Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23158

Search results for: high quality image

23158 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
23157 Performance of Hybrid Image Fusion: Implementation of Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform Technique

Authors: Manoj Gupta, Nirmendra Singh Bhadauria


Most of the applications in image processing require high spatial and high spectral resolution in a single image. For example satellite image system, the traffic monitoring system, and long range sensor fusion system all use image processing. However, most of the available equipment is not capable of providing this type of data. The sensor in the surveillance system can only cover the view of a small area for a particular focus, yet the demanding application of this system requires a view with a high coverage of the field. Image fusion provides the possibility of combining different sources of information. In this paper, we have decomposed the image using DTCWT and then fused using average and hybrid of (maxima and average) pixel level techniques and then compared quality of both the images using PSNR.

Keywords: image fusion, DWT, DT-CWT, PSNR, average image fusion, hybrid image fusion

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23156 Contrast Enhancement in Digital Images Using an Adaptive Unsharp Masking Method

Authors: Z. Mortezaie, H. Hassanpour, S. Asadi Amiri


Captured images may suffer from Gaussian blur due to poor lens focus or camera motion. Unsharp masking is a simple and effective technique to boost the image contrast and to improve digital images suffering from Gaussian blur. The technique is based on sharpening object edges by appending the scaled high-frequency components of the image to the original. The quality of the enhanced image is highly dependent on the characteristics of both the high-frequency components and the scaling/gain factor. Since the quality of an image may not be the same throughout, we propose an adaptive unsharp masking method in this paper. In this method, the gain factor is computed, considering the gradient variations, for individual pixels of the image. Subjective and objective image quality assessments are used to compare the performance of the proposed method both with the classic and the recently developed unsharp masking methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a better performance in comparison to the other existing methods.

Keywords: unsharp masking, blur image, sub-region gradient, image enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
23155 A New Categorization of Image Quality Metrics Based on a Model of Human Quality Perception

Authors: Maria Grazia Albanesi, Riccardo Amadeo


This study presents a new model of the human image quality assessment process: the aim is to highlight the foundations of the image quality metrics proposed in literature, by identifying the cognitive/physiological or mathematical principles of their development and the relation with the actual human quality assessment process. The model allows to create a novel categorization of objective and subjective image quality metrics. Our work includes an overview of the most used or effective objective metrics in literature, and, for each of them, we underline its main characteristics, with reference to the rationale of the proposed model and categorization. From the results of this operation, we underline a problem that affects all the presented metrics: the fact that many aspects of human biases are not taken in account at all. We then propose a possible methodology to address this issue.

Keywords: eye-tracking, image quality assessment metric, MOS, quality of user experience, visual perception

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23154 A Novel Combination Method for Computing the Importance Map of Image

Authors: Ahmad Absetan, Mahdi Nooshyar


The importance map is an image-based measure and is a core part of the resizing algorithm. Importance measures include image gradients, saliency and entropy, as well as high level cues such as face detectors, motion detectors and more. In this work we proposed a new method to calculate the importance map, the importance map is generated automatically using a novel combination of image edge density and Harel saliency measurement. Experiments of different type images demonstrate that our method effectively detects prominent areas can be used in image resizing applications to aware important areas while preserving image quality.

Keywords: content-aware image resizing, visual saliency, edge density, image warping

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23153 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager


Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
23152 Influence of High-Resolution Satellites Attitude Parameters on Image Quality

