resulted in altering the teaching objectives. The re-evaluation of cultural awareness is one of them. Business English teaching has also been subject to all these changes. It is therefore a wrong idea if we try to consider it as a diffusion of unlimited listing of lexis, diagrams, charts, and statistics. In fact, business students’ future career will require business terminology together with intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to handle different multicultural encounters and contribute to the international community. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the necessity of empowering business students with intercultural communicative competence and the second turns around the potential of multicultural literature in implementing ICC in business English teaching. This was proved through a qualitative action research done on a group of Tunisian MA business students. It was an opportunity to discover the potential of multicultural literature together with inquiry-based learning in enhancing business students’ intercultural communicative competence. Data were collected through classroom observations, journals and semi-structured interviews. Results were in favour of using multicultural literature to enhance business students’ ICC. In addition, the short story may be a motivating tool to read literature, and inquiry-based learning can be an effective approach to teaching literature.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, multicultural literature, short stories, inquiry-based learning

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606 Effect of Spelling on Communicative Competence: A Case Study of Registry Staff of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Lukman Omobola Adisa

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Spelling is rule bound in a written discourse. It, however, calls into question, when such convention is grossly contravened in a formal setting revered as citadel of learning, despite availability of computer spell-checker, human knowledge, and lexicon. The foregoing reveals the extent of decadence pervading education sector in Nigeria. It is on this premise that this study reviews the effect of spelling on communicative competence of the University of Ibadan Registry Staff. The theoretical framework basically evaluates diverse scholars’ views on communicative competence and how spelling influences the intended meaning of a word/ sentence as a result of undue infringement on grammatical (spelling) rule. Newsletter, bulletin, memo, and letter are four print materials purposively selected while the methodology adopted is content analysis. Similarly, five categories, though not limited to, through which spelling blunders are committed are considered: effect of spelling (omission, addition, and substitution); sound ( homophone); transposition (heading/body: content) and ambiguity (capitalisation, space, and acronym). Subsequently, the analyses, findings, and recommendations are equally looked into. Summarily, the study x-rays effective role(s) plays by spelling in enhancing communicative competence through appropriate usage of linguistic registers.

Keywords: communicative competence, content analysis, effect of spelling, linguistics registers

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605 Philosophical Foundations of Education at the Kazakh Languages by Aiding Communicative Methods

Authors: Duisenova Marzhan

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This paper considers the looking from a philosophical point of view the interactive technology and tiered developing Kazakh language teaching primary school pupils through the method of linguistic communication, content and teaching methods formed in the education system. The values determined by the formation of new practical ways that could lead to a novel qualitative level and solving the problem. In the formation of the communicative competence of elementary school students would be to pay attention to other competencies. It helps to understand the motives and needs socialization of students, the development of their cognitive abilities and participate in language relations arising from different situations. Communicative competence is the potential of its own in pupils creative language activity. In this article, the Kazakh language teaching in primary school communicative method is presented. The purpose of learning communicative method, personal development, effective psychological development of the child, himself-education, expansion and growth of language skills and vocabulary, socialization of children, the adoption of the laws of life in the social environment, analyzed the development of vocabulary richness of the language that forms the erudition to ensure continued improvement of education of the child.

Keywords: communicative, culture, training, process, method, primary, competence

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604 Using Authentic and Instructional Materials to Support Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELT

Authors: Jana Beresova

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The paper presents a study carried out in 2015-2016 within the national scheme of research - VEGA 1/0106/15 based on theoretical research and empirical verification of the concept of intercultural communicative competence. It focuses on the current conception concerning target languages teaching compatible with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Our research had revealed how the concept of intercultural communicative competence had been perceived by secondary-school teachers of English in Slovakia before they were intensively trained. Intensive workshops were based on the use of both authentic and instructional materials with the goal to support interculturally oriented language teaching aimed at challenging thinking. The former concept that supported the development of the students´ linguistic knowledge and the use of a target language to obtain information about the culture of the country whose language learners were learning was expanded by the meaning-making framework which views language as a typical means by which culture is mediated. The goal of the workshop was to influence English teachers to better understand the concept of intercultural communicative competence, combining theory and practice optimally. The results of the study will be presented and analysed, providing particular recommendations for language teachers and suggesting some changes in the National Educational Programme from which English learners should benefit in their future studies or professional careers.

