Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Suleiman Obeidat

50 Application of Lean Six Sigma Tools to Minimize Time and Cost in Furniture Packaging

Authors: Suleiman Obeidat, Nabeel Mandahawi

Abstract:

In this work, the packaging process for a move is improved. The customers of this move need their household stuff to be moved from their current house to the new one with minimum damage, in an organized manner, on time and with the minimum cost. Our goal was to improve the process between 10% and 20% time efficiency, 90% reduction in damaged parts and an acceptable improvement in the cost of the total move process. The expected ROI was 833%. Many improvement techniques have been used in terms of the way the boxes are prepared, their preparation cost, packing the goods, labeling them and moving them to a place for moving out. DMAIC technique is used in this work: SIPOC diagram, value stream map of “As Is” process, Root Cause Analysis, Maps of “Future State” and “Ideal State” and an Improvement Plan. A value of ROI=624% is obtained which is lower than the expected value of 833%. The work explains the techniques of improvement and the deficiencies in the old process.

Keywords: packaging, Six Sigma, lean tools, DMAIC methodology, SIPOC

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49 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
48 EEG Diagnosis Based on Phase Space with Wavelet Transforms for Epilepsy Detection

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Mohmmad A. Obeidat, Amjed Al Fahoum

Abstract:

The recognition of an abnormal activity of the brain functionality is a vital issue. To determine the type of the abnormal activity either a brain image or brain signal are usually considered. Imaging localizes the defect within the brain area and relates this area with somebody functionalities. However, some functions may be disturbed without affecting the brain as in epilepsy. In this case, imaging may not provide the symptoms of the problem. A cheaper yet efficient approach that can be utilized to detect abnormal activity is the measurement and analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The main goal of this work is to come up with a new method to facilitate the classification of the abnormal and disorder activities within the brain directly using EEG signal processing, which makes it possible to be applied in an on-line monitoring system.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Detection, eeg, Wavelet

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47 Real-time Rate and Rhythms Feedback Control System in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Mohammad A. Obeidat

Abstract:

Capturing the dynamic behavior of the heart to improve control performance, enhance robustness, and support diagnosis is very important in establishing real time models for the heart. Control Techniques and strategies have been utilized to improve system costs, reliability, and estimation accuracy for different types of systems such as biomedical, industrial, and other systems that required tuning input/output relation and/or monitoring. Simulations are performed to illustrate potential applications of the technology. In this research, a new control technology scheme is used to enhance the performance of the Af system and meet the design specifications.

Keywords: Signal, Atrial Fibrillation, Dynamic Behavior, filter, closed loop

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
46 A Study on Weddernburn – Artin Theorem for Rings

Authors: Fahad Suleiman, Sammani Abdullahi

Abstract:

The study depicts that a Wedderburn Artin – theorem for rings is considered to be a semisimple ring R which is isomorphic to a product of finitely many mi by mi matrix rings over division rings Di, for some integers n_i, both of which are uniquely determined up to permutation of the index i. It has been concluded that when R is simple the Wedderburn – Artin theorem is known as Wedderburn’s theorem.

Keywords: Commutativity, Wedderburn theorem, Semisimple ring, R module

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45 An Efficient Data Mining Technique for Online Stores

Authors: Mohammed Al-Shalabi, Alaa Obeidat

Abstract:

In any food stores, some items will be expired or destroyed because the demand on these items is infrequent, so we need a system that can help the decision maker to make an offer on such items to improve the demand on the items by putting them with some other frequent item and decrease the price to avoid losses. The system generates hundreds or thousands of patterns (offers) for each low demand item, then it uses the association rules (support, confidence) to find the interesting patterns (the best offer to achieve the lowest losses). In this paper, we propose a data mining method for determining the best offer by merging the data mining techniques with the e-commerce strategy. The task is to build a model to predict the best offer. The goal is to maximize the profits of a store and avoid the loss of products. The idea in this paper is the using of the association rules in marketing with a combination with e-commerce.