Authors: Walid Wahballah, Taher Bazan, Fawzy Eltohamy


One of the important functions of the satellite attitude control system is to provide the required pointing accuracy and attitude stability for optical remote sensing satellites to achieve good image quality. Although offering noise reduction and increased sensitivity, time delay and integration (TDI) charge coupled devices (CCDs) utilized in high-resolution satellites (HRS) are prone to introduce large amounts of pixel smear due to the instability of the line of sight. During on-orbit imaging, as a result of the Earth’s rotation and the satellite platform instability, the moving direction of the TDI-CCD linear array and the imaging direction of the camera become different. The speed of the image moving on the image plane (focal plane) represents the image motion velocity whereas the angle between the two directions is known as the drift angle (β). The drift angle occurs due to the rotation of the earth around its axis during satellite imaging; affecting the geometric accuracy and, consequently, causing image quality degradation. Therefore, the image motion velocity vector and the drift angle are two important factors used in the assessment of the image quality of TDI-CCD based optical remote sensing satellites. A model for estimating the image motion velocity and the drift angle in HRS is derived. The six satellite attitude control parameters represented in the derived model are the (roll angle φ, pitch angle θ, yaw angle ψ, roll angular velocity φ֗, pitch angular velocity θ֗ and yaw angular velocity ψ֗ ). The influence of these attitude parameters on the image quality is analyzed by establishing a relationship between the image motion velocity vector, drift angle and the six satellite attitude parameters. The influence of the satellite attitude parameters on the image quality is assessed by the presented model in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) in both cross- and along-track directions. Three different cases representing the effect of pointing accuracy (φ, θ, ψ) bias are considered using four different sets of pointing accuracy typical values, while the satellite attitude stability parameters are ideal. In the same manner, the influence of satellite attitude stability (φ֗, θ֗, ψ֗) on image quality is also analysed for ideal pointing accuracy parameters. The results reveal that cross-track image quality is influenced seriously by the yaw angle bias and the roll angular velocity bias, while along-track image quality is influenced only by the pitch angular velocity bias.

Keywords: high-resolution satellites, pointing accuracy, attitude stability, TDI-CCD, smear, MTF

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23151 Filtering and Reconstruction System for Grey-Level Forensic Images

Authors: Ahd Aljarf, Saad Amin


Images are important source of information used as evidence during any investigation process. Their clarity and accuracy is essential and of the utmost importance for any investigation. Images are vulnerable to losing blocks and having noise added to them either after alteration or when the image was taken initially, therefore, having a high performance image processing system and it is implementation is very important in a forensic point of view. This paper focuses on improving the quality of the forensic images. For different reasons packets that store data can be affected, harmed or even lost because of noise. For example, sending the image through a wireless channel can cause loss of bits. These types of errors might give difficulties generally for the visual display quality of the forensic images. Two of the images problems: noise and losing blocks are covered. However, information which gets transmitted through any way of communication may suffer alteration from its original state or even lose important data due to the channel noise. Therefore, a developed system is introduced to improve the quality and clarity of the forensic images.

Keywords: image filtering, image reconstruction, image processing, forensic images

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
23150 The Mediation Effect of Customer Satisfaction in the Relationship between Service Quality, Corporate Image to Customer Loyalty

Authors: Rizwan Ali, Hammad Zafar


The purpose of this research is to investigate the mediation effect of customer satisfaction in the relationship between service quality, corporate image to customer loyalty, in Pakistan banking sector. The population of this research is banking customers and sample size of 210 respondents. This research uses the SPSS, Correlation, ANOVA and regression analysis techniques along with AMOS methods. The service quality and corporate image applied by the banks are not all variables can directly affect customer loyalty, but must first going through satisfaction. Which means that banks must first need to understand what the customer basic needs through variable service quality and corporate image so that the customers feel loyal when the level of satisfaction is resolved. The service quality provided by the banking industry needs to be improved in order to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty of banking services, especially for banks in Pakistan.

Keywords: customer loyalty, service quality, corporate image, customer satisfaction

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23149 High Speed Image Rotation Algorithm

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Hyungjin Cho, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing step in image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with rotation matrix multiplication. However it requires lots of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric function calculations, so it takes long execution time. We propose a new high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. We compare the proposed algorithm with the conventional rotation one with various size images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation ones.