Keywords: authentic materials, English language teaching, instructional materials, intercultural communicative competence

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603 Enhancing Communicative Skills for Students in Automatics

Authors: Adrian Florin Busu

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The communicative approach, or communicative language teaching, used for enhancing communicative skills in students in automatics is a modern teaching approach based on the concept of learning a language through having to communicate real meaning. In the communicative approach, real communication is both the objective of learning and the means through which it takes place. This approach was initiated during the 1970’s and quickly became prominent, as it proposed an alternative to the previous systems-oriented approaches. In other words, instead of focusing on the acquisition of grammar and vocabulary, the communicative approach aims at developing students’ competence to communicate in the target language with an enhanced focus on real-life situations. To put it in an nutshell, CLT considers using the language to be just as important as actually learning the language.

Keywords: communication, approach, objective, learning

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602 The Impact of Intercultural Communicative Competence on the Academic Achievement of English Language Learners: Students Working in the Sector of Tourism in Jordan (Petra and Jerash) as a Case Study

Authors: Haneen Alrawashdeh, Naciye Kunt

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Intercultural communicative competence or (ICC), is an extension of communicative competence that takes into account the intercultural aspect of learning a foreign language. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the intercultural interaction impact on English as a foreign language learners' academic achievement of language as a scholastic subject and their motivation towards learning it. To achieve the aim of the study, a qualitative research approach was implemented by means of semi-structured interviews. Interview sessions were conducted with eight teachers of English as well as ten English language learners who work in the tourism industry in a variety of career paths, such as selling antiques and traditional costumes. An analysis of learners' grades of English subjects from 2014 to 2019 academic years was performed by using the Open Education Management Information System Database in Jordan to support the findings of the study. The results illustrated that due to the fact that they work in the tourism sector, students gain skills and knowledge that assist them in better academic achievement in the subject of English by practicing intercultural communication with different nationalities on a daily basis; intercultural communication enhances students speaking skills, lexicon, and fluency; however, despite that their grades showed increasing, from teachers perspectives, intercultural communicative competence reduces their linguistic accuracy and ability to perform English academic writing in academic contexts such as exams.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, Jordan, language learning motivation, language academic achievement

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601 Implementing Effective Mathematical-Discussion Programme for Mathematical Competences in Primary School Classroom in South Korea

Authors: Saeyoung Lee

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As the enthusiasm for education in Korea is too much high, it is well known by others that children in Korea get good scores in Mathematics. However, behind of this good reputation, children in Korea are easy to get lose self-confidence, tend to complaint and rarely participate in the class because of too much competition which leads to lack of competences. In this regard, the main goals of this paper are, by applying the programme based on peer-communication on Mathematics education field, it would like to improve self-managemental competence to make children gain self-confidence, communicative competence to make them deal with complaint and communitive competence to make them participated in the class for the age of 10 children to solve this problem. 14 children the age of 10 in one primary school in Gangnam, Seoul, Korea had participated in the research from March 2018 to October 2018. They were under the programme based on peer-communication during the period. Every Mathematics class maintained the same way. Firstly a problem was given to children. Secondly, children were asked to find many ways to solve the problem as much as they could by themselves. Thirdly all ways to solve the problem by children were posted on the board and three of the children made a group to distinguish the ways from valid to invalid. Lastly, all children made a discuss to find one way which is the most efficient among valid ways. Pre-test was carried out by the questionnaire based on Likert scale before applying the programme. The result of the pre-test was 3.89 for self-managemental competence, 3.91 for communicative competence and 4.19 for communitive competence. Post-test was carried out by the same questionnaire after applying the programme. The result of the post-test was 3.93 for self-managemental competence, 4.23 for communicative competence and 4.20 for communitive competence. That means by applying the programme based on peer-communication on Mathematics education field, the age of 10 children in Korea could improve self-managemental, communicative and communitive competence. Especially it works very well on communicative competence by increasing 0.32 points as it marked. Considering this research, Korean Mathematics education based on competition which leads to lack of competences should be changed to cooperative structure to make students more competent rather than just getting good scores. In conclusion, innovative teaching methods which are focused on improving competences such as the programme based on peer-communication which was applied in this research are strongly required to be studied and widely used.