Keywords: Data Mining, Association Rules, confidence, online stores

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44 Nigerian Foreign Policy: A Dancing Tune of the Western Powers

Authors: Nura Suleiman

Abstract:

The foreign policy of any country or nation is intended to promote and protect the country’s national interest. To achieve this interest, a country has to be guided by certain principles and influence of domestic and international conditions. The history of Nigerian foreign policy is directed to defend its sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity, to promote and sustain the economic well-being of Nigerians, and promotion of Africa and world peace with justice. With the change of time and leadership, coupled with corruption, despite all the foreign policy determinants endowed with Nigeria as a country, sacrificed its foreign interest for the benefit of the western powers, by this it lost the opportunity to formulate policies according to its own need and desires.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, Nigeria, Western power

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43 Design and Simulation of Coupled-Line Coupler with Different Values of Coupling Efficiency

Authors: Suleiman Babani, Jazuli Sanusi Kazaure

Abstract:

In this paper, two coupled-line couplers are designed and simulated using stripline technology. The coupled-line couplers (A and B) are designed with different values of coupling coefficient 6dB and 10dB respectively. Both of circuits have a coupled output port, a through output port and an isolated output port. Moreover, both circuits are tuned to function around 2.45 GHz. The design results are presented by simulation results obtained using ADS 2012.08 (Advanced Design System) software.

Keywords: ADS, coupled-line coupler, directional coupler, stripline

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42 Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems

Authors: Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi, Zainab Suleiman Abdullahi, Nuhu Alhaji Muhammad

Abstract:

In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production, and thermal, Photovoltaic systems behave in an extraordinary and useful way, they react to light by transforming part of it into electricity useful way and unique, since photovoltaic and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and energy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on energetic analysis is presented.

Keywords: Energy, renewable, Performance, Efficiency, Photovoltaic

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41 The Effect of Smartphones on Human Health Relative to User’s Addiction: A Study on a Wide Range of Audiences in Jordan

Authors: T. Qasim, M. Obeidat, S. Al-Sharairi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the excessive use of smartphones. Smartphones have enormous effects on the human body in that some musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and health problems might evolve. These days, there is a wide use of the smartphones among all age groups of society, thus, the focus on smartphone effects on human behavior and health, especially on the young and elderly people, becomes a crucial issue. This study was conducted in Jordan on smartphone users for different genders and ages, by conducting a survey to collect data related to the symptoms and MSDs that are resulted from the excessive use of smartphones. A total of 357 responses were used in the analysis. The main related symptoms were numbness, fingers pain, and pain in arm, all linked to age and gender for comparative reasons. A statistical analysis was performed to find the effects of extensive usage of a smartphone for long periods of time on the human body. Results show that the significant variables were the vision problems and the time spent when using the smartphone that cause vision problems. Other variables including age of user and ear problems due to the use of the headsets were found to be a border line significant.

Keywords: Health Problems, smart phone, age group, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
40 Signal Estimation and Closed Loop System Performance in Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring with Communication Channels

Authors: Ayman Mansour, Mohammad Obeidat

Abstract:

In this paper a unique issue rising from feedback control of Atrial Fibrillation monitoring system with embedded communication channels has been investigated. One of the important factors to measure the performance of the feedback control closed loop system is disturbance and noise attenuation factor. It is important that the feedback system can attenuate such disturbances on the atrial fibrillation heart rate signals. Communication channels depend on network traffic conditions and deliver different throughput, implying that the sampling intervals may change. Since signal estimation is updated on the arrival of new data, its dynamics actually change with the sampling interval. Consequently, interaction among sampling, signal estimation, and the controller will introduce new issues in remotely controlled Atrial Fibrillation system. This paper treats a remotely controlled atrial fibrillation system with one communication channel which connects between the heart rate and rhythm measurements to the remote controller. Typical and optimal signal estimation schemes is represented by a signal averaging filter with its time constant derived from the step size of the signal estimation algorithm.

Keywords: estimation, Atrial Fibrillation, Communication Channels, closed loop

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39 On the Derivation of Variable Step BBDF for Solving Second Order Stiff ODEs

Authors: M. Suleiman, S. A. M. Yatim, Z. B. Ibrahim, K. I. Othman

Abstract:

The method of solving second order stiff ordinary differential equation (ODEs) that is based on backward differentiation formula (BDF) is considered in this paper. We derived the method by increasing the order of the existing method using an improved strategy in choosing the step size. Numerical results are presented to compare the efficiency of the proposed method to the MATLAB’s suite of ODEs solvers namely ode15s and ode23s. The method was found to be efficient to solve second order ordinary differential equation.