Keywords: high speed rotation operation, image processing, image rotation, pattern recognition, transformation matrix

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23148 Characterization of Optical Systems for Intraocular Projection

Authors: Charles Q. Yu, Victoria H. Fan, Ahmed F. Al-Qahtani, Ibraim Viera


Introduction: Over 12 million people are blind due to opacity of the cornea, the clear tissue forming the front of the eye. Current methods use plastic implants to produce a clear optical pathway into the eye but are limited by a high rate of complications. New implants utilizing completely inside-the-eye projection technology can overcome blindness due to scarring of the eye by producing images on the retina without need for a clear optical pathway into the eye and may be free of the complications of traditional treatments. However, the interior of the eye is a challenging location for the design of optical focusing systems which can produce a sufficiently high quality image. No optical focusing systems have previously been characterized for this purpose. Methods: 3 optical focusing systems for intraocular (inside the eye) projection were designed and then modeled with ray tracing software, including a pinhole system, a planoconvex, and an achromatic system. These were then constructed using off-the-shelf components and tested in the laboratory. Weight, size, magnification, depth of focus, image quality and brightness were characterized. Results: Image quality increased with complexity of system design, as did weight and size. A dual achromatic doublet optical system produced the highest image quality. The visual acuity equivalent achieved with this system was better than 20/200. Its weight was less than that of the natural human crystalline lens. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that high quality images can be produced by optical systems sufficiently small and light to be implanted within the eye.

Keywords: focusing, projection, blindness, cornea , achromatic, pinhole

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23147 Improved Super-Resolution Using Deep Denoising Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Pawan Kumar Mishra, Ganesh Singh Bisht


Super-resolution is the technique that is being used in computer vision to construct high-resolution images from a single low-resolution image. It is used to increase the frequency component, recover the lost details and removing the down sampling and noises that caused by camera during image acquisition process. High-resolution images or videos are desired part of all image processing tasks and its analysis in most of digital imaging application. The target behind super-resolution is to combine non-repetition information inside single or multiple low-resolution frames to generate a high-resolution image. Many methods have been proposed where multiple images are used as low-resolution images of same scene with different variation in transformation. This is called multi-image super resolution. And another family of methods is single image super-resolution that tries to learn redundancy that presents in image and reconstruction the lost information from a single low-resolution image. Use of deep learning is one of state of art method at present for solving reconstruction high-resolution image. In this research, we proposed Deep Denoising Super Resolution (DDSR) that is a deep neural network for effectively reconstruct the high-resolution image from low-resolution image.

Keywords: resolution, deep-learning, neural network, de-blurring

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23146 3D Guided Image Filtering to Improve Quality of Short-Time Binned Dynamic PET Images Using MRI Images

Authors: Tabassum Husain, Shen Peng Li, Zhaolin Chen


This paper evaluates the usability of 3D Guided Image Filtering to enhance the quality of short-time binned dynamic PET images by using MRI images. Guided image filtering is an edge-preserving filter proposed to enhance 2D images. The 3D filter is applied on 1 and 5-minute binned images. The results are compared with 15-minute binned images and the Gaussian filtering. The guided image filter enhances the quality of dynamic PET images while also preserving important information of the voxels.

Keywords: dynamic PET images, guided image filter, image enhancement, information preservation filtering

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23145 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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23144 The Mediating Role of Bank Image in Customer Satisfaction Building

Authors: H. Emari, Z. Emari


The main objective of this research was to determine the dimensions of service quality in the banking industry of Iran. For this purpose, the study empirically examined the European perspective suggesting that service quality consists of three dimensions, technical, functional and image. This research is an applied research and its strategy is casual strategy. A standard questionnaire was used for collecting the data. 287 customers of Melli Bank of Northwest were selected through cluster sampling and were studied. The results from a banking service sample revealed that the overall service quality is influenced more by a consumer’s perception of technical quality than functional quality. Accordingly, the Gronroos model is a more appropriate representation of service quality than the American perspective with its limited concentration on the dimension of functional quality in the banking industry of Iran. So, knowing the key dimensions of the quality of services in this industry and planning for their improvement can increase the satisfaction of customers and productivity of this industry.

Keywords: technical quality, functional quality, banking, image, mediating role

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
23143 Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal


In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising.

Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix

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23142 Quality Assurance in Cardiac Disorder Detection Images

Authors: Anam Naveed, Asma Andleeb, Mehreen Sirshar


In the article, Image processing techniques have been applied on cardiac images for enhancing the image quality. Two types of methodologies considers for survey, invasive techniques and non-invasive techniques. Different image processes for improvement of cardiac image quality and reduce the amount of radiation exposure for invasive techniques are explored. Different image processing algorithms for enhancing the noninvasive cardiac image qualities are described. Beside these two methodologies, third methodology has applied on live streaming of heart rate on ECG window for extracting necessary information, removing noise and enhancing quality. Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to investigate the impacts of cardiac images for diagnosis of cardiac arteries disease and how the enhancement on images will help the cardiologist to diagnoses disease. The paper evaluates strengths and weaknesses of different techniques applied for improved the image quality and draw a conclusion. Some specific limitations must be considered for whole survey, like the patient heart beat must be 70-75 beats/minute while doing the angiography, similarly patient weight and exposure radiation amount has some limitation.

Keywords: cardiac images, CT angiography, critical analysis, exposure radiation, invasive techniques, invasive techniques, non-invasive techniques

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23141 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed


Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Breast Dose, Image Quality, Phantom

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23140 Embedded Digital Image System

Authors: Dawei Li, Cheng Liu, Yiteng Liu


This paper introduces an embedded digital image system for Chinese space environment vertical exploration sounding rocket. In order to record the flight status of the sounding rocket as well as the payloads, an onboard embedded image processing system based on ADV212, a JPEG2000 compression chip, is designed in this paper. Since the sounding rocket is not designed to be recovered, all image data should be transmitted to the ground station before the re-entry while the downlink band used for the image transmission is only about 600 kbps. Under the same condition of compression ratio compared with other algorithm, JPEG2000 standard algorithm can achieve better image quality. So JPEG2000 image compression is applied under this condition with a limited downlink data band. This embedded image system supports lossless to 200:1 real time compression, with two cameras to monitor nose ejection and motor separation, and two cameras to monitor boom deployment. The encoder, ADV7182, receives PAL signal from the camera, then output the ITU-R BT.656 signal to ADV212. ADV7182 switches between four input video channels as the program sequence. Two SRAMs are used for Ping-pong operation and one 512 Mb SDRAM for buffering high frame-rate images. The whole image system has the characteristics of low power dissipation, low cost, small size and high reliability, which is rather suitable for this sounding rocket application.

Keywords: ADV212, image system, JPEG2000, sounding rocket

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
23139 A Multi Sensor Monochrome Video Fusion Using Image Quality Assessment

Authors: M. Prema Kumar, P. Rajesh Kumar


The increasing interest in image fusion (combining images of two or more modalities such as infrared and visible light radiation) has led to a need for accurate and reliable image assessment methods. This paper gives a novel approach of merging the information content from several videos taken from the same scene in order to rack up a combined video that contains the finest information coming from different source videos. This process is known as video fusion which helps in providing superior quality (The term quality, connote measurement on the particular application.) image than the source images. In this technique different sensors (whose redundant information can be reduced) are used for various cameras that are imperative for capturing the required images and also help in reducing. In this paper Image fusion technique based on multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MSVD) has been used. The image fusion by MSVD is almost similar to that of wavelets. The idea behind MSVD is to replace the FIR filters in wavelet transform with singular value decomposition (SVD). It is computationally very simple and is well suited for real time applications like in remote sensing and in astronomy.

Keywords: multi sensor image fusion, MSVD, image processing, monochrome video

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23138 Quality Assurances for an On-Board Imaging System of a Linear Accelerator: Five Months Data Analysis