Keywords: competences, mathematics education, peer-communication, primary education

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600 When English Learners Speak “Non-Standard” English

Authors: Gloria Chen

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In the past, when we complimented someone who had a good command of English, we would say ‘She/He speaks/writes standard English,’ or ‘His/Her English is standard.’ However, with English has becoming a ‘global language,’ many scholars and English users even create a plural form for English as ‘world Englishes,’ which indicates that national/racial varieties of English not only exist, but also are accepted to a certain degree. Now, a question will be raised when it comes to English teaching and learning: ‘What variety/varieties of English should be taught?’ This presentation will first explore Braj Kachru’s well-known categorization of the inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle of English users, as well as inner circle varieties such as ‘Ebonics’ and ‘cockney’. The presentation then will discuss the purposes and contexts of English learning, and apply different approaches to different purposes and contexts. Three major purposes of English teaching/learning will be emphasized and considered: (1) communicative competence, (2) academic competence, and (3) intercultural competence. This presentation will complete with the strategies of ‘code switch’ and ‘register switch’ in teaching English to non-standard English speakers in both speaking and writing.

Keywords: world Englishes, standard and non-standard English, inner, outer, expanded circle communicative, academic, intercultural competence

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599 Online Language Tandem: Focusing on Intercultural Communication Competence and Non-Verbal Cues

Authors: Amira Benabdelkader

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Communication presents the channel by which humankind create and maintain their relationship with others, express themselves, exchange information, learn and teach etc. The context of communication plays a distinctive role in deciding about the language to be used. The term context is mainly used to refer to the interlocutors, their cultures, languages, relationship, physical surrounding that is the communication setting, type of the information to be transmitted, the topic etc. Cultures, on one hand, impose on humans certain behaviours, attitudes, gestures and beliefs. On the other hand, the focus on language is inevitable as it is with its verbal and non-verbal components, a key tool in and for communication. Moreover, each language has its particularity in how people voice, address and express their thoughts, feelings and beliefs. Being in the same setting with people from different cultures and languages and having conversations with them would call upon the intercultural communicative competence. This latter would promote the success of their conversations. Additionally, this competence could manifest in several ways during their interactions, to the extent that no one can predict when and how the interlocutors would use it. The only thing probably that could be confirmed is that the setting and culture would in a way or another intervene and often shape the flow of their communication, if not the whole communication. Therefore, this paper will look at the intercultural communicative competence of language learners when introducing their cultures to each other in an online language tandem (henceforth OLT) using their second and/or foreign language with the L1 language speakers. The participants of this study are Algerian (use L2: French, FL: English), British (L1: English, L2/FL: French). In other words, this current paper will provide a qualitative analysis of the OLT experiment by emphasising how language learners can overcome the cultural differences in an intercultural setting while communicating online using Skype (video conversations) with people from different countries, cultures and L1. The non-verbal cues will have the lion share in the analysis by focusing on how they have been used to maintain this intercultural communication or hinder it through the misinterpretation of gestures, head movements, grimaces etc.

Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, non-verbal cues, online language tandem, Skype

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598 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine

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The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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597 Teaching Turn-Taking Rules and Pragmatic Principles to Empower EFL Students and Enhance Their Learning in Speaking Modules