Keywords: backward differentiation formulae, block backward differentiation formulae, stiff ordinary differential equation, variable step size

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
38 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: LTE, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO

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37 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura

Abstract:

We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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36 Synthesis and Characterization of New Polyesters Based on Diarylidene-1-Methyl-4-Piperidone

Authors: Tareg M. Elsunaki, Suleiman A. Arafa, Mohamed A. Abd-Alla

Abstract:

New interesting thermal stable polyesters containing 1-methyl-4-piperidone moiety in the main chain have been synthesized. These polyesters were synthesized by interfacial polycondensation technique of 3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (I) and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyli-dene)-1-methyl-4-piperidone (II) with terphthaloyl, isophthaloyl, 4,4'-diphenic, adipoyl and sebacoyl dichlorides. The yield and the values of the reduced viscosity of the produced polyesters were found to be affected by the type of an organic phase. In order to characterize these polymers, the necessary model compounds (A), (B) were prepared from (I), (II) respectively and benzoyl chloride. The structure of monomers (I), (II), model compounds and resulting polyesters were confirmed by IR, elemental analysis and 1HNMR spectroscopy. The various characteristic of the resulting polymers including solubility, thermal properties, viscosity and X-ray analysis were also studied.

Keywords: Chemistry, Characterization, Synthesis, new polyesters

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35 Board Structure, Composition, and Firm Performance: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

Authors: Suleiman Ahmed Badayi

Abstract:

Corporate governance literature is very wide and involves several empirical studies conducted on the relationship between board structure, composition and firm performance. The separation of ownership and control in organizations were aimed at reducing the losses suffered by the investors in the event of financial scandals. This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationship between board composition and its impact on firm performance. The findings from the studies provide different results while some are of the view that board structure is related to firm performance, many empirical studies indicates no relationship. However, others found a U-shape relationship between firm performance and board structure. Therefore, this study argued that board structure is not much significant to determine the financial performance of a firm.

Keywords: Composition, Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, board structure

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34 Application of Mathematical Sciences to Farm Management

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

Abstract:

Agriculture has been the mainstay of the nation’s economy in Nigeria. It provides food for the ever rapidly increasing population and raw materials for the industries. People especially the rural dwellers are gainfully employed on their crop farms and small-scale livestock farms for income earning. In farming, availability of funds and time management are one of the major factors that influence the system of farming in Nigeria in which mathematical science knowledge was highly required in order for farms to be managed effectively. Farmers often applied mathematics, almost every day for a variety of tasks, ranging from measuring and weighing, to land marking. This paper, therefore, explores some of the ways math is used in farming. For instance, farmers use arithmetic variety of farm activities such as seed planting, harvesting crop, cultivation and mulching. It is also important in helping farmers to know how much their livestock weighs, how much milk their cows produce and crop yield per acres, among others.

Keywords: Mathematics, Agriculture, Economic, Farming, Application

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33 Automatic Queuing Model Applications

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

Abstract:

Queuing, in medical system is the process of moving patients in a specific sequence to a specific service according to the patients’ nature of illness. The term scheduling stands for the process of computing a schedule. This may be done by a queuing based scheduler. This paper focuses on the medical consultancy system, the different queuing algorithms that are used in healthcare system to serve the patients, and the average waiting time. The aim of this paper is to build automatic queuing system for organizing the medical queuing system that can analyses the queue status and take decision which patient to serve. The new queuing architecture model can switch between different scheduling algorithms according to the testing results and the factor of the average waiting time. The main innovation of this work concerns the modeling of the average waiting time is taken into processing, in addition with the process of switching to the scheduling algorithm that gives the best average waiting time.