Authors: Liyun Chang, Cheng-Hsiang Tsai


To ensure the radiation precisely delivering to the target of cancer patients, the linear accelerator equipped with the pretreatment on-board imaging system is introduced and through it the patient setup is verified before the daily treatment. New generation radiotherapy using beam-intensity modulation, usually associated the treatment with steep dose gradients, claimed to have achieved both a higher degree of dose conformation in the targets and a further reduction of toxicity in normal tissues. However, this benefit is counterproductive if the beam is delivered imprecisely. To avoid shooting critical organs or normal tissues rather than the target, it is very important to carry out the quality assurance (QA) of this on-board imaging system. The QA of the On-Board Imager® (OBI) system of one Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator was performed through our procedures modified from a relevant report and AAPM TG142. Two image modalities, 2D radiography and 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), of the OBI system were examined. The daily and monthly QA was executed for five months in the categories of safety, geometrical accuracy and image quality. A marker phantom and a blade calibration plate were used for the QA of geometrical accuracy, while the Leeds phantom and Catphan 504 phantom were used in the QA of radiographic and CBCT image quality, respectively. The reference images were generated through a GE LightSpeed CT simulator with an ADAC Pinnacle treatment planning system. Finally, the image quality was analyzed via an OsiriX medical imaging system. For the geometrical accuracy test, the average deviations of the OBI isocenter in each direction are less than 0.6 mm with uncertainties less than 0.2 mm, while all the other items have the displacements less than 1 mm. For radiographic image quality, the spatial resolution is 1.6 lp/cm with contrasts less than 2.2%. The spatial resolution, low contrast, and HU homogenous of CBCT are larger than 6 lp/cm, less than 1% and within 20 HU, respectively. All tests are within the criteria, except the HU value of Teflon measured with the full fan mode exceeding the suggested value that could be due to itself high HU value and needed to be rechecked. The OBI system in our facility was then demonstrated to be reliable with stable image quality. The QA of OBI system is really necessary to achieve the best treatment for a patient.

Keywords: CBCT, image quality, quality assurance, OBI

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23137 Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.

Keywords: high-speed rotation operation, image rotation, transform matrix, image processing, pattern recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
23136 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg


In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

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23135 A Pilot Study of Influences of Scan Speed on Image Quality for Digital Tomosynthesis

Authors: Li-Ting Huang, Yu-Hsiang Shen, Cing-Ciao Ke, Sheng-Pin Tseng, Fan-Pin Tseng, Yu-Ching Ni, Chia-Yu Lin


Chest radiography is the most common technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary diseases. However, the lesions superimposed with normal structures are difficult to be detected in chest radiography. Chest tomosynthesis is a relatively new technique to obtain 3D section images from a set of low-dose projections acquired over a limited angular range. However, there are some limitations with chest tomosynthesis. Patients undergoing tomosynthesis have to be able to hold their breath firmly for 10 seconds. A digital tomosynthesis system with advanced reconstruction algorithm and high-stability motion mechanism was developed by our research group. The potential for the system to perform a bidirectional chest scan within 10 seconds is expected. The purpose of this study is to realize the influences of the scan speed on the image quality for our digital tomosynthesis system. The major factors that lead image blurring are the motion of the X-ray source and the patient. For the fore one, an experiment of imaging a chest phantom with three different scan speeds, which are 6 cm/s, 8 cm/s, and 15 cm/s, was proceeded to understand the scan speed influences on the image quality. For the rear factor, a normal SD (Sprague-Dawley) rat was imaged with it alive and sacrificed to assess the impact on the image quality due to breath motion. In both experiments, the profile of the ROIs (region of interest) and the CNRs (contrast-to-noise ratio) of the ROIs to the normal tissue of the reconstructed images was examined to realize the degradations of the qualities of the images. The preliminary results show that no obvious degradation of the image quality was observed with increasing scan speed, possibly due to the advanced designs for the hardware and software of the system. It implies that higher speed (15 cm/s) than that of the commercialized tomosynthesis system (12 cm/s) for the proposed system is achieved, and therefore a complete chest scan within 10 seconds is expected.

Keywords: chest radiography, digital tomosynthesis, image quality, scan speed

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23134 Efects of Data Corelation in a Sparse-View Compresive Sensing Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Sajid Abas, Jon Pyo Hong, Jung-Ryun Le, Seungryong Cho


Computed tomography and laminography are heavily investigated in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework to reduce the dose to the patients as well as to the radiosensitive devices such as multilayer microelectronic circuit boards. Nowadays researchers are actively working on optimizing the compressive sensing based iterative image reconstruction algorithm to obtain better quality images. However, the effects of the sampled data’s properties on reconstructed the image’s quality, particularly in an insufficient sampled data conditions have not been explored in computed laminography. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two data properties i.e. sampling density and data incoherence on the reconstructed image obtained by conventional computed laminography and a recently proposed method called spherical sinusoidal scanning scheme. We have found that in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework, the image quality mainly depends upon the data incoherence when the data is uniformly sampled.