Authors: O. F. Elkommos

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Teaching and learning EFL speaking modules is one of the most challenging productive modules for both instructors and learners. In a student-centered interactive communicative language teaching approach, learners and instructors should be aware of the fact that the target language must be taught as/for communication. The student must be empowered by tools that will work on more than one level of their communicative competence. Communicative learning will need a teaching and learning methodology that will address the goal. Teaching turn-taking rules, pragmatic principles and speech acts will enhance students' sociolinguistic competence, strategic competence together with discourse competence. Sociolinguistic competence entails the mastering of speech act conventions and illocutionary acts of refusing, agreeing/disagreeing; emotive acts like, thanking, apologizing, inviting, offering; directives like, ordering, requesting, advising, and hinting, among others. Strategic competence includes enlightening students’ consciousness of the various particular turn-taking systemic rules of organizing techniques of opening and closing conversation, adjacency pairs, interrupting, back-channeling, asking for/giving opinion, agreeing/disagreeing, using natural fillers for pauses, gaps, speaker select, self-select, and silence among others. Students will have the tools to manage a conversation. Students are engaged in opportunities of experiencing the natural language not as a mere extra student talking time but rather an empowerment of knowing and using the strategies. They will have the component items they need to use as well as the opportunity to communicate in the target language using topics of their interest and choice. This enhances students' communicative abilities. Available websites and textbooks now use one or more of these tools of turn-taking or pragmatics. These will be students' support in self-study in their independent learning study hours. This will be their reinforcement practice on e-Learning interactive activities. The students' target is to be able to communicate the intended meaning to an addressee that is in turn able to infer that intended meaning. The combination of these tools will be assertive and encouraging to the student to beat the struggle with what to say, how to say it, and when to say it. Teaching the rules, principles and techniques is an act of awareness raising method engaging students in activities that will lead to their pragmatic discourse competence. The aim of the paper is to show how the suggested pragmatic model will empower students with tools and systems that would support their learning. Supporting students with turn taking rules, speech act theory, applying both to texts and practical analysis and using it in speaking classes empowers students’ pragmatic discourse competence and assists them to understand language and its context. They become more spontaneous and ready to learn the discourse pragmatic dimension of the speaking techniques and suitable content. Students showed a better performance and a good motivation to learn. The model is therefore suggested for speaking modules in EFL classes.

Keywords: communicative competence, EFL, empowering learners, enhance learning, speech acts, teaching speaking, turn taking, learner centred, pragmatics

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596 Intercultural Competence in Teaching Mediation to Students of Legal English

Authors: Paulina Dwuznik

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For students of legal English, the skill of mediation is of special importance as it constitutes part of their everyday work. Developing the skill of mediation requires developing linguistic, communicative, textual, pragmatic, interactive, social, and intercultural competencies. The study conducted at the Open University of the University of Warsaw compared the results of a questionnaire concerning the needs of legal professionals relating to mediation tasks, which they perform at work with the analysis of the content of different legal English handbooks with special stress on the development of intercultural competence necessary in interlinguistic mediation. The study found that legal English handbooks focus mainly on terminology study, but some of them extend students' intercultural competence in a way which may help them to perform tasks of mediating concepts, texts, and communication. The author of the paper will present the correlation between intercultural competence and mediation skill and give some examples of mediation tasks which may be based on comparative intercultural content of some chosen academic legal English handbooks.

Keywords: intercultural competence, legal English, mediation skill, teaching

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595 Developing Oral Communication Competence in a Second Language: The Communicative Approach

Authors: Ikechi Gilbert

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Oral communication is the transmission of ideas or messages through the speech process. Acquiring competence in this area which, by its volatile nature, is prone to errors and inaccuracies would require the adoption of a well-suited teaching methodology. Efficient oral communication facilitates exchange of ideas and easy accomplishment of day-to-day tasks, by means of a demonstrated mastery of oral expression and the making of fine presentations to audiences or individuals while recognizing verbal signals and body language of others and interpreting them correctly. In Anglophone states such as Nigeria, Ghana, etc., the French language, for instance, is studied as a foreign language, being used majorly in teaching learners who have their own mother tongue different from French. The same applies to Francophone states where English is studied as a foreign language by people whose official language or mother tongue is different from English. The ideal approach would be to teach these languages in these environments through a pedagogical approach that properly takes care of the oral perspective for effective understanding and application by the learners. In this article, we are examining the communicative approach as a methodology for teaching oral communication in a foreign language. This method is a direct response to the communicative needs of the learner involving the use of appropriate materials and teaching techniques that meet those needs. It is also a vivid improvement to the traditional grammatical and audio-visual adaptations. Our contribution will focus on the pedagogical component of oral communication improvement, highlighting its merits and also proposing diverse techniques including aspects of information and communication technology that would assist the second language learner communicate better orally.