Keywords: patients, scheduling algorithms, queuing systems, queuing system models

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32 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anticancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein

Abstract:

Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, syn-thesis of nano-composites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nano tubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work Sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures.Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diag-nosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, TEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs)

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31 Size Selective Synthesis of Sulfur Nanoparticles and Their Anti Cancer Activity

Authors: Anas Al-Ali, Mohammed Suleiman, Ayman Hussein

Abstract:

Sulfur is an important element has many practical applications in present as nanoparticles. Nanosize sulfur particles also have many important applications like in pharmaceuticals, medicine, synthesis of nanocomposites for lithium batteries, modification of carbon nanotubes. Different methods were used for nano-sized particle synthesis; among those, chemical precipitation, electrochemical method, micro-emulsion technique, composing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, aqueous phases with the specific compositions and ultrasonic treatment of sulfur-cystine solution. In this work, sulfur nanoparticles (S NPs) were prepared by a quick precipitation method with and without using a surfactant to stabilize the formed S NPs. The synthesized S NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM in order to confirm their sizes and structures. Application of nanotechnology is suggested for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of the prepared S NPs has been tested on various types of cancer cell clones including leukemia, kidney and colon cancers.

Keywords: SEM, XRD, TEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), anti cancer activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
30 Controlling Fear: Jordanian Women’s Perceptions of the Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer

Authors: Rana F. Obeidat, Suzanne S. Dickerson, Gregory G. Homish, Nesreen M. Alqaissi, Robin M. Lally

Abstract:

Background: Despite the fact that breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Jordanian women, practically nothing is known about their perceptions of early stage breast cancer and surgical treatment. Objective: To gain understanding of the diagnosis and surgical treatment experience of Jordanian women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used for this study. A purposive sample of 28 Jordanian women who were surgically treated for early stage breast cancer within 6 months of the interview was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Results: Fear had a profound effect on Jordanian women’s stories of diagnosis and surgical treatment of early stage breast cancer. Women’s experience with breast cancer and its treatment was shaped by their pre-existing fear of breast cancer, the disparity in the quality of care at various health care institutions, and sociodemographic factors (e.g., education, age). Conclusions: Early after the diagnosis, fear was very strong and women lost perspective of the fact that this disease was treatable and potentially curable. To control their fears, women unconditionally trusted God, the health care system, surgeons, family, friends, and/or neighbors, and often accepted treatment offered by their surgeons without questioning. Implications for practice: Jordanian healthcare providers have a responsibility to listen to their patients, explore meanings they ascribe to their illness, and provide women with proper education and support necessary to help them cope with their illness.

Keywords: Experience, Breast Cancer, phenomenology, early stage, Jordanian

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29 Students’ Views on Mathematics Learning: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Katsina State of Nigeria

Authors: Fahad Suleiman

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study students’ view on mathematics learning in Katsina State Senior Secondary Schools of Nigeria, such as their conceptions of mathematics, attitudes toward mathematics learning, etc. A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 1,225 senior secondary two (SS II) students of Katsina State in Nigeria. The data collected showed a clear picture of the hurdles that affect the teaching and learning of mathematics in our schools. Problems such as logistics and operational which include shortage of mathematics teachers, non–availability of a mathematics laboratory, etc. were identified. It also depicted the substantial trends of changing views and attitudes toward mathematics across secondary schools. Students’ responses to the conception of mathematics were consistent and they demonstrated some specific characteristics of their views in learning mathematics. This survey has provided useful information regarding students’ needs and aspirations in mathematics learning for curriculum planners and frontline teachers for future curriculum reform and implementation.

Keywords: Mathematics, Teacher, attitudes, students

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28 Development of Variable Order Block Multistep Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Mohamed Suleiman, Zarina Bibi Ibrahim, Khairil Iskandar Othman, Nor Ain Azeany

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of variable order fully implicit multistep Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (VOBBDF) using uniform step size for the numerical solution of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is developed. The code will combine three multistep block methods of order four, five and six. The order selection is based on approximation of the local errors with specific tolerance. These methods are constructed to produce two approximate solutions simultaneously at each iteration in order to further increase the efficiency. The proposed VOBBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with single order Block Backward Differentiation Formula (BBDF). Numerical results shows the advantage of using VOBBDF for solving ODEs.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations, block backward differentiation formulas, uniform step size

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27 A Survey of the Constraints Associated with the Mechanized Tillage of the Fadama Using Animal Drawn Tillage Implements