Keywords: computed tomography, computed laminography, compressive sending, low-dose

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23133 Efficient Corporate Image as a Strategy for Enhancing Profitability in Hotels

Authors: Lucila T. Magalong


The hotel industry has been using their corporate image and reputation to maintain service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty and to leverage themselves against competitors and facilitate their growth strategies. With the increasing pressure to perform, hotels have even created hybrid service strategy to fight in the niche markets across pricing and level-off service parameters.

Keywords: corporate image, hotel industry, service quality, customer expectations

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23132 Pre-Processing of Ultrasonography Image Quality Improvement in Cases of Cervical Cancer Using Image Enhancement

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Teguh Budiono, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo, Arwita Mulyawati


Cervical cancer is the leading cause of mortality in cancer-related diseases. In this diagnosis doctors usually perform several tests to determine the presence of cervical cancer in a patient. However, these checks require support equipment to get the results in more detail. One is by using ultrasonography. However, for the developing countries most of the existing ultrasonography has a low resolution. The goal of this research is to obtain abnormalities on low-resolution ultrasound images especially for cervical cancer case. In this paper, we emphasize our work to use Image Enhancement for pre-processing image quality improvement. The result shows that pre-processing stage is promising to support further analysis.

Keywords: cervical cancer, mortality, low-resolution, image enhancement.

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23131 Assessment of Image Databases Used for Human Skin Detection Methods

Authors: Saleh Alshehri


Human skin detection is a vital step in many applications. Some of the applications are critical especially those related to security. This leverages the importance of a high-performance detection algorithm. To validate the accuracy of the algorithm, image databases are usually used. However, the suitability of these image databases is still questionable. It is suggested that the suitability can be measured mainly by the span the database covers of the color space. This research investigates the validity of three famous image databases.

Keywords: image databases, image processing, pattern recognition, neural networks

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23130 Scintigraphic Image Coding of Region of Interest Based on SPIHT Algorithm Using Global Thresholding and Huffman Coding

Authors: A. Seddiki, M. Djebbouri, D. Guerchi


Medical imaging produces human body pictures in digital form. Since these imaging techniques produce prohibitive amounts of data, compression is necessary for storage and communication purposes. Many current compression schemes provide a very high compression rate but with considerable loss of quality. On the other hand, in some areas in medicine, it may be sufficient to maintain high image quality only in region of interest (ROI). This paper discusses a contribution to the lossless compression in the region of interest of Scintigraphic images based on SPIHT algorithm and global transform thresholding using Huffman coding.

Keywords: global thresholding transform, huffman coding, region of interest, SPIHT coding, scintigraphic images

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23129 Performance Evaluation of a Very High-Resolution Satellite Telescope

Authors: Walid A. Attia, Taher M. Bazan, Fawzy Eltohamy, Mahmoud Fathy


System performance evaluation is an essential stage in the design of high-resolution satellite telescopes prior to the development process. In this paper, a system performance evaluation of a very high-resolution satellite telescope is investigated. The evaluated system has a Korsch optical scheme design. This design has been discussed in another paper with respect to three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) scheme design and the former configuration showed better results. The investigated system is based on the Korsch optical design integrated with a time-delay and integration charge coupled device (TDI-CCD) sensor to achieve a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 25 cm. The key performance metrics considered are the spatial resolution, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the total modulation transfer function (MTF) of the system. In addition, the national image interpretability rating scale (NIIRS) metric is assessed to predict the image quality according to the modified general image quality equation (GIQE). Based on the orbital, optical and detector parameters, the estimated GSD is found to be 25 cm. The SNR has been analyzed at different illumination conditions of target albedos, sun and sensor angles. The system MTF has been computed including diffraction, aberration, optical manufacturing, smear and detector sampling as the main contributors for evaluation the MTF. Finally, the system performance evaluation results show that the computed MTF value is found to be around 0.08 at the Nyquist frequency, the SNR value was found to be 130 at albedo 0.2 with a nadir viewing angles and the predicted NIIRS is in the order of 6.5 which implies a very good system image quality.

Keywords: modulation transfer function, national image interpretability rating scale, signal to noise ratio, satellite telescope performance evaluation

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