Keywords: communication, competence, methodology, pedagogical component

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594 The Integration of Apps for Communicative Competence in English Teaching

Authors: L. J. de Jager

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In the South African English school curriculum, one of the aims is to achieve communicative competence, the knowledge of using language competently and appropriately in a speech community. Communicatively competent speakers should not only produce grammatically correct sentences but also produce contextually appropriate sentences for various purposes and in different situations. As most speakers of English are non-native speakers, achieving communicative competence remains a complex challenge. Moreover, the changing needs of society necessitate not merely language proficiency, but also technological proficiency. One of the burning issues in the South African educational landscape is the replacement of the standardised literacy model by the pedagogy of multiliteracies that incorporate, by default, the exploration of technological text forms that are part of learners’ everyday lives. It foresees learners as decoders, encoders, and manufacturers of their own futures by exploiting technological possibilities to constantly create and recreate meaning. As such, 21st century learners will feel comfortable working with multimodal texts that are intrinsically part of their lives and by doing so, become authors of their own learning experiences while teachers may become agents supporting learners to discover their capacity to acquire new digital skills for the century of multiliteracies. The aim is transformed practice where learners use their skills, ideas, and knowledge in new contexts. This paper reports on a research project on the integration of technology for language learning, based on the technological pedagogical content knowledge framework, conceptually founded in the theory of multiliteracies, and which aims to achieve communicative competence. The qualitative study uses the community of inquiry framework to answer the research question: How does the integration of technology transform language teaching of preservice teachers? Pre-service teachers in the Postgraduate Certificate of Education Programme with English as methodology were purposively selected to source and evaluate apps for teaching and learning English. The participants collaborated online in a dedicated Blackboard module, using discussion threads to sift through applicable apps and develop interactive lessons using the Apps. The selected apps were entered on to a predesigned Qualtrics form. Data from the online discussions, focus group interviews, and reflective journals were thematically and inductively analysed to determine the participants’ perceptions and experiences when integrating technology in lesson design and the extent to which communicative competence was achieved when using these apps. Findings indicate transformed practice among participants and research team members alike with a better than average technology acceptance and integration. Participants found value in online collaboration to develop and improve their own teaching practice by experiencing directly the benefits of integrating e-learning into the teaching of languages. It could not, however, be clearly determined whether communicative competence was improved. The findings of the project may potentially inform future e-learning activities, thus supporting student learning and development in follow-up cycles of the project.

Keywords: apps, communicative competence, English teaching, technology integration, technological pedagogical content knowledge

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593 The Role of Eclectic Approach to Teach Communicative Function at Secondary Level

Authors: Fariha Asif

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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of eclectic approach in teaching of communicative functions. The objectives of the study were to get the information about the use of communicative functions through eclectic approach and to point out the most effective way of teaching functional communication and social interaction with the help of communicative activities through eclectic approach. The next step was to select sample from the selected population. As the research was descriptive so a questionnaire was developed on the basis of hypothesis and distributed to different selected schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Then data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted through computer by finding percentages of different responses given by teachers to see the results. It was concluded that eclectic approach is effective in teaching communicative functions and communicative functions are better when taught through eclectic approach and communicative activities are more appropriate way of teaching communicative functions. It was found those teachers who were qualified in ELT gave better opinions as compare to those who did not have this degree. Techniques like presentations, dialogues and roleplay proved to be effective for teaching functional communication through communicative activities and also motivate the students not only in learning rules but also in using them to communicate with others.

Keywords: methodology, functions, teaching, ESP

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592 Building Intercultural Competence in English Language Learners: Practices and Materials of Cultural-Based Language Teaching

Authors: Randa Alahmadi

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Because the world has become a global village, English is not only used by native speakers, but also by non-native speakers from culturally diverse backgrounds. Even though learning a second/foreign language requires development of the four skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking, there is also an intertwined relationship between language and culture, making it difficult to teach language without knowing the cultural context in which it is to be used. In the past decade, the number of international students enrolled in universities around the world has increased significantly. Having the urge to communicate effectively would serve as a motivation for both international and domestic students. The teaching of culture is important because linguistic competence is not enough for successful communication with speakers of other languages. Therefore, whether teaching natives or non-natives, students need to improve their cross-cultural communication skills and become culturally prepared to communicate successfully with people from other cultures. Teachers can equip their students for this environment by giving them appropriate knowledge and skills for effective intercultural communication. This paper will focus on the importance of intercultural communicative competence and its role in developing students’ understanding of diverse cultures as part of learning foreign/second languages. It will also explain how teachers can decide which culture should be taught: the target culture, the learners’ culture, or both. Moreover, practical and effective techniques that can be used in cultural-based language teaching will be shared.