Authors: L. G. Abubakar, A. M. El-Okene, M. L. Suleiman, Z. Abubakar

Abstract:

Fadama tillage in Northern Nigeria and in Zaria in particular, has relied on manual labour and corresponding implements which are associated with drudgery, loss of human energy due to bending and reduced productivity. A survey was conducted to study the present tillage practices and determine the constraints associated with the use of animal traction for mechanized tillage of the Fadama. The study revealed that Fadama farmers (mostly aged between 36 and 60 years) use manual labour with tools like small hoe, big hoe and rake to till during the dry season (October of one year to March of the next year). Most of the Fadama farmers believe that tillage operations like ploughing, harrowing and basin making are very important tillage activities in the preparation of seedbeds for crops like green maize, sugarcane and vegetables, but are constrained to using animal traction for tillage due to beliefs like unsuitability of the workbulls and corresponding implements, Fadama soil being too heavy for the system and the non-attainment of deep tillage required by crops like sugarcane and potato. These were affirmed by local blacksmiths of animal traction implements and agricultural officers of government establishments.

Keywords: Fadama, snimal traction, tillage implements, workbulls

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26 Social Networking Sites and Employee Engagement

Authors: Sultan Ali Suleiman AlMazrouei

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of communication through social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter) on employee engagement. Methodology: A quantitative survey was used to collect data from 440 employees from the Ministry of Education in Oman. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results revealed a positive significant relationship between communication via Facebook and employee engagement. However, communication via Twitter does not influence employee engagement significantly. Practical implications: Managers can benefit from the study by understanding the importance of communication via Facebook with employees in order to increase their engagement. They should post their views and thoughts on Facebook and encourage their employees to be members which would be reflected on their psychological side positively. That gives them a feeling of belonging to a network. Originality/value: The study enriches the human resources management literature by examining a theoretical framework about the influence of social networking sites usage on employee engagement. This is one of the few studies that focus on the relationship of social networking sites usage with employees' engagement. It is the first study in an Omani context.

Keywords: Employee Engagement, Twitter, Facebook, social networking sites

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25 An Analysis of Organoleptic Qualities of a Three-Course Menu from Moringa Leaves in Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria

Authors: Rukaiya Suleiman Umar, Annah Kwadu Medugu

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera is mainly used as herbal medicine in most homes in Northern Nigeria. The plant is easy to grow and thrives very well regardless the type of soil. Use of moringa leaves in food production can yield attractive varieties on menu. This paper evaluates the acceptability of dishes produced with fresh moringa leaves with a view to promoting it in popular restaurants. A three course menu consisting of cream of moringa soup as the starter, mixed meat moringa sauce with semovita as the main dish and moringa roll as sweet was produced and served to a 60-member taste panel made of three groups of 20 each. Respondents were asked to rate the organoleptic qualities of the samples on a 10-point bipolar scale ranging from 1 (Dislike extremely) – 10 (Like extremely). Data collected were treated to one sample t-test and One Way ANOVA. Results show that the panelists extremely like the moringa products. It is recommended that Moringa oleifera should be incorporated into meals which is more readily acceptable than medicine.

Keywords: food production, Moringa oleifera, menu planning, healthy living

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24 Awakening in Nigerian Democracy: The Change of Government in 2015 General Election

Authors: Nura Suleiman

Abstract:

The democratic dispensation in Nigeria witnessed allot of changes since its beginning up to the 2015 election. The issues of zoning formula, rigging, money politics, god fatherism, and political thuggery among the youths became the centre stage from 1999-2014. But 2015 came with new tune that brings about a little shift from the traditional politics mentioned above, the political socialisation and knowledge penetrated into the sense of electorate where people suddenly change and look for the better option. The paper will examine the democratic change in relation to the 2015 General election which brings General MohammaduBuhari on the mantle of leadership of Nigeria. Many reasons were attributed to the sudden change of government in Nigeria, but the major ones are lack of good governance, corruption, insecurity, political parties’ merger to formed APCand change in INEC leadership. Others are weakness of the leadership and undemocratic nature of PDP government at different level in the country. The glamor for change became necessary because People become more informs about the manifestation of good hope and better Nigeria from the major opposition party (APC). During 2015 election the electorate voted the incumbent government out and replaced it with their choice.