Keywords: cultural-based language teaching, English as a lingua franca, English language learners, intercultural communicative competence

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591 Communicative Competence in French Language for Nigerian Teacher-Trainees in the New-Normal Society Using Mobile Apps as a Lifelong Learning Tool

Authors: Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

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Learning is natural for living. One stops learning when life ends. Hence, there is no negotiating life-long learning. An individual has the innate ability to learn as many languages as he/she desires as long as life exists. French language education to every Nigerian teacher-trainee is a necessity. Nigeria’s geographical location requires that the French language should be upheld for economic and cultural co-operations between Nigeria and the francophone countries sharing borders with her. The French language will enhance the leadership roles of the teacher-trainees and their ability to function across borders. The 21st century learning tools are basically digital, and many apps are complementing the actual classroom interactions. This study examined the communicative competence in the French language to equip Nigerian teacher-trainees in the new-normal society using mobile apps as a lifelong learning tool. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study, and the researcher adopted a pre-test, a post-test experimental design, using a sample size of 87 teacher-trainees in South-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Results showed that the use of mobile apps is effective for learning the French language. One of the recommendations is that the use of mobile apps should be encouraged for all Nigerian youths to learn the French language for enhancing leadership roles in the world of work and for international interactions for socio-economic co-operations with Nigerian neighboring countries.

Keywords: communicative competence, french language, life long learning, mobile apps, new normal society, teacher trainees

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590 Raising Multilingual Awareness towards Plurilingual Competence Development: Through Which Approach and Which Pedagogical Material-A Case Study in the Greek Primary Education

Authors: Eftychia Damaskou

Abstract:

This article intends to place the question of the adequate approach for teaching multilingualism within the public education. Linguistic education, as it is defined by the Common European Framework of Reference for the Languages, is no longer the proficiency in one or two languages. It’s about the development of a linguistic repertoire, where all linguistic skills find their place. In fact, the linguistic theories that frame the development of plurilingual competence point out the affective and intercultural aspect of such a process, insisting on an awareness of linguistic diversification, rather than an acquisition of communicative competence in many languages. In this spirit, our article attempts to go beyond a mere plurilingual awareness, present a research based on an experience in class, within 115 pupils, aiming at the development of plurilingual competence in five unknown foreign languages. This experience was held through a teaching unit personally conceived and applied, and consisted of a series of 6 activities based on a cross-linguistic content approach. The data analysis proves to be very interesting, as it reveals the development of plurilingual competences, as well as positive attitudes towards less common languages by the majority of our sample.

Keywords: multilingual awareness, multilingual teaching material, plurilingual competence

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589 Towards a Competence Management Approach Based on Continuous Improvement

Authors: N. Sefiani, C. Fikri Benbrahim, A. Boumane, K. Reklaoui

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Nowadays, the reflection on competence management is the basic for new competitive strategies. It is considered as the core of the problems of the global supply chain. It interacts a variety of actors: information, physical and activities flows, etc. Even though competence management is seen as the key factor for any business success, the existing approaches demonstrate the deficiencies and limitations of the competence concept. This research has two objectives: The first is to make a contribution by focusing on the development of a competence approach, based on continuous improvement. It allows the enterprise to spot key competencies, mobilize them in order to serve its strategic objectives and to develop future competencies. The second is to propose a method to evaluate the level of Collective Competence. The approach was confirmed through an application carried out at an automotive company.

Keywords: competence, competencies’ approach, competence management, continuous improvement, collective competence level, performance indicator

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588 Communicative Roles of English Discourse Markers on Facebook among Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Members of Academic Staff

Authors: Ibrahim Sani

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of English discourse markers with the aim of investigating their communicative functions on Facebook as used by UMYUK members of academic staff. The paper uses the qualitative approach and relevance theory by Sperber and Wilson (1995) to highlight and examine DMs in different communicative contexts. In the course of data collection, five (5) academic staff from the five faculties of the university who are already Facebook friends of the researcher are used as the participants with their consent. The paper examines the communicative functions of English DMs among UMYUK academic staff on Facebook and reveals a number of communicative functions used in different contexts. One of the major findings indicates that 'contrastive markers' such as 'but', 'however', 'although' etc. are the dominant communicative functions employed by UMYUK academic staff on Facebook with 42% occurrence; it also shows that a single DM can function differently in the same linguistic environment.

Keywords: role, communicative, discourse markers, facebook, academic staff

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587 Leadership Competences: The Case of Slovenian Healthcare

Authors: Helena Kovačič, Andrej Rus

Abstract:

This study compared ratings for leadership competence of managers in the healthcare sector and professional managers in Slovenia. Managers’ competence scores were analyzed for Slovenia and compared with some other EU countries. Comparisons of correlations yielded significant differences in leader/non-leader healthcare professionals in their relational competence.

Keywords: management, competence, healthcare, Slovenia

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586 The Link Between Knowledge Management, Organizational Learning and Collective Competence

Authors: Amira Khelil, Habib Affes

Abstract:

The XXIst century is characterized by promoting teamwork as one of the main drivers of firms` performance. Collective competence is becoming crucial in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage, as well as its contributions to organizational innovation. In other words, the improvement of collective competence for a firm is no longer a choice, but rather an obligation. Learning capabilities of a firm in the context of knowledge management are assumed to be the main drivers of collective competence. Although there are some efforts to consider these concepts together; they are mostly discussed separately in the management theory. Thus, this paper aims to offer a holistic approach for development collective competence on the basis of Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Capabilities. A theoretical model that defines a relationship between knowledge management, organizational learning and collective competence is presented at the end of this paper.

Keywords: collective competence, exploitation learning, exploration learning, knowledge management, organizational learning capabilities

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585 Challenges of Teaching English as a Foreign Language in the Algerian Universities

Authors: Khedidja Benaicha Mati

Abstract:

The present research tries to highlight a very crucial issue which exists at the level of the faculty of Economics and Management at Chlef university. This issue is represented by the challenges and difficulties which face the teaching / learning process in the faculty on the part of the language teachers, the learners, and the administration staff, including mainly the absence of an agreed syllabus, lack of teaching materials, teachers’ qualifications and training, timing, coefficient, and lack of motivation and interest amongst students. All these negative factors make teaching and learning EFL rather ambiguous, ineffective and unsatisfactory. The students at the faculty of Economics and Management are looking for acquiring not only GE but also technical English to respond efficiently to the ongoing changes at the various levels most notably economy, business, technology, and sciences. Therefore, there is a need of ESP programmes which would focus on developing the communicative competence of the learners in their specific field of study or work. The aim of the present research is to explore the ways of improving the actual situation of teaching English in the faculty of Economics and to make the English courses more purposive, fulfilling and satisfactory. The sample population focused on second and third-year students of Economics from different specialties mainly commercial sciences, insurance and banking, accountancy, and management. This is done through a questionnaire which inquires students about their learning weaknesses, difficulties and challenges they encounter, and their expectations of the subject matter.

Keywords: faculty of economics and management, challenges, teaching/ learning process, EFL, GE, ESP, English courses, communicative competence

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584 Core Competence Development while Carrying out Organizational Changes

Authors: Olga A. Shvetsova

Abstract:

The paper contains the different issues of competence management in industrial companies. The theoretical bases of human resources management and practical issues of innovative enterprises’ competitiveness are considered. The research is focused on the modern industrial enterprise changes management problems; it focuses on the effective personnel management of industrial enterprises on the basis of competence approach. The influence of organizational changes on the competence development is discussed. The need for development of the new technologies is mentioned, proposal is based on competence-based approach in personnel management including in the conditions of carrying out organizational changes; methods of acquisition and development of missing key professional competences are discussed; importance of key competencies in forming competitive advantage of the organization is mentioned.

Keywords: competence model, core competencies, development of industrial company, organizational changes, competitiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 199