Keywords: Democracy, Good Governance, insecurity, election

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23 Digital Preservation in Nigeria Universities Libraries: A Comparison between University of Nigeria Nsukka and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

Authors: Suleiman Musa, Shuaibu Sidi Safiyanu

Abstract:

This study examined the digital preservation in Nigeria university libraries. A comparison between the university of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (ABU, Zaria). The study utilized primary source of data obtained from two selected institution librarians. Finding revealed varying results in terms of skills acquired by librarians before and after digitization of the two institutions. The study reports that journals publication, text book, CD-ROMS, conference papers and proceedings, theses, dissertations and seminar papers are among the information resources available for digitization. The study further documents that copyright issue, power failure, and unavailability of needed materials are among the challenges facing the digitization of library of the institution. On the basis of the finding, the study concluded that digitization of library enhances efficiency in organization and retrieval of information services. The study therefore recommended that software should be upgraded with backup, training of the librarians on digital process, installation of antivirus and enhancement of technical collaboration between the library and MIS.

Keywords: Libraries, Preservation, Digitalization, comparison

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22 Recovery of Essential Oil from Zingiber Officinale Var. Bentong Using Ultrasound Assisted-Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

Authors: Norhidayah Suleiman, Afza Zulfaka

Abstract:

Zingiber officinale var. Bentong has been identified as the source of high added value compound specifically gingerol-related compounds. The extraction of the high-value compound using conventional method resulted in low yield and time consumption. Hence, the motivation for this work is to investigate the effect of the extraction technique on the essential oil from Zingiber officinale var. Bentong rhizome for commercialization purpose in many industries namely, functional food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical. The investigation begins with a pre-treatment using ultrasound assisted in order to enhance the recovery of essential oil. It was conducted at a fixed frequency (20 kHz) of ultrasound with various time (10, 20, 40 min). The extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were carried out afterward at a specific condition of temperature (50 °C) and pressure (30 MPa). scCO2 extraction seems to be a promising sustainable green method for the extraction of essential oil due to the benefits that CO2 possesses. The expected results demonstrated the ultrasound-assisted-scCO2 produces a higher yield of essential oil compared to solely scCO2 extraction. This research will provide important features for its application in food supplements or phytochemical preparations.

Keywords: Essential Oil, scCO2, ultrasound assisted, Zingiber officinale Var. Bentong

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21 Exploring the Connectedness of Ad Hoc Mesh Networks in Rural Areas

Authors: Ibrahim Obeidat

Abstract:

Reaching a fully-connected network of mobile nodes in rural areas got a great attention between network researchers. This attention rose due to the complexity and high costs while setting up the needed infrastructures for these networks, in addition to the low transmission range these nodes has. Terranet technology, as an example, employs ad-hoc mesh network where each node has a transmission range not exceed one kilometer, this means that every two nodes are able to communicate with each other if they are just one kilometer far from each other, otherwise a third-party will play the role of the “relay”. In Terranet, and as an idea to reduce network setup cost, every node in the network will be considered as a router that is responsible of forwarding data between other nodes which result in a decentralized collaborative environment. Most researches on Terranet presents the idea of how to encourage mobile nodes to become more cooperative by letting their devices in “ON” state as long as possible while accepting to play the role of relay (router). This research presents the issue of finding the percentage of nodes in ad-hoc mesh network within rural areas that should play the role of relay at every time slot, relating to what is the actual area coverage of nodes in order to have the network reach the fully-connectivity. Far from our knowledge, till now there is no current researches discussed this issue. The research is done by making an implementation that depends on building adjacency matrix as an indicator to the connectivity between network members. This matrix is continually updated until each value in it refers to the number of hubs that should be followed to reach from one node to another. After repeating the algorithm on different area sizes, different coverage percentages for each size, and different relay percentages for several times, results extracted shows that for area coverage less than 5% we need to have 40% of the nodes to be relays, where 10% percentage is enough for areas with node coverage greater than 5%.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, relay, vehicular ad hoc networks, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Network Connectivity, ad-hoc mesh networks, Terranet, adjacency matrix, simulator, peer to peer networks